A Study Of The Factors Influencing Drug Abuse Among Students In Higher Institutions: A Case Study Of College Of Education, Ekiadolor Benin City

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A Study Of The Factors Influencing Drug Abuse Among Students In Higher Institutions: A Case Study Of College Of Education, Ekiadolor Benin City


This research is to look into issue of drug among higher institution students. The findings of this study are on factors influencing College of Education students Ekiadolor in use of drugs and the type of drugs individual uses. To get the required information, a questionnaire was designed and administered. On analyzing the data collected, it was discovered that the students of College of Education Ekiadolor knowledge of drug was limited to the drugs used freely in their environment and those that can be got cheap from local chemist shops. The research however shows that knowledge of drugs does not mean getting involved and more over most of the drug users get these drugs from local chemist shops. The reasons for drug involvement are seen to be for examination purposes, helping them stay awake during examination.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Drug is any chemical substance derived from plants, animals or mineral resources, be it traditional or orthodox which is used for internal application to the human body in the treatment of diseases, reduce pain or modify the functions of the various system of the body.

Although drug use has been in for years, the problem of drug abuse has been on the increase in the recent years.

Drug is supposed to be dispersed by pharmacists with a doctors prescription and usage of drug can be through any of the following; injection, insertion, inhalation, massaging or application on open wounds and cuts. The main purpose of drugs should in reality be directed to its medical functions and it should be used strictly according to the prescription of medical doctors, but in most cases people use drug without the prescription of medical practice. This is referred to as drug abuse. In some cases, these drugs are used wrongly or misused that is using drug meant for certain purposes for other purposes rather than what it is meant for. There are other cases where some people get themselves involved in the use of a particular drug so much that they cannot do without such drug. In this case such a person is said to be addicted to that drug.

People Abuse Drug for Different Reasons
1. For modification of tension and anxiety:

For example sedatives; medically, sedatives are use to induce sleep and relax tension. They are used for people with high blood pressure insomnia that is inability to sleep usually abuse sedatives. Now teenage girls and women are consuming sedative more and more frequently.

2. To increase activities and alertness:

For example stimulant like cocaine, caferreine and amplietamines are mostly widely abused stimulant among youths. Usually stimulants are taken through by mouth in form of capsules or tablets but the occasional user of capsules or tablets can push him/her self beyond his normal physiological limits e.g. wanting to step awake to drive to excel in an athletic content or to cram for examination.

3. Curiosity:

Students find themselves in the use of drugs out of curiosity. They want to know how it looks like in being on a certain drugs and drugs that are commonly used out of curiosity are cigarettes, marijuana and alcohol.

4. Imitation:

Students takes drugs as a result of imitation of either from their parents, other adult or their friends.

5. For boldness:

Students take certain drug because they feel it will remove inhibition from them and make them bold e.g. shy young boys under the influence of drugs can speak to a girl they he could not have made advance towards.

6. For fun:

Others go into drugs for the fun of it and that also feel that drug can enable the have a lot of fun.

Four Groups Of Drug Users Are Generally Identified And These Are:
  1. Emotionally well adjusted individuals who take addicting drugs on medical advice for treatment of pain, sleeplessness and the like after protected use they find that they cannot get along without them.
  2. The neurotics who turn to drug because drugs makes them forget their feelings of inadequacy and fear making them feel better and more normal either physically, mentally or both. These contribute to longest group of drug abusers.
  3. The psychopaths who take drugs in a deliberate search for thrills highs and kicks.
  4. Individual usually adolescent who try drugs in order to be accepted by their peer group.

Most of these young ones usually start from this group and if the habit is continued grave consequences may follow. Trying a relatively less detrimental drug such as cannabis may expose the young one to other drugs like heroine, cocaine and morphine.

Man has used drug and substances of centuries. There is evidence that man has used drug practically since his emergence. Historical records show that man used drug to cast out demons which were thought to be causing pain in his body. The use of psychoactive drugs may be seen to be a universal phenomenon existing in one form or the other. Alcohol and kolanuts are used during worship of ancestral gods, marriages and funeral ceremonies.

According to Emaifo {1988} drug addiction was unknown in Nigeria until the arrival of the American Peace Corps. This statement cannot be entirely true because Nigerians were already abusing and getting themselves addicted to kolanuts and alcohol before the arrival of the Peace Corps. The statement can only be true of foreign drugs which were introduced this time.

Scientist and historians traced the origin of tobacco to north America where it was first cultivated by American Indians before the Europeans went to the new world in 1492 when Christopher Columbus discovered there.

It should be noted that when drugs are mentioned, the emphasis is always on orthodox medicine and not traditional medicine. The history of drug use and abuse will be incomplete if no mention is made about traditional use of drug and abuse. Most traditional drugs are always misused or abused because of lack of dosage to determine the required quantity by the user. The expiration period of such drugs are never stated.

Although the use of traditional drugs as well as alcohol and kolanut has been abuse before the arrival of Peace Corps. In recent years where there is the usage of both traditional and foreign drugs people now being used. Some of these drugs are socially accepted and members of the public ignorantly use them without really knowing the great effect of such drugs. E.g. alcohol has always been part of the heritage either as part of rituals or other ceremonies. The use of alcohol to relax and promote social conversation is greatly use of alcohol and its social acceptability, alcohol is capable of producing severe dependence and damage to physical health and mental health including social and economic damage on self, family and society.

Caffeine which is the main ingredient in tea or coffee and nicotine as in tobacco or cigarette are widely used as mid stimulants and tension relieving drugs, they are considered socially acceptable and used recreationally how ever, they produce dependence and are able to cause harm.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Due to the problem encounter in the use of drug and the causes of drug abuse, the researcher wishes to examine the factors influencing drug abuse among students in higher institution. The following questions are to be investigated.

  1. Why do students involve in drug abuse?
  2. How do the students engage in drug abuse?
  3. What do they think they benefit from the use of drug?
  4. Do the students feel comfortable in using of drugs?

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of undertaking this study is principally educative. The study will specially investigate the following:

  1. To find out the reason why student of college of education Ekiadolor in the study areas abuse drugs.
  2. To find out the effect of the abuse of drug on students of college of education Ekiadolor.
  3. To find out influence of peer group on student of college of education Ekiadolor as regards drug abuse.
  4. To find out how parents and family background contribute to drug abuse problems.
  5. To find out influence of the society on students as regards drug abuse.

1.4 Significance of the Study

  1. It will enable the students see the dangers involved in drug abuse this will go a long way to help these students who already in one way or the other abused drugs to reconsider their ways and as such offer solution to the problems of drug abuse. To educate them on the bad effect of drug abuse.
  2. This study will help to educate parents on the bad effect of drug abuse and also help them to see that they have a regular check on their children so that they do not become victims of drug abuse.
  3. This study will help the government handle drug abuse as an illness and not as a crime and as such all drug abusers diagnosis and treatment under medical supervision instead of the hard judgement meant for them.

1.5 Scope of Study

The study centres on the College of Education, Ekiadolor students.

1. Time factor:

The greatest problem encountered when carrying out this study is time factor, due to the limited time the researcher had a lot to do in a very limited time and as such may run into problem of not being able to finish his study at the appointed time.

2. Finance:

Another problem experienced is financial problem in our modern day society there is a tremendous rise in cost of living and like in price. The researcher faced the problem of not living enough money to be able to get all the materials needed for the study.

3. Information:

There was problem of bias information by the college of education students especially those of them who are really involved in the act of drug abuse. Also there was problem of unwillingness of people concerned to give the information needed for this study.

1.6 Definition of Terms

In this study, there are certain words that need to be simplified or defined ion order to make its meaning clearer.

i. Drugs:

Drug is any chemical substance that is derived from plants and animals or mineral resources be it traditional or orthodox which is used for internal or external application to the human body in the treatment of diseases or to induce clam, reduce pains or modify the functions of the various system of the body.

ii. Substance:

Substance are chemical combination of drugs in order words drug made up of combination of chemical substance and substance can as well be refer to as those build up charge like alcohol, tobacco, cigarette and kolanuts.

iii. Drug Use:

Drug use is the ingestion, injection or the application of any substances which when taken in into the body of living organism may modify one or more of its function, this includes not only medical also intended primarily active substance.

iv. Drug Misuse:

Is the over zealous or indiscrete administration of drugs by using drug meant for certain purposes for another purpose rather than what it is meant for.

v. Drug Addiction:

Drug addiction is the dependence on a substance with the presence of physical withdrawal symptoms.

vi. Psychoactive Drugs:

This is defined as in alternating drugs.

vii. Habitualism:

This is the dependence on a substance without the presence of physical; withdrawal phenomena. Thus it is the psychological desire to repeat the use of these drugs, continuously for emotional reasons.

viii. Dependence:

It is a state of psychological or physical need to both resulting from the interaction between an organism and a substance resulting from continuously or periodic use which is characterized by behavioural deviation.

ix. Tolerance:

Is defined as the situate ion when the same amount of substance can no longer produce the effects and the individual than needs higher amount to produce the same effects.

x. Withdrawal:

Is the situation when unpleasant sensation such as shaking, seating tremors, frightening feelings and some times hallucination and delusions occurs when the drug is stopped.

Chapter Five

Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion

5.1 Summary

This chapter of the study is set aside to summarize the descriptive analysis and findings done in previous chapters. It also gives conclusion and makes recommendations on how to curb drugs abuse among students.

The summary identify that factors influencing students and find out possible ways of eliminating or reducing the reasons which are found to be possible. In knowing the factors responsible, the researcher used questionnaires to sample the student’s opinion. Eighty respondents were used and this draw from four department in the College of Education Ekiadolor in Benin City, Edo State, namely Business Education, Home Economics, GHeography Maths and Computer Accounting.

From the result obtained from the research work, it showed that the commonest drugs frequently used by students in the area investigated are:

Chinese Capsule, Mandrax, Valium and Reactivan etc that most students get their supply from local chemist or medicine stores while others get their from hospitals, market and friends. Research findings were mainly due to academic tensions and easy accessibility to those drugs reveals the factors responsible for drug use. It was also discovered that so many unregistered medicine stores proliferate the society and they operate without legal backing and hence students and the society in general have easy access to these drugs. However, results also showed that some students get from the market.

5.2 Recommendations

Although from the findings only main findings were found to be influencing these students to use drugs as opposed to some of the factors mentioned by some previous investigators who also researched on similar topic that peer group pressure, lack of self confidence, feeling more comfortable among friends after taking drugs lure them into using drugs.

Since the factors influencing these students to use drugs are students who are not using drugs new or using moderately from becoming strong users and to provide more adequate for those who are deadly addicted.

Below are some of the things to do to save the situation or arrest it.

  1. The Government should make effective laws making purchasing and sale of drugs without prescription from a qualified person. Lawful and punishable by long term imprisonment with hard labour.
  2. School drug education programme should be introduced in schools to make the students knows the harmful effect of wrong usage of drugs and making them know that personalities and behaviour could suffer government negative changes as a result of drug usage and dependence.
  3. The school authority must at least as a matter of urgency employ counselling in schools who will carry out some counselling services to the students make him/her understand and accept himself/herself a person, take self decision and able to solve problems is a positive way instead of depending on drugs.

5.3 Conclusion

However, it has been discovered that examination contributed immensely to the use of drugs by students. Such drug like Reativan, Valium, Chinese capsule are the main type of drug student use for the purpose of reading for longer hours in the night during examination. It is pertinent to observe that accessibility to the use of drugs by students through local chemist is a potent factor in the use and abuse of drugs.

In conclusion, the wave of brain-fog is alarming in nearly all higher institutions. This is due to the fact that students make use of drugs during examination in an attempt to cope with examination tensions. If there is any serious attempt for government or other agencies to prevent drug abuse by student in college of Education Ekiadolor and other higher institutions attention must be focused on ways of preventing students high accessibility to the chemist where they purchase those drugs, why it is the recommendations of this to discourage local chemist from operating, the pharmacist recognized by law to practice, must ensure that only students with doctors prescription should drugs be sold to.

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