The Syntax Of Nominal Modifiers In Ibiakpan Akananwam (Annang)
This research is to explore the topic Nominal Modifiers in Annang. The study focuses on nominal modifiers in Ibiakpan Akananwan. The research is conducted via elicitation (the act of drawing facts from somebody). The research was conducted with the aid of Wordlist, (the Ibadan400 wordlist) and a list of sentences. In the study we have been able to define the term nominal as the word that can be used as a word used attributively to restrict or add to the sense of a head word. We have also identified the positions they occur and the functions that nominal modifier plays in the sentence. It was found that the language is not well developed and that many difficulties came up in the course of pronouncing some words, people were giving their different pronunciation thus we came to say here that the Language should be developed, books be written on it and there should be a development of an orthography.
This research is on the Nominal Modifiers in Annang. It will identify the nominal modifiers, the types of nominal modifiers and their distribution or the places they can occur in sentences in the language (whether they occur before nouns or after nouns). Nominals are word that can be substituted for a noun in a sentence. Modifiers are words that limit the function of a noun in a sentence.
1.1 Background of the Study
Language is a system of communication. Language is a means of communication between individuals that share the same symbols for understanding each other. Ndimele 1997: I says Human Language is often described as a semiotic system because it entails the use of certain agreed upon symbols and signals to convey meaning from one person to another within a given speech community.
Eka and Udofot (1996:3) language is the most brilliant of human inventions. It is by the means of language that people who live by together are able to interact. However, language is first perceived as a string of noises organized into meaningful patterns for the purpose of communication.
However, the above explanations of language agree on certain issues. First that language is arbitrary in the sense that there is no relationship or link between a word and what it means and also that language is conventional.
In language there exist some form of unwritten agreement or non-instinctive communication, this means that it is a learned behavior used by a group of people in a speech community.
Although there are animal signs and computer language it is the speech of human beings that is elaborate enough to be studied. However, any language that is spoken by a group of human beings is a national language.
Language is the medium by which the culture and cultures and collective experience of a people are transmitted from generation to generation and also a means whereby the people organize and patterns their lives through processes concept and categories.
1.2 Annang (Ibiakpan Akananwan) People and Their Language
Genetically, Annang is a Lower-Cross language of the Benue-Congo sub-family of the Niger-Congo family of languages according to Greenberg’s (1930) classification. In a new classification by Connel (1991), Urua (1992). Annang belongs to central lower cross group of the lower cross languages with which Ibibio, Efik, Ukwa belong and also form a cluster of language. In other words, Annang is related to Efik, Ibibio and Ukwa Languages as such could be called language cluster as seen in the tree diagram
Ibiakpan Akananwan as a case study is a variety of Annang language. Ibiakpan Akananwan language is spoken by about 14,000 people in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Ibiakpan Akananwan said to have gotten it’s history from a woman who was sent parking from her husband’s house for her inability to bear children, she left, having nowhere to reside or live, she went into a bush, (in the present location of Ibiakpan Akananwan) cleared the bush and built a hut and lived there alone until a surveyor came and discovered her that is how people started coming into the place to live and because it is the woman that discovered the place, the people of the community decided to name the place after the woman thus, the name “Ibiakpan Akananwan”. This information about the village was given by the village head.
Ibiakpan Akananwan is the nearest village to Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area. It is surrounded by the following villages:
- IKot Udo Imuk
- Nto Ntie family
- Ikot Akpa Edok
- Ikot Ekpene
1.3 Classification of the Languages of the Lower Cross
…available in the complete material
1.4 Statement of the Problem
This research is borne out of an interest of the researcher to settle the issue of languages users who do not find it interesting to make use of their mother tongue in communication.
1.5 Purpose of Study
This research is to explore the topic Nominal Modifiers in Annang. The research is born out of an interest on the topic. The purpose of this work is to satisfy one’s desire for better understanding of the topic. It is to test the possibility of undertaking an extensive study and to develop the methods to be employed in the study.
1.6 Objectives of the Study
The objective of the study are:
- To find out if there are Nominal Modifiers in Annang
- To identify the Nominal Modifiers
- To identify the positions where they occur
- To note the functions they perform in Annang language.
1.7 Significance of Study
The research work will be of immense benefit to the speech community by making them see the need to preserve their mother tongue, orthographies will be written in the language. The research will increase the knowledge of the community on the topic nominal modifiers. It will help the students who are interested in the topic and finally will help other researchers who are interested in the topic, to be able to carry out research on the topic.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study focuses on nominal modifiers in Annang, the meaning of nominal modifies, the types of nominal modifiers, identify the positions they occur and the functions that nominal modifiers play in Annang sentence.
1.9 Methods of Data Collection
The research is conducted via elicitation (the act of drawing facts from somebody). Interview was conducted with the aid of Wordlist, (the Ibadan400 wordlist) and a list of sentences. The instruments that is used to aid and research work are Audio tape, microphone, camcorders, pencils, exercise book etc.
1.10 Definition of Technical Terms
This is the definition of the terms that used in the course of the research.
Syntax is a branch of linguistics that is concerned with how words form phrases and phrases form sentences in its broadest sense refers to both the arrangement and the forms of word. It is a part of language which links together the sound patterns and the meaning
Is a constituent in an endocentric construction, that imparts information relating to the head of the construction. Modifiers are phrases or words that provide description in sentence.
Resembling, relating to or consisting of a name or names. Assigned to or bearing a person’s name. a group of words functioning as a noun.
Nouns are lexical items that refer to persons, places, things and terms/concept. A noun is anything, with the exception of the pronoun, that serves as the subject of a sentence or object of the verb.
Adjectives denote qualities and they are words that are typically used to modify nouns or some property referred to by nouns. It can be said to be a word that specifies and attribute of a noun.
Determiners are words that signal the presence of nouns. A determiner limits or modifiers the reference of a noun phrase.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
In this chapter we will discuss the conclusion of this work and give the necessary suggestion on more research on the topic and in the language.
This research provides a descriptive pattern and analysis of a fragment of the Annang grammar by examining its nominal modifiers. Nominal modifiers of Annang are measured under specific modifiers and non-specific modifiers which the forms are inflected by determiners, quantifiers, adjectives, numerals.
In the work we have been able to define the terms nominal as the word that can be used as a word used attributively to restrict or add to the sense of a head word. We also looked at modifiers words that can restrict nouns at the various types of modifiers and the kinds of nominal modifiers. Analysis was given to data in Ibiakpan Akananawan, we also saw that modifiers are optional elements. Conclusively, we have come to discover that nominal modifiers in Ibiakpan Akananwan is arranged or employed to follow the rules of language.
In the course of carrying out the research we discovered that the Ibiakpan Akananwan language is not well developed and that many difficulties came up in the course of pronouncing some words, people were giving their different pronunciation thus we came to say here that the language should be developed, books be written on it and there should be a development of a working orthography. I will also suggest here that the use of the Ibiakpan language should be encouraged in the community. The language should be used in teaching thus the language will not die.
I hereby recommend that this work be used to encourage teaching and it is also recommended for other language users who find interest in Ibiakpan Akananwan language.
This research work will serve as a reference to other researchers to consult in order to know more about the language. Materials should be made available for pupils and students to study the language.
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