An Examination Of The Causes And Effect Of Cultism Among Student And Strategies For Eliminating It In Tertiary Institutions In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Sociology

An Examination Of The Causes And Effect Of Cultism Among Student And Strategies For Eliminating It In Tertiary Institutions In Nigeria


Abstract


The issue of cultism in our higher institutions of learning is such that has reached an alarming rate inspite of the concerted effort being mobilized against it by the government, institutions authorities, parent and students themselves. Therefore, this research work examine the perception of students, lecturers and the society towards this menace. It goes a long way to assess how students view or consider the menace in a diversified and interogenious society like the institution of higher learning. The research uses discussion format as the instrument of the fact finding. However the facts gathered reveals that our institutions authorities and the students themselves have a positive altitude towards National building, else the menace may remain a barrier to the attainment of same.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The last two decades has witnessed secret cult violence in higher institutions in Nigeria. Cult activities involving blood-letting and waste of human lives have reached an alarming proportion. Anxiety, agony, anguish, destruction and death are the trademarks of secret cult attacks. Media reports blaze the coverage of cult activities in educational institutions in Nigeria. The case of Benue State is particularly alarming when compared to the state of cultism in other Nigerian Universities such as the University of Ibadan, University of Jos, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Ahamdu Bello University, etc. Cult activities have continued to thrive in Benue Ivory towers due to erroneous impression of the seeming invincibility of cults and their members. A major factor working in the favour of cult groups is mass ignorance on the part of students, especially the new ones. These new students are hood winked and deceived into joining their “dead cemeteries”. Secret cults on campuses are completely empty and bereft of sound ideology.

The explosion of cultism in the higher institutions of learning in Benue State is a glaring reality. The situation becomes more worrisome when one realizes that Benue society is now replete with cultic activities.

There is always a spill-over of tension and crises from the various campuses to the towns. Tranquility which had been the heritage of the Benue people, for years now has become an illusion. The various higher institutions of learning in the state had within a decade experienced one form of disruption or the other as a result of the activities of cultists. These crises reached their climax in 1990 and have resisted decline seriously. As a result, academic activities in the schools are being strangulated. The religious, political, economic and social lives of the people are adversely affected. The atmosphere is tense as there is a feeling of uneasiness both within and outside the campuses. It is against this background that this research work is set.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Universities as higher institutions are places for teaching, learning and researching into the problems of societies and the world. The existence of campus cult activities in tertiary institutions is a serious threat to the realisation of this noble objective. It has been observed that cult activities have led to the death of students and even lecturers on campus. Many other tertiary institutions in Benue State, according to Newspaper reports, live in perpetual fear of cult activities on campus.

Cultism in our Institutions and our societies has left much to be desired. Many of our youths are drop-outs, street boys and girls, have been maimed and many have even lost their lives thereby leaving parents and loved ones in perpetual agony. Members of the public and the cultists themselves attribute this to ignorance, to greed, parental upbringing etc.

Observers point out that if these ugly trends are not established and measures taken to check them, the future role of tertiary institutions as agents of social change and national development will be seriously threatened. It is against this background that this study was faced with the problem of establishing validly the effect of cultism on tertiary institutions in Nigeria.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The general objective of this study is to critically examination of the causes and effect of cultism among student and strategies for eliminating it in tertiary institutions in Nigeria.

Specifically the study is armed at;

  1. Identifying the causes of cultism in tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
  2. Identifying the effect of cultism on tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
  3. Identifying the strategies for curbing cultism in tertiary institutions in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Question

This study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What are the causes of cultism in tertiary institutions?
  2. What is the effect of cultism on tertiary institutions?
  3. What are the strategies for curbing cultism in tertiary institutions?
  4. Do the institution authorities and the students themselves have a positive altitude towards National building?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study will be of use to the Nigerian government and relevant authorities in the tertiary institutions of Nigeria by obtaining detailed information on the nature, patterns, and causes of cultism in tertiary institutions and better ways to address the problems of cultism in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Similarly, the information will assist the government in developing effective control measures for Nigerian tertiary institutions. For staff and students who are potential victims of cultism in tertiary institutions, studying will be of immense help. Additionally, this study will serve as a source of information for researchers, students and other academics.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study on the examination of the causes and effect of cultism among student and strategies for eliminating it in tertiary institutions in Nigeria is focused on identifying the causes of cultism in tertiary institutions in Nigeria, identifying the effect of cultism on tertiary institutions in Nigeria and identifying the strategies for curbing cultism in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Hence the study is delimited to Benue State University, Nigeria.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

The possibility that some of the respondents may not be honest with their responses may affect the result. However, the number of the responses were good enough for meaningful generalization of the result.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Tertiary Institution:

This is an Institutions that offer post-secondary education.

Cultism:

This is a devotion to the doctrine or a cult or to the practices of a cult.


1.9 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the An Examination Of The Causes And Effect Of Cultism Among Student And Strategies For Eliminating It In Tertiary Institutions In Nigeria using Benue State University as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to critically study the An Examination Of The Causes And Effect Of Cultism Among Student And Strategies For Eliminating It In Tertiary Institutions In Nigeria using Benue State University as case study. The study specifically was aimed at identifying the causes of cultism in tertiary institutions in Nigeria, identifying the effect of cultism on tertiary institutions in Nigeria and identifying the strategies for curbing cultism in tertiary institutions in Nigeria.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 200 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are students and lecturers in Benue State University including the residents of the study area.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings, it is concluded that:

  1. Cultism in Benue State Univerisity is caused by corruption in the society, broken homes, parents that are in cult influence their children to be cultist, students with inborn trait of being cultist and lack of fund to pay school fees.
  2. Cultism in tertiary institutions in Nigeria has several effects among which include; diseases like Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome could spread by sucking blood during oath taking by cultist, cultist engage in nefarious activities like armed robbery, prostitution etc to meet up with their extravagant lifestyle, destruction of lives and property of students and the university, there is increase in malpractice due to nonseriousness of cultist in their study, cultism could result to arrest, detention, and imprisonment of those involved in it, and there is decline in academic of cultist.
  3. The major measures towards the eradication of cultism in tertiary institutions included; carrying out public enlightenment campaigns against cultism., legalize refusing cult-convicts admission into any institution until proved reformed after rehabilitation, giving out scholarship to students from poor homes, churches having youth department that would give the youths the forum to vent their issues, students should be properly guided through guidance and counseling, workshop should be organized during orientation of fresh students on the dangers of secret cult, high cost of education in Nigeria should be reduced, regular check on possession of arms by the students should be carried out on campuses and establishment of tribunal to try cultists and if found guilty should be sentenced accordingly.
  4. Institutions authorities and the students themselves have a positive altitude towards National building, else the menace may remain a barrier to the attainment of same.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the conclusions, the researcher recommends that;

  1. Cultism among students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria could be minimized by introducing programmes in the television, radio and other awareness programme such as workshop and seminars designed to enlightened the students on the implications and the danger of joining secret cults.
  2. Guidance and counselor should be posted to every tertiary institution in Nigeria with the duty of counseling the students and staff only. These counselors should report systematically cases of unexplained and unjustified advances of students to female or male lectures, and that of lectures to students.
  3. The institution administrators should maintain adequate inspection, supervision and monitoring the staff and students on cultism.
  4. There should be forum where the students and lectures should discuss the issues of cultism.
  5. Parents should train their children in moral and try to meet their needs. They should check the company their children keep and counsel them regularly.
  6. Government should establish tribunal to try cultist and if found guilty should be sentenced accordingly. This will be the detriment to those who have joined or to those who have the the intention of joining the secret cults. They should reduce the high cost of education in Nigeria so that everyone can afford it.
  7. Finally churches and mosques and other religious organization should have strong youth forum in other to give youths opportunity to vent out their issues.
  8. The university authorities should beef up the security department and equip them with modern/sophisticated tools and also uphold the truth and be more sincere when handling campus cult issues.
  9. The university authorities should allow all clubs and societies in the university to register with them and highlight their objectives.

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