An Assessment Of Socio-Economic Determinants Of Child Labour In Kano State Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Sociology

An Assessment Of Socio-Economic Determinants Of Child Labour In Kano State Nigeria


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the socio-economic determinants of child labour in Kano State Nigeria. The study was specifically carried out to determine the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria, ascertain whether poverty contributes to the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria, determine whether family size contributes to the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria, ascertain whether urban migration contributes to the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria, and ascertain whether family educational background contributes to the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of staffs Child Right Enforcement and Development Agency in Kano State Nigeria. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses was tested using Chi-sqaure statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria is high. The study also revealed that family educational background contributes to the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria. Therefore, it is recommended that social welfare service is highly needed to protect children against abuse and consequences of livelihood, health and social insurance to help secure services in times of need. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

A child is the wellspring of man’s and his community’s revitalization. The United Nations General Assembly unanimously enacted the Declaration on the Rights of the Child in 1959, stating that mankind owes the child the best that it has to offer and that every child is entitled to protection in the early years (adequate health care, food and social service and preparing for later years without respect to social status, sex, race and so on). The United Nation convention and Africa’s charter define a child as every human below the age of fourteen years old. Children are the most vulnerable members of the human species, and they are the most vulnerable to abuse in society. The statement by no means dismisses society’s multifaceted efforts to protect children. There are still various forms of child labor in society, and child duties should be distinguished from child labor. Child duty is work in which the primary emphasis is on learning, training or socialization, while on the hand child labour is work essentially exploitative and injurious to the physical, social, cognitive, and moral development of a child.

In recent years, the opposite has been true, as child labor has taken a toll, particularly in developing countries. Child labor is the exploitation of children’s energy and potential at work rather than giving them a proper opportunity to study. The term child labor is a relative term and different cultures and societies define it differently. Child labor is the employment of children when they are too young to work for wages or when they are employed in jobs that are unsuitable or unsafe. Child labor is any work for children that interferes with their full physical development, their opportunities for a desirable education or their needed recreation.

Child labor is affecting the course of development in the entire world and is a major problem faced by the global community now. The international labour organization estimates that there are around 250 million children working all over the world. At least 120 million children aged 5 to 14 work full-time, either as street hawkers or as commercial house help. One third of them do dangerous work (ILO/IPEC 2016). According to ILO estimate more than 73 million children in age group 10-14 years alone were economically active around the world in. As a result, researchers are left wondering about the sole cause of child labor. Most researchers have posited that one of the major factors promoting child labour is tied to socioeconomic factors such as poverty, parents’ level of education and income status, parents’ joblessness and parents’ subordination to masters. Hence, their children are given to bonded labour.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

It is generally believed that the extent of child labour differs in various families and societies due to the high cost of living. One equally wonders whether the need for extra income in the family often causes many parents or guardians to send their children to earn a living outside the home. There are different socio-economic factors which are responsible for its spread and prevalence. These factors include poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, lack of family planning, dis-satisfaction with the education system, the absence of social security, and many others. Child labour affects the child mentally, physically, socially, morally and exposes the child to dangerous and harmful situations. More importantly, it interferes with their education by denying them the opportunity to attend school, forcing them to leave school early, or requiring them to combine attendance with excessively large and heavy work. Child labour robs children of their interest in learning and this contributes to the low literacy rate and low academic achievement in Nigeria. Therefore, it is against this backdrop that this study seeks to examine the socio-economic determinants of child labour in Kano State, Nigeria.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main focus of this study is to assess the socio-economic determinants of child labour in Kano State Nigeria.

Specifically, it sought to:

  1. Determine the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria.
  2. Ascertain whether poverty contributes to the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria.
  3. Determine whether family size contributes to the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria.
  4. Ascertain whether urban migration contributes to the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria.
  5. Ascertain whether family educational background contributes to the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

The following are tentative research questions formulated to have a clear focus of the study.

  1. What is the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria?
  2. Does poverty contributes to the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria?
  3. Does family size contributes to the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria?
  4. Does urban migration contributes to the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria?
  5. Does family educational background contributes to the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria is low
  • Ha: the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria is high.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Research is needed to understand the phenomenon of child labor abound at the national level.

The significance to this study is to throw light on the need for government to recognize and protect the rights of a child. It is also very important that this research will put in order corrective programme which are aimed at enlightening, encouraging and educating the masses on the need to assist from child labour.

The findings of this study will provide suggestions to policy makers on the most efficient ways to direct education interventions and, in the aftermath, develop a policy implementation checklist for all policy stakeholders. Moreover, a study of this nature has the potential to help bilateral and multilateral donors to comprehend how to support state efforts to increase access to education and other related preconditions that will discourage children from child labor. The insights provided by this study are aimed at encouraging closer cooperation between the ministries (Parastatals) concerned and to help to improve national cooperation among developmental partners. Because the phenomenon of child labor is a sensitive one, this study has contributed to the ongoing advocacy to eliminate child labor.

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the incidence of child labour in Nigeria, with specific attention to its effects and consequences.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on to assess the socio-economic determinants of child labour in Kano State Nigeria. The respondents for this study will be obtained from staffs Child Right Enforcement and Development Agency in Kano State Nigeria.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definitions of Terms

Child:

A child is every human being below the age of fourteen years.

Labour:

Hard physical work.

Child labour:

This refers to hard physical work or employment of children below adult age.

Socioeconomic:

Socioeconomic is the reaction of how social and economic activity interact in order to shape the masses. In general it analyzes how modern societies progress, stagnate, or regress because of their local or regional economy, or the global economy. Socio-economic factors include occupation, education, income, wealth and where someone lives.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the socio-economic determinants of child labour in Kano State Nigeria. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the socio-economic determinants of child labour in Kano State Nigeria. The study was specifically carried out to determine the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria, ascertain whether poverty contributes to the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria, determine whether family size contributes to the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria, ascertain whether urban migration contributes to the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria, and ascertain whether family educational background contributes to the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were staffs Child Right Enforcement and Development Agency in Kano State Nigeria.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria is high.
  2. Poverty contributes to the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria.
  3. Family size contributes to the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria.
  4. Urban migration contributes to the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria.
  5. Family educational background contributes to the prevalence of child labour in Kano State Nigeria.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Genuine efforts to address the issue of child labor should begin by addressing the high incidence of poverty within the general population. Poverty is at the root of the residual child labor activities in Nigeria. Thus, any program aimed at the eradication of child labor must recognize the link between poverty and child labor. Instances abound in this study where students dropped out of school on account of lack of money to buy books, uniforms, and other essential materials necessary for continued sustenance.
  2. Provision of social assistance to extremely poor individuals and household. This may entail payment of school fees and approved institutions from governments and non-governmental agencies to individuals or households.
  3. Social welfare service is highly needed to protect children against abuse and consequences of livelihood, health and social insurance to help secure services in times of need.
  4. Lack of access to good quality education is the second principal cause of child labor (Haile & Haile, 2012. Thus, any attempt to address the question of child labor must strive to achieve the universal basic education standard. While it could be inferred from the study results that genuine attempts at implementing free and compulsory education policy by the government is not effective in Nigeria, the goal of universal basic education also requires the availability of teachers to teach the children. The present situation of a high teacher-pupil ratio in Nigeria does not augur well for achieving the goal of universal basic education. Thus, efforts should be geared towards the recruitment/employment of more teachers in Nigeria schools to teach the children.
  5. To achieve the goal of education sector preparedness to implement the child labor policy, efforts should be made to provide the requisite infrastructure in Nigerian schools. Without a good network of infrastructural facilities in the various schools, the goal of achieving education sector preparedness will remain elusive. Akinwale (2010) provided corroborative evidence on the deplorable state of infrastructure in Nigeria.
  6. Capacity development for teachers, health personnel and social workers, the police and judges through investing awareness on preventative services to address child abuse.

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