An Evaluation Of The Role Of Action Aid International In Peace Building In Maiduguri

Project and Seminar Material for Sociology

An Evaluation Of The Role Of Action Aid International In Peace Building In Maiduguri


Abstract


Nigeria in past times have witnessed lots of setbacks which stems from insecurity, poverty and injustices. Currently, these plagues have not been fully addressed and as such continue to terrorize its victims; robbing them of their fundamental human rights and privileges. Lives have been shattered, people have been rendered homeless, children have been turned to orphans and peace generally disappeared from the victims of these elements. Moved with compassion and the need to ensure stability in distressed locations, the Action Aid International has played and continue to play a critical role in peace building. One of such places where the Action Aid International have intervened is Maiduguri, Borno state of Nigeria. This area have been ravished by insurgent attacks and hence are prone to disaster. This study therefore is undertaken to evaluate in clear terms, the role of Action Aid international in peace building in Maiduguri


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

The Highest on the list of prime value for Maiduguri a town in Bornu state, Nigeria, is peace. Peace is the most valuable public commodity, yet the most elusive (Francis David, 2006). These four years (2009-2014) of Insurgency has brought loss of lives and halted economic activities in various parts of Maiduguri. The activities of bokoharam have brought devastating effects on Maiduguri which has resulted in loss of lives both human and livestock, suffering, destruction of infrastructures and public/private facilities, disruption of economic/socio-economic activities like agricultural, trade etc. This situation has threatened not only the internal peace and security of Maiduguri but also the peace in Nigeria and beyond. So alarming is the fact that most of these areas affected by insurgency lack the will to stop this social charade and have fallen prey to continuous usury and subtle manipulation by politicians who take advantage of this situation to involve in shady deals like kidnapping and arm deals using insurgency as a cover (Chiedu, 2013). Peace building has therefore become the most pressing challenge faced by Nigeria at large and Maiduguri in particular. This situation is so partly because of feudal system of leadership which encourages total submission to authority without question which carries with it, ineffective terror control means.

Despite the effort of government through its institutions like the armed forces, religious bodies, NGOs etc, to curb the excesses of insurgence in Maiduguri, peace has continued to elude her and sustainable development, stopped. On that note, this project will seek to show the role of NGOs in peace building in Maiduguri.

Although insurgency is not easily defined, it may be said to be the use of force, usually violent, as a means of coercing a target population to submit to the will of the terrorists (Asika,4:2009). Insurgency is intended to elicit or maximise fear and publicity, making no distinction as to combatants and non combatants in a conflict.

There is no legally agreed upon definition of the term ‘Insurgency’, but a recent United Nations (UN) document describes it as any ‘act which is intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non combatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organisation to do or abstain from doing any act’. The word ‘Insurgency’ is both emotionally and politically laden, particularly as it imports issues of national liberation and self-determination. Insurgency takes many forms, including political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious and ecological issues. The taxonomy of Insurgency, including precipitating motivations and considerations, is now a subject of intense study. Whether the one as seen in Maiduguri can be reduced to a type may be an interesting subject, but for purposes of this work, the primary concern is the threat of insurgency. Insurgency is one objective of organised terrorism, just as terrorism is one of several strategies of insurgency.

Both terrorism and insurgency may be used by states in their internal operations. Terrorism and terrorist tactics constitute part of the strategies and tactics of insurgency. The operational tactics are essentially those of guerilla warfare. The object is to intimidate, frustrate and raise the feeling of uncertainty, imminent danger and the loss of hope, so as to cripple or limit all aspects of human activity and normal livelihoods. Al Qaeda, Boko Haram, MEND and, lately, Jama’atu Ahlissunnah Lidda’anati Wal Jihad, are currently international and local Nigerian examples of terrorist networks. Until recently, Nigerian terrorist activity was thought to be motivated by ethnocentric considerations. Currently, there appears to be a pronounced religious content in the character of insurgency in Maiduguri. A few of the earlier experiences merit examination here, as a guide in estimating the character, trend and intensity of the current campaign, as well as the role of NGOs in peace building in Maiduguri.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Previous research works on the role of NGOs in peace building in Insurgency affected areas especially Maiduguri shows that there is no government that can take on single handily, the weight of peace building in form of aid. Among the various actors that participate in these processes are the nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), which fulfil a pivotal role in terms of establishing and maintaining essential services like assisting refugees and internally displaced populations and helping to strengthen societies.

NGOs increasingly work “in the field,” providing humanitarian relief and development assistance in post terror places like Maiduguri. As they carry out their work, they face many serious problems. Insurgencies often deny them access to those in need, terrorist groups demand payoffs, and local violence threatens the safety and even the lives of field personnel. Donors also subject these NGOs to political pressure, diminishing their neutrality.

Nongovernmental Organizations face a lot of challenges in the discharge of their duties often caused by Insurgent activities. They are faced with the dilemma; should they negotiate with terrorists to deliver aid, or should they maintain independence and impartiality. Some Nigerian agencies like WACOL operate only through local partners because they cannot negotiate with terrorist-affiliated groups. Red Cross has resorted to having armed escorts and allow Movement for Peace in Maiduguri (MFPIM) and Africa Awake to supervise the aid distribution. Although impartiality is valuable for the long term operation in Maiduguri, humanitarian aid agencies feel they are forced to compromise these principles in an effort to gain aid access according Osueke (2006)


1.3 Research Objectives

With the spate at which insurgence has dealt a heavy blow on Maiduguri, economically, socially and otherwise, this research work will seek to highlight challenges of insurgency for Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs), the role of Action Aid International in peace building in Maiduguri and the way forward.

So as to achieve the purpose of this research the following will be looked into:

  1. To assess the role of Action Aid International in Peace Building.
  2. To examine the effectiveness of Action Aid International in the peace building in restive areas in the North East.

1.4 Research Questions

So as to achieve the objectives stated above, the following research questions were used as a guide in achieving the objectives of this research work:

  1. What are the roles of Action Aid International in peace building?
  2. How effective have Action Aid International been in peace building in Maiduguri?
  3. What is the way forward for Action Aid International in the peace building campaign?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

To solve the problems mentioned in the research questions, the following hypothesis are formulated:

  • Ho: Action Aid International are not effective in the peace building activities.
  • H1: Action Aid International are effective in the peace building activities.

1.6 Significance Of Study

One of the benefits of this research work is to researchers and academics. It will be of tremendous help to governments and their agencies in tackling insurgency and the challenges that comes with it.

The findings and recommendations of the researcher will help bring to the fore the role of Action Aid International in peace building coupled with limitations to their work.

It will also be readily available for international organizations that may need insight into what it is like for Action Aid International working in Maiduguri.


1.7 Scope Of The Study

This research work focuses solely on the role of Nongovernmental Organization in peace building in Maiduguri. It also touched the challenges of Insurgency and how it affects the work of Action Aid International.

Based on the findings of this study, another research area touched is Peace building.


1.8 Limitations Of Study

This research work was carried out under a tight schedule. The time frame was short in between lectures and private studies.

Another limitation faced by the researcher was delay in data collection from the various respondents. Most respondents were too busy to fill up the questionnaires due to their work schedule. This almost delayed the work.


1.9 Definition Of Terms

Insurgency:

An insurgency is a rebellion against a constituted authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents

Peace Building:

Peace building is a process that facilitates the establishment of durable peace and tries to prevent the recurrence of violence by addressing root causes and effects of conflict through reconciliation, institution building, and political as well as economic transformation.

NGO:

Non Governmental Organizations


Organizational Profile

Action Aid works with poor people in over 40 countries across the world. Our goal? To end poverty. We believe in doing things differently. We know that with the right opportunities, poor people will find their own solutions – and build new lives.

Action Aid Nigeria commenced programmatic operations in January 2000 after a Country appraisal which found poverty in the midst of plenty. We commenced work then through a Country Agreement signed with the National Planning Commission of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Our works are currently spread across 26 states of the federation.

Strategic Objectives
  • Work with government and their institutions to promote laws, policies and practices that address the rights of poor and excluded communities
  • Work with organisations to advocate accountable, democratic and transparent governance with pro-poor policies and programmes
  • Enhance access for women and girls to decision-making process, resources and justice at all levels
  • Strengthen poor and excluded people and communities to influence policies and practices that affect their rights
  • Strengthen the structures, systems and processes of ActionAid Nigeria and partners for accountable, effective and dynamic operations
Our Vision

The Vision of AAN is to see a Nigeria without poverty and injustice in which every person enjoys his or her right to life with Dignity.

Our Mission

Action Aid Nigeria’s mission is to work with the poor and excluded people to eradicate poverty and injustice in Nigeria.

Our Values

Action Aid Nigeria lives by the following values of Action Aid and which has been demonstrated through the accountability, learning and planning system (ALPS) and this include; mutual respect, equity and justice, honesty and transparency, solidarity with the poor, powerless and excluded, courage of conviction, independence from any religious or political party affiliation and Humility in presentation and behaviour.

Board of Trustees

Prof. Patricia Donli – ChairProf. Sam Egwu – Vice ChairProf. U. A. IgunDr. Kole ShettimaMr. David NwachukwuDr. T. AgaryComrade John OdahMr. Johnson IkubeMrs. Omotunde Ellen-ThompsonDr. Jummai Umar-AjijolaMallam Lawal Abdullahi IndeMrs. Hauwa Evelyn ShekarauMrs. Ranti Bosede Daudu Dr. Abdu Hussaini


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to evaluate the role of Action Aid international in peace building in Maiduguri.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of peace building in the state.


5.2 Summary

Generally, Non-Governmental organizations are largely or totally independent of government, and they exist for a variety of reasons, usually to further the political or social goals of their members or funders. They function as charitable or religious associations, mobilize private funds for development initiatives and programmes, raise awareness and influence policies in pursuance of the ideals of democracy, good governance as well a undertake diverse humanitarian projects that could better the lots of the grassroots. Examples include improving the state of the national environment, encouraging the observance of human rights, improving the welfare of the disadvantaged, or representing a corporate agenda. However, Action Aid international have been exceptional in her vision and programmes of rebuilding peace in Maiduguri.


5.3 Conclusion

The kind of lukewarm attitude demonstrated at the inception of the emergence of Boko Haram must be jettisoned for a rational and concrete approach that will put an end to the Fulani herdsmen onslaught on the people. Government are never serious with early warning signals until the matter develops into dangerous alarming situations, this must not be so with them in this critical situation. Government must move in urgently to address the problems of Fulani herdsmen and host communities to stop the hostilities and violent conflicts destroying the unity of the country. According to Ibrahim (1999): The legitimacy of the modern state is linked to its capacity to present itself as a provider of public goods and more important, a neutral arbiter that guarantees the security of all sections of the society. When the state is generally perceived as serving the particularistic interest of one group, it starts losing legitimacy and, indeed, its authority. As state capacity declines fear of the other rises and people resort to other levels of solidarity-religious, ethnic and regional in search of security (cited in Kwaja, 2009, p.111). Government must ensure that all unites of the country are carried along in its socio-economic developmental strides irrespective of the political leaning. State and institutional structures should be predicated on the provisions of basic security, good governance, and accountability. Conscientious efforts must be made at continual and sustained analysis and mapping of conflict prone areas as well as early warning signs to eliminate any form of dangerous uprising or reoccurrence of any crisis within any community.


5.4 Recommendations

Although, many of peace building’s aims overlap with those of peacemaking, peacekeeping and conflict resolution, it is a distinct phenomenon. Peacemaking involves stopping an ongoing conflict, whereas peace building happens before a conflict starts or once it ends. The aim of government in peace building should be to address issues before they generate into uncontrollable conditions. These demand great efforts by government and the people involved in every community. To achieve effective peace building, we recommendation as follows: The key to effective management of conflict and peace building in the community should be anchored on effective communication between government and stakeholders. The government should engage Nongovernmental agencies within communities that will help in sourcing information regarding any matter threatening the peace of the community. Early warning data banks should be created for the analysis of such information and every information received must be investigated promptly; to determine its reality or otherwise. The local people should be enlightened to be security conscious so that they can be able to identify issues that threaten their lives or livelihood in the community. Peace building programme should be community based with local content relevant to the security needs of the community. It must be an integrative initiative that incorporates all levels of age, sex, tribe, religion and the likes within the community in order to provide a broad base information gathering mechanism. One of the issues that can weaken any early warning signal is the rate of response. Efforts must be put in place to ensure that early warning signals are responded to promptly and decisively in order to checkmate any unpleasant security situation within any locality. Thus, pro-active preventive strategy should form the nucleus of any peace building approach in tackling conflict. There is need to build synergies across all stakeholders and prompt action against defaulters. In this regard, persons who are found to be involved in fomenting conflict situations in their area should be dealt with promptly to discourage other would be trouble makers. Government must be decisive in taking action on matters which threaten the security of the state in order to provide the concrete evidence that they can protect the people in time of crisis. Government must go beyond primordial, personal and party interest and come out hard on any defaulter in order to stem the tide of violence and insecurity in the country. Government should go beyond mere provision of relief materials to indigent and displaced persons to building strong community based economy that caters for the masses. One of the things that provoke conflict is poverty and ignorance. Government must strive to eradicate poverty and ignorance in the society. The huge amount of financial resources that are put in meaningless ventures should be redirected to building industries and educational institutions that will empower the people. In most times, we engage in dialogue when lives have been destroyed. Government must strive to go beyond window dressing of issues and engage in inter-faith dialogue or inter-communal dialogue as a strategic model undertaking which shall contribute positively to peace building in the society. This will strengthen proactive mechanisms aimed at checking conflict in any society. In conclusion, we acknowledge that peace building is better than peacemaking in conflict resolution and management. Government should build capacities that are readily available to manage conflict situations before they manifest into disasters. Energies put into peacemaking should be channeled into peace building. The reason is that lives lost during conflict situations are never restored back to life. We must endeavour to protect life at all cost before it is destroyed than providing funds for mere palliative measures that cannot bring back human existence


An Evaluation Of The Role Of Action Aid International In Peace Building In Maiduguri


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