Child Labour (A Case Study Of Children In Benin City)
This research work is designed to examine the issue of child labour in Edo State with a special focus on Benin City. The research instrument used was the questionnaires, one hundred respondents were used for the study, problems were raised and the results obtained were used to answer the research questions. Lack of parental care contribute towards the issue of child labour. The result also revealed that child labour can be eradicated. The result also showed that if the government could come out with a favourable policies that child labour will be minimized. The result also revealed that child labour will be able to divert the attention of the child from school. The result also revealed that the government should create an awareness programme against the effect of child labour.
Table of Contents
- Cover Page
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study
- 1.4 Significance of the Study
- 1.5 Scope of the Study
- 1.6 Limitation of the Study
- 1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Review of Related Literature
- 2.0 Introduction
- 2.1 Theoretical Framework
- 2.2 Conceptual Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Framework
- 2.4 Causes of Child Labour
- 2.5 Forms of Child Labour
- 2.6 Child Labour in Nigeria
- 2.7 Child Labour and Academic Performance of Students
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research Design
- 3.3 Area of the Study
- 3.4 Population of the Study
- 3.5 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques
- 3.6 Research Instrument
- 3.7 Validation of Research Instrument
- 3.8 Administration of the Instrument
- 3.9 Method of Data Analysis
Presentation and Analysis Interpretation of Data
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Summary of Findings
- 5.3 Conclusion
- 5.4 Recommendations
1.1 Background to the Study
A case of child labour in societies today is not a new phenomenon as some might have argued. According to a school of thought, child labour is not alien to our cultural values. It is part and parcel of our traditional culture where by a child is expected to help the parent in augmenting the meager income or resources by selling or hawking farm produce like pepper, tomatoes, okro, vegetable etc on the street or in the neighborhood. This practices is to train child, the ability is to be sufficient and helping in giving him courage to face future challenges in marriage either as a woman of a man.
Even Though this line of argument is not generally acceptable among the scholar, it was however acknowledged that child labour if there has been any benefit derived by the child morally, has become monster threatening the lives of these vulnerable, Nigeria child in the contemporary time of ours.
Increased incidence of child labour in urban and metropolitan cities across Nigeria in record. Times have received a lot of attention from the press, no Governmental organization (N. G. O) poets, musicians visual artist and researchers is our higher institution of learning. One of the major factors responsible for the increase according to Gwon (1991-23) is the dissembling of the traditional culture which by extended family system regards child care as a community responsibility but has been destroyed by capitalistic culture or orientation of our modern times.
In Benin City, a capital of Edo state, child labour has significantly increased from insignificant number, it was some years back to worrisome which deserves a drastic and urgent attention from all the stake Holden’s in child development the parents, government and the society. Though there is no statistical figures to back up the increase, the number of children see daily on the streets in Benin metropolis as path hawkers, touts, bus conductors, car washers, wheelbarrow pushers etc is a clear indication that the menace of child labour is gradually becoming a complex and intricate problem.
It is on this basis that this project will attempt to study the daily life of children in Benin City and the traumatic experiences they pass through daily.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The issue of child labour in Edo State with special focus on Benin City in general has some problems associated with it in this project the researcher intends to identify the problems and strategies of solving them in doing this the following question are to guide;
- What are the roles of government in child labour?
- What are the effects of child labour in the society?
- What are the roles of the parents in child labour?
- What are the ways child labour can be eradicated?
1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study
The aims and objective of this study is to investigate the issues of child labour and also provide solutions to the problem of child labour in Edo State with special focus on Benin City.
- To investigate the causes of child labour
- To provide information on the effect of child labour
- To investigate the role of government in child labour.
- To provide infor5mation on how to minimize child labour.
- To find out the role of parents in child labour.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Child they say are the hope of tomorrow. It is therefore important and necessary to engage in efforts that will enhance their well being by drawing attention to their present predicaments, thereby help the government to formulate policies that will protect the rights of these weak members.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study focuses on child labour: a case study of children in Benin City.
1.6 Limitation of the Study
There is no study undertaken by a researcher that is perfect. The imperfection of any research is always due to some factors negatively affecting a researcher in the course of carrying out research. Therefore, time constraint has shown no mercy to the research. The limited time has to be shared among many alternative uses, which includes reading, attending lectures and writing of this research, also distance and its attendant costs of travelling to obtain information which may enhance the writing of this study was a major limitation.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
This is a human being whether male or female between 9 and 18 years of age, who is in the developmental stage of childhood.
This includes range of activities like domestic work, work in household farms, street hawking, harvesting and processing of palm fruits, and others.
This refers to any work that the child engages in that interferes with his/her health and educational developments.
This is the child’s ability to study and remember facts, and being able to communicate knowledge verbally or written down on paper.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter presents the summary, conclusion and recommendations for further studies.
5.2 Summary of Findings
This study was carried out to investigate child labour: a case study of children in Benin City. To achieve this objective, four research questions were stated to guide this study. A structured questionnaire was used as the main instrument to gather data from 120 selected senior secondary school students (children) in Egor Local Government Area of Benin City, Edo State. Out of this number, 95 (79.2%) copies of questionnaire were appropriately completed and returned for data analysis while 25(20.8%) copies of questionnaire not completed and returned.
The data collected from the respondents were analyzed using tables and descriptive statistics to analyze the research questions. The findings revealed that;
- There are roles of government in child labour in Edo State.
- There are effects of child labour in the society.
- There are roles of the parents in child labour.
- There are ways child labour can be eradicated in Benin City, Edo State.
Based on the on the findings of this study and subsequent recommendations, it is concluded that; most of the students were not exposed to labour and have advantage over those exposed to labour academically. By implication this shows that greater number of these students will be found wanting academically that will lead to low academic achievements, and inability to cope with future academic challenges in schools. Students exposed to child labour have a lower school attendance compared to those not exposed to child labour. This implies that female pupils will have higher number of school dropout, academic failure and inability to cope with future academic challenges in schools.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made:
- Parents and communities should develop positive interest towards their children’s educational pursuits in secondary school levels.
- Government should introduce free and compulsory education in secondary level of education.
- Extra free classes should be organized to children exposed to labour by the curriculum planners, with special preference to the female pupils exposed to labour.
- The Home Economics curriculum planners through the Ministry of Education should introduce entrepreneur subjects such as catering, tailoring, fashion design from primary school to secondary school levels.
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