Partners Involvement In Contraceptives Decision Making And It’s Effects On Modern Family Planning Method In Couples

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Partners Involvement In Contraceptives Decision Making And It’s Effects On Modern Family Planning Method In Couples


Abstract


This study was carried out to investigate partners involvement in contraceptives decision making and it’s effects on modern family planning method in couples. Specifically, the study aims to find out the knowledge level of married couples towards family planning methods, examine the sources information about family planning among married couples, assess the extent partners involvement influences the use of contraceptives as a family planning method and determine the contraceptive methods commonly adopted among married partners. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 141 responses were validated from the survey. From the responses obtained and analyzed, the findings revealed that   Partners involvement influences the use of contraceptive as a family planning method. The study thereby recommend that the government through the Ministry of Health should revive and support family planning education at both household and community level that targets the women of reproductive age This could be undertaken through print and other mass media. Also, the Ministry of Health should encourage the uptake of contraceptives at household level by enhancing continuous promotion of family planning services. This could be realized by supporting family planning outreach activities by the health workers. This is expected to contribute positively towards enhancing awareness of family planning services and the benefits and side effects.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Family planning is known to be one of the most popular practices of birth control worldwide, (WHO, 2009). It is the ability of individuals and couples to attain their desired number and spacing of their children through contraceptive use. It is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions and is pivotal to reducing the country’s rate of child birth. It was further stated that the rate of child birth decline is a means of achieving a demographic dividend, with the consequent potential of reducing poverty, boosting economic growth and contributing to the overall well-being of families and societies.

Nigeria, the seventh most populous nation in the world, contains a calculable population of 186 million that was projected to achieve 285 million by 2050 (United Nations 2013). There was an estimated 35 million women of reproductive age in the country, with an annual number of births of approximately 7 million and annual population growth of 2.9% per annum. The country’s rapid population growth was attributable to a high total fertility rate (TFR) of 5.5 children per woman (National Population Commission 2014). It has been estimated that in Nigeria a reduction in rate of child birth by one child per woman would lead to a 13% increase in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita within 20 years and improve maternal health (Ashraf, Weil, & Wilde 2013). Contraception as a method of family planning promotes survival of infants as it supports birth spacing and reduces high-risk pregnancies. Achieving adequate birth spacing could reduce child mortality by 20 percent or more, particularly in developing countries with myriads of socio-economic problems (World Health Organization (WHO), 2014).

Contraceptives, especially pills, contain a small amount of man-made estrogen and progestin hormones. These hormones work to inhibit the body’s natural cyclical hormones to prevent pregnancy. Pregnancy can be prevented by a combination of factors. The oral contraceptive usually stops the body from ovulating. Hormonal contraceptives also change the cervical mucus to make it difficult for the sperm to go through the cervix and find an egg. Hormonal contraceptives can also prevent pregnancy by changing the lining of the womb so it is unlikely the fertilized egg will be implanted. Contraception has been used worldwide since ancient times. Writings in Egyptian papyri, the Bible, and Greek and Roman texts indicate the usage of various herb and root preparations for contraception and abortion (Agboola, 2006). Decisions regarding the timing of pregnancy and control over family size continue to be important issues for all adults. When families use modern contraception methods, they are empowered to determine the timing, number and spacing of their children, reducing deaths and improving the health of both mothers and their babies. Family planning also involves ensuring access to preferred contraceptive methods for couples, while supporting the health and development of families and communities.( Johns Hopkins Center For Communication, 2018). In many cultures, even discussing modern contraception is off-limits. There are different methods of contraception including, long acting reversible contraception such as the implant or intra uterine device (IUD), Hormonal contraception such as the pill or the Depo-Provera injection, Barrier methods such as Condoms, Emergency Contraception, Fertility awareness, Permanent contraception such as vasectomy and tubal ligation.

Despite, the campaign on the usefulness of family planning services in having smaller and healthier families, (Studies by National Population Commission (NPC) Nigeria 2014) indicated that contraceptive use is still low in many developing countries, including Nigeria where 23.7% of currently couples had ever used one. Fortunately, majority of Nigerian couples are aware of family planning, but very few of them make use of it for birth control (Lasisi, Bassey, Ita & Awoyemi, 2014).

Family planning studies have identified a number of factors as significant variables in a couple’s decision about family planning (Undelikwo, Osonwa, Ushie & Osonwa, 2013). The more common variables are degrees of communication between couples, a couple’s educational level and whether they are resident in urban or rural area. While such factors are likely to influence family planning decisions universally, there are culture-specific factors such as adherence to traditional ideals like number of living children and male child preference, and expectations which, in the case of several African groups, may override the universal variables.

Traditional values feature prominently because the cultural valuation of children is evident in studies which vindicate that among Nigerians, “having fewer than five surviving children negatively affected the use of family planning methods” (Lawoyin, Osinowo, Babatunde, Bajomo, Betiku, Biakolo, Busari & Fehintola, 2002). Such inverse relationship may derive from traditional valuation of children not only as economic and political assets, but as indicators of status relative to other members of a community. Traditionalism is further compounded by the perception of husbands who may see their wives use of contraceptives as undermining their roles as household /heads or as likely to encourage promiscuity (Oni & McCarthy, 1991). In that respect, family planning decisions excludes the wife who not only succumbs to marital expectations, but also to communal ideas of valuation of child birth. In the light of the above, this study seek to examine the problems and challenges of family planning amongst married couples.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The development of a nation appears to to depend largely on high fertility rate leading to the rapid growth of country’s population. Family planning is the means by which individuals or married men and women space the process of conception, pregnancy and childbirth at intervals mutually determined by both husband and wife in order to have the desired number of children that they can conveniently maintain. Family planning studies appear to have identified a number of factors as significant variables in married men and women’s decision about family size with the more common variables being degrees of communication between married men and women, married men and women’s educational level and whether they are resident in urban or rural area. While such factors are likely to influence family planning decisions universally, there are culture-specific factors such as adherence to traditional ideals like number of living children and male child preference, expectations which, in the case of several African groups, may override the universal variables. The use of contraceptives appears to have been seen as undermining their roles as household heads or as likely to encourage promiscuity. Traditional values appear to feature prominently in both knowledge, attitude and family planning practices among married men and women because the cultural valuation of children is evident in studies which vindicate that among Nigerians as it is popularly believed that having fewer than five surviving children may negatively affect the use of family planning. Such inverse relationship may derive from traditional valuation of children not only as economic and political assets, but as indicators of status relative to other members of a community. It was discovered that though people have desire for fertility regulation in nearly all societies, achieved family size is greater than desired family size.

The various methods of family planning can be categorized as; the traditional methods, which involves the use of native objects such as charms, amulets, rings, keys, fluid from dead bodies and others, while the modern methods involve the introduction and uses of contraceptives such as pills, injectable, intrauterine devices, implants and others for family planning purposes (Delano, 2008). Other classifications may include barrier, chemical, natural or surgical. Modern methods such as pills, condoms, injectable, intrauterine devices, implants, etc. appear to be the commonest and mainly advertised form of family planning, but it appears that most Nigerian married men and women are non-contraceptive users. Some of the reasons for the low rate of contraceptive practice according to Ikechebelu, Ikechebelu and Obiajulu, (2005), range from factors such as “the fear of side effects, husband’s objection, religious and cultural prohibitions, etc.” In view of the aforementioned, this study seek to assess the problems and challenges of family planning amongst married couples.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objectives of this study is to examine partners involvement in contraceptives decision making and it’s effects on modern family planning method in couples.

The study will specifically assess the objectives below;

  1. To find out the knowledge level of married couples towards family planning methods.
  2. To examine the sources information about family planning among married couples.
  3. To assess the extent partners involvement influences the use of contraceptives as a family planning method.
  4. To determine the contraceptive methods commonly adopted among married partners.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the knowledge level of married couples towards family planning methods?
  2. What are the sources information about family planning among married couples?
  3. What is the extent partners involvement influences the use of contraceptives as a family planning method.
  4. What are the contraceptive methods commonly adopted among married partners.

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The following hypotheses have been formulated for the study:

  • Ho: Partners involvement does not influence the use of contraceptive as a family planning method.
  • Ha: Partners involvement influences the use of contraceptive as a family planning method.

1.6 Significance of the Study

It is hoped that the findings of this study will provide necessary information that will enhance activities and programs towards the practice of family planning to be appropriately conducted. Furthermore, the findings will also be relevant to those who intend to carry out a similar research topic as it has contributed to the existing literature. Finally, the research will serve as a fuel of new reasoning and further research work on knowledge, attitude and practices of couples towards family planning services, and to health science students, lecturers and the general public.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on partners involvement in contraceptives decision making and it’s effects on modern family planning method in couples. Hence, the study will find out the knowledge level of married couples towards family planning methods, examine the sources information about family planning among married couples, assess the extent partners involvement influences the use of contraceptives as a family planning method and determine the contraceptive methods commonly adopted among married partners. Hence, the study is delimited to Akure south local government area.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed.

More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other local governments, states, and other countries in the world.


1.9 Definition of Term

Contraceptive:

Contraceptive is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ways: Preventing sperm from getting to the eggs. Types include condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and contraceptive sponges.

Family Planning:

The ability of individuals and couples to attain their desired number of children and plan the spacing and timing of their births through use of contraceptive methods.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was to examine partners involvement in contraceptives decision making and it’s effects on modern family planning method in couples. The study specifically was aimed to find out the knowledge level of married couples towards family planning methods, examine the sources information about family planning among married couples, assess the extent partners involvement influences the use of contraceptives as a family planning method and determine the contraceptive methods commonly adopted among married partners. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from families attending the clinic for family planning.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. The knowledge level of married couples towards family planning methods is positve
  2. The sources information about family planning among married couples includes:
    1. Health care center,
    2. Radio,
    3. Television and
    4. Newspaper
  3. The extent of partners involvement in influencing the use of contraceptives as a family planning method is high.
    The contraceptive methods commonly adopted among married partners includes:

    1. Pills
    2. Injectables,
    3. Condoms and
    4. IUCD.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. The government through the Ministry of Health should revive and support family planning education at both household and community level that targets the women of reproductive age This could be undertaken through print and other mass media.
  2. The Ministry of Health should encourage the uptake of contraceptives at household level by enhancing continuous promotion of family planning services. This could be realized by supporting family planning outreach activities by the health workers. This is expected to contribute positively towards enhancing awareness of family planning services and the benefits and side effects.
  3. The Ministry of Health in collaboration with other development partners involved in the provision of family planning services need to enhance large scale training of service providers in quality care, client follow up, communication skills, counselling, referral and feedback and provision of a wide choice of methods. With good customer care, clients who seek contraceptives will have confidence in the staff which in the process will attract more users while at the same time encouraging further usage on those currently using them.
  4. Creation of advocacy groups at community level is highly recommended. This will not only articulate the rights of the clients, in this case the woman who seek contraceptives, but will lead to cultural and attitude change towards the services thereby encouraging their uptake. In the end, this is expected to contribute positively towards a reduction in the total fertility rate as well as decline in population growth rate. NGOs, CBOs, and other institutions involved in family planning need to initiate and promote targeting programmes for the uptake of the services in the rural areas.

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