Problems And Challenges Of Family Planning Amongst Married Couples

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Problems And Challenges Of Family Planning Amongst Married Couples


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the problems and challenges of family planning amongst married couples in Pazikon Kore, Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja. The study was carried out to examine knowledge of married couples towards family planning, investigate the sources information about family planning among married couples in Pazikon Kore, Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja, determine the attitude of married couples towards family planning and contraceptives, and determine the factors militating married couples use of family planning services. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of married couples at paikon kore, Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 146 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that married in paikon kore, Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja has adequate knowledge of family planning. The study also revealed that the factors that influence acceptance of family planning among married couples includes: husband’s objection, cultural and religious belief, educational background, and level of income. Therefore, it is recommended that there is a need for government and non-governmental agencies to keep health care providers updated in the trend of modern contraceptives available through in service training and workshops targeted at improving knowledge on the various types and functions of modern contraceptive methods. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Family planning is known to be one of the most popular practices of birth control worldwide, (WHO, 2009). It is the ability of individuals and couples to attain their desired number and spacing of their children through contraceptive use. It is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions and is pivotal to reducing the country’s rate of child birth. It was further stated that the rate of child birth decline is a means of achieving a demographic dividend, with the consequent potential of reducing poverty, boosting economic growth and contributing to the overall well-being of families and societies.

Nigeria, the seventh most populous nation in the world, contains a calculable population of 186 million that was projected to achieve 285 million by 2050 (United Nations 2013). There was an estimated 35 million women of reproductive age in the country, with an annual number of births of approximately 7 million and annual population growth of 2.9% per annum. The country’s rapid population growth was attributable to a high total fertility rate (TFR) of 5.5 children per woman (National Population Commission 2014).

It has been estimated that in Nigeria a reduction in rate of child birth by one child per woman would lead to a 13% increase in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita within 20 years and improve maternal health (Ashraf, Weil, & Wilde 2013). Contraception as a method of family planning promotes survival of infants as it supports birth spacing and reduces high-risk pregnancies. Achieving adequate birth spacing could reduce child mortality by 20 percent or more, particularly in developing countries with myriads of socio-economic problems (World Health Organization (WHO), 2014).

Contraceptives, especially pills, contain a small amount of man-made estrogen and progestin hormones. These hormones work to inhibit the body’s natural cyclical hormones to prevent pregnancy. Pregnancy can be prevented by a combination of factors. The oral contraceptive usually stops the body from ovulating. Hormonal contraceptives also change the cervical mucus to make it difficult for the sperm to go through the cervix and find an egg. Hormonal contraceptives can also prevent pregnancy by changing the lining of the womb so it is unlikely the fertilized egg will be implanted.

Contraception has been used worldwide since ancient times. Writings in Egyptian papyri, the Bible, and Greek and Roman texts indicate the usage of various herb and root preparations for contraception and abortion (Agboola, 2006). Decisions regarding the timing of pregnancy and control over family size continue to be important issues for all adults. When families use modern contraception methods, they are empowered to determine the timing, number and spacing of their children, reducing deaths and improving the health of both mothers and their babies. Family planning also involves ensuring access to preferred contraceptive methods for couples, while supporting the health and development of families and communities.( Johns Hopkins Center For Communication, 2018). In many cultures, even discussing modern contraception is off-limits.

There are different methods of contraception including, long acting reversible contraception such as the implant or intra uterine device (IUD), Hormonal contraception such as the pill or the Depo-Provera injection, Barrier methods such as Condoms, Emergency Contraception, Fertility awareness, Permanent contraception such as vasectomy and tubal ligation.

Despite, the campaign on the usefulness of family planning services in having smaller and healthier families, (Studies by National Population Commission (NPC) Nigeria 2014) indicated that contraceptive use is still low in many developing countries, including Nigeria where 23.7% of currently couples had ever used one. Fortunately, majority of Nigerian couples are aware of family planning, but very few of them make use of it for birth control (Lasisi, Bassey, Ita & Awoyemi, 2014).

Family planning studies have identified a number of factors as significant variables in a couple’s decision about family planning (Undelikwo, Osonwa, Ushie & Osonwa, 2013). The more common variables are degrees of communication between couples, a couple’s educational level and whether they are resident in urban or rural area. While such factors are likely to influence family planning decisions universally, there are culture-specific factors such as adherence to traditional ideals like number of living children and male child preference, and expectations which, in the case of several African groups, may override the universal variables.

Traditional values feature prominently because the cultural valuation of children is evident in studies which vindicate that among Nigerians, “having fewer than five surviving children negatively affected the use of family planning methods” (Lawoyin, Osinowo, Babatunde, Bajomo, Betiku, Biakolo, Busari & Fehintola, 2002). Such inverse relationship may derive from traditional valuation of children not only as economic and political assets, but as indicators of status relative to other members of a community. Traditionalism is further compounded by the perception of husbands who may see their wives use of contraceptives as undermining their roles as household /heads or as likely to encourage promiscuity (Oni & McCarthy, 1991). In that respect, family planning decisions excludes the wife who not only succumbs to marital expectations, but also to communal ideas of valuation of child birth. In the light of the above, this study seek to examine the problems and challenges of family planning amongst married couples.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The development of a nation appears to to depend largely on high fertility rate leading to the rapid growth of country’s population. Family planning is the means by which individuals or married men and women space the process of conception, pregnancy and childbirth at intervals mutually determined by both husband and wife in order to have the desired number of children that they can conveniently maintain. Family planning studies appear to have identified a number of factors as significant variables in married men and women’s decision about family size with the more common variables being degrees of communication between married men and women, married men and women’s educational level and whether they are resident in urban or rural area. While such factors are likely to influence family planning decisions universally, there are culture-specific factors such as adherence to traditional ideals like number of living children and male child preference, expectations which, in the case of several African groups, may override the universal variables. The use of contraceptives appears to have been seen as undermining their roles as household heads or as likely to encourage promiscuity.

Traditional values appear to feature prominently in both knowledge, attitude and family planning practices among married men and women because the cultural valuation of children is evident in studies which vindicate that among Nigerians as it is popularly believed that having fewer than five surviving children may negatively affect the use of family planning. Such inverse relationship may derive from traditional valuation of children not only as economic and political assets, but as indicators of status relative to other members of a community. It was discovered that though people have desire for fertility regulation in nearly all societies, achieved family size is greater than desired family size.

The various methods of family planning can be categorized as; the traditional methods, which involves the use of native objects such as charms, amulets, rings, keys, fluid from dead bodies and others, while the modern methods involve the introduction and uses of contraceptives such as pills, injectable, intrauterine devices, implants and others for family planning purposes (Delano, 2008). Other classifications may include barrier, chemical, natural or surgical. Modern methods such as pills, condoms, injectable, intrauterine devices, implants, etc. appear to be the commonest and mainly advertised form of family planning, but it appears that most Nigerian married men and women are non-contraceptive users. Some of the reasons for the low rate of contraceptive practice according to Ikechebelu, Ikechebelu and Obiajulu, (2005), range from factors such as “the fear of side effects, husband’s objection, religious and cultural prohibitions, etc.” In view of the aforementioned, this study seek to assess the problems and challenges of family planning amongst married couples.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objectives of this study is to examine the problems and challenges of family planning amongst married couples.

The study will specifically assess the objectives below;

  1. To examine knowledge of married couples towards family planning.
  2. Investigate the sources information about family planning among married couples in Pazikon Kore, Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja.
  3. Determine the attitude of married couples towards family planning and contraceptives.
  4. Determine the factors militating married couples use of family planning services.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is knowledge of married couples towards family planning?
  2. What are the sources information about family planning among married couples in Pazikon Kore, Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja?
  3. What is the attitude of married couples towards family planning and contraceptives?
  4. What are the factors militating married couples use of family planning services?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There are no significant factors affecting couples use of family planning.
  • Ha: There are significant factors affecting couples use of family planning.

1.6 Significance of the Study

It is hoped that the findings of this study will provide necessary information that will enhance activities and programs towards the practice of family planning to be appropriately conducted. Furthermore, the findings will also be relevant to those who intend to carry out a similar research topic as it has contributed to the existing literature. Finally, the research will serve as a fuel of new reasoning and further research work on knowledge, attitude and practices of couples towards family planning services, and to health science students, lecturers and the general public.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine the problems and challenges of family planning amongst married couples. The study will further examine the knowledge levels of married couples on family planning among others. Geographically, this study will be delimited to couples in Paikon Kore , Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed.
More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other local governments, states, and other countries in the world.


1.9 Definition of Term

Contraceptive:

Contraceptive is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ways: Preventing sperm from getting to the eggs. Types include condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and contraceptive sponges.

Family Planning:

The ability of individuals and couples to attain their desired number of children and plan the spacing and timing of their births through use of contraceptive methods.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the problems and challenges of family planning amongst married couples in Pazikon Kore, Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the problems and challenges of family planning amongst married couples in Pazikon Kore, Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja. The study is was specifically carried out to examine knowledge of married couples towards family planning, investigate the sources information about family planning among married couples in Pazikon Kore, Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja, determine the attitude of married couples towards family planning and contraceptives, and determine the factors militating married couples use of family planning services.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were married couples at Paikon Kore, Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Married couples in Paikon Kore, Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja has adequate knowledge of family planning.
  2. The sources of married couples information about family planning Paikon Kore, Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja includes: antenatal clinic, television/radio, friends and church.
  3. Married couples has negative attitude towards family planning and contraceptives use.
  4. The factors affecting married couples use of family planning services includes: husband’s objection, cultural and religious belief, educational background, and level of income.

5.3 Recommendation

From the result of the study, the following recommendations were made:

  1. Community programmes should be organized for friends/relations where forums of free discussions on family planning methods can be held for a better understanding for the use of family planning methods.
  2. More sensitization programmes should be carried out in the religious houses where married men and women learn about family planning methods, the Nigeria government should improve on the existing strategies in propagating the practice of family planning among married men and women.
  3. Nigeria government should encourage the establishment of daycare centres within public and private service areas so that married men and women will have the convenience of going to get contraceptives.

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