Self-Concept, Anxiety And Marital Satisfaction Of Couples In Gokana Local Government Area Of Rivers State Implication For Counselling

Project and Seminar Material for Guidance and Counselling

Self-Concept, Anxiety And Marital Satisfaction Of Couples In Gokana Local Government Area Of Rivers State Implication For Counselling


Abstract


This study was carried out on self-concept, anxiety and marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government area of rivers state: implication for counselling. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of couples in Gokana Local Government area of Rivers State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 113 respondents and 85 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent at which self-concept influences marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government Area is high.The study also revealed that the extent at which anxiety influences marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government Area is high. And the factors which enhances marital satisfaction include; effective communication, admiration and praises, sexual satisfaction, and forbearance/unconditional love. Therefore, it is recommended that a curriculum that addresses factors that contribute to marital satisfaction should be developed for educating young people, dating couples, engaged couples, and married couples. One way of doing this is to have a partnership with Educational and Family Ministries departments and institutions of higher education in an effort to develop educational materials on conflict resolution skills for use in schools and churches. Another approach by these two departments could be to work together in developing appropriate family life materials for use in local religious institutes in an effort to prepare young people for marriage, as well as to nurture existing marriages within each local church. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Marital Satisfaction is sought or expected by most married individuals. Unfortunately, the U.S. bureau of census in 1992 reported that 52% marriages end up in divorce indicating its absence (Forwers, Montel, & Olson, 1996). This fact, alongside others, has caused an increase in research on factors influencing marital satisfaction. Marital satisfaction is often characterized by strong free-flowing communication abilities and visibly deep satisfaction as per affection, sexuality, shared time and finances (Fowers, Montel & Olson, 1996). Since the Igbos of Nigeria are mainly patriarchal, marriage is deemed an indispensable factor for the continuation of the family and line of descent. Children occupy the centre stage in Igbo marriages. Thus the first and foremost consideration is the fertility of the couple (Obi, 1970). The absence of children or a child in an Igbo family indicates a fearful end of the family or generation and as such a weak, faint or sometimes a total lack of marital satisfaction. Again, research has shown that retirement may contribute to marital satisfaction by reducing other commitments, role conflicts, and time constraints and by increasing opportunity for companionship. At this point, the level of affection for one another is also highest in older marriage (Carstensen, Gottman, & Levenson, 1995). Hence, work demands and loads when improperly managed, kick against marital satisfaction.

It is evident in Nigeria that men and women have different concepts of marital satisfaction and the social support that is exchanged in the marriage. For instance, in Nigeria, males generally view marriage as an institution of lordship over the opposite sex who ought to be seen and not heard. Here, a typical Igbo married man believes that his wife is subject to his authority irrespective of her belief, opinions, feelings, and even academic background (Unamba, 2010). He believes that a wife is his property and as such a part of his possessions rather than a partner. He also believes that a woman’s place is in the kitchen thus; her contributions are of little or no importance to him. The woman on the other hand tends to accept her place as described by the opposite sex as she believes it is the best option for her to preserve her matrimonial status even at the expense of her happiness (Osita-Njoku & Uwaoma, 2001).

Self concept is a concept of personality and its original definition by James (1983) presents it as a ratio found by dividing one’s successes in areas of life of importance to a given individual by the failures in them. The problem with this definition is that of inherent insatiability because failure can occur at any moment. In psychology, self concept reflects a person’s overall evaluation or appraisal of his or her own worth. Psychologists usually regard self concept as an enduring personality characteristic (trait), though normal short term variations (state self concept) occur. People confuse the boost to resulting from successes with true human needs such as learning, mutually supportive relationship, autonomy and safety (Corker & Nuer, 2004; Croker & Park, 2004). Croker’s research in 2004 claims that people do not seek self concept but basic human needs, and that the contingencies on which they base their self concept has importance than the level of self concept. With regard to our study and of course, a special interest to the Igbos’ marital satisfaction, self concept seems to play a major role.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Observations of recent happenings within the Igbo society have shown increasing breakdowns in marriages among the Igbos of Nigeria. Divorces and separations seem to be on the rise. Several factors could be ascribed for this development. However, the lack of marital satisfaction seem to top the mark. Though a lot of efforts seem to have been put in by the society and religious groups to ameliorate this family problem, there is still the need to study some psychological variables suspected to be fuelling breakdowns in marriages among the Igbos of Nigeria. One variable of interest in this area of study is the self concept of the individual couple. self concept have been found to be a determinant of a couple’s marital satisfaction (Çağla, 2004) with higher self concept being associated with greater marital satisfaction (Yadalijamaloye, Naseri, Shoshtari , Khaledian, & Ahrami, 2013). However there is a paucity of studies to confirm these findings among the Igbo couples in Gokana Local Government Area of Rivers State; hence the need to undetake this study. Also, the influence of gender on marital satisfaction has not received adequate empirical research. Researchers agree that the influences of sex (i.e. male and female) and gender roles (i.e. maleness and femaleness) have been largely ignored in the explanation of marriage despite evidence in the literature that point to differences in marital satisfaction for men and women (Afolabi, 2014; Johnson & Lebow, 2000). Therefore it is essential to undertake a study on the influence of gender on marital satisfaction among couples residing in Gokana Local Government Area of Rivers State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine self-concept, anxiety and marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government Area Of Rivers State: implication for counselling.

Specific objectives of this study are:

  1. To investigate whether self-concept influences marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government Area Of Rivers State.
  2. To investigate whether anxiety influences marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government Area Of Rivers State.
  3. To determine whether counselling influences marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government Area of Rivers State.
  4. Identify the factors which enhances marital satisfaction.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions will be answered in this study:

  1. Does self-concept influence marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government Area Of Rivers State?
  2. Does anxiety influence marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government Area Of Rivers State?
  3. Does counselling influence marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government Area Of Rivers State?
  4. What are the factors which enhances marital satisfaction?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses will validate this study:

  • H01: Self-concept does not influence marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government Area Of Rivers State.
  • H02: Anxiety does not influence marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government Area Of Rivers State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study have significant implications that could assist in the development and improvement of marital satisfaction among couples in Gokana Local Government Area Of Rivers State and beyond.
Most importantly, individuals hoping to enter into marriages in the near future should make an extra effort to examine the level of self concept of their intended spouses. Where the proposed spouse is low on self concept, counselling and therapies should be suggested. By this way, self concept of the spouse could be improved upon. Also, the individuals planning to enter a new conjugal relationship should make effort to assess his/her level of self concept. If low, help should be sought. Second, Africans especially couples and intending couples should understand the gender influence on their marital satisfaction. Being male or female has no impact on marital satisfaction among couples. However, ones maleness or femaleness should not be allowed to weight down on ones effort to achieve a satisfactory marital life.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on self-concept, anxiety and marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government Area Of Rivers State: implication for counselling. Specifically, this study focuses on investigating whether self-concept influences marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government Area Of Rivers State, investigating whether anxiety influences marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government Area Of Rivers State and determining whether counselling influences marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government Area Of Rivers State. The respondents for this study will consist of couples in Gokana Local Government Area Of Rivers State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Self Concept:

An idea of the self constructed from the beliefs one holds about oneself and the responses of others.

Anxiety:

A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease about something with an uncertain outcome.

Marital Satisfaction:

Marital satisfaction can be defined as the attitude an individual has toward his or her own marital relationship.

Counselling:

The provision of professional assistance and guidance in resolving personal or psychological problems.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.0 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on self-concept, anxiety and marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government area of rivers state: implication for counselling. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was on self-concept, anxiety and marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government area of rivers state: implication for counselling. The study is was specifically carried out to investigate whether self-concept influences marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government Area Of Rivers State, investigate whether anxiety influences marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government Area Of Rivers State, determine whether counselling influences marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government Area Of Rivers State, and identify the factors which enhances marital satisfaction.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 85 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were couples in Gokana Local Government area of Rivers State.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The extent at which self-concept influences marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government Area is high.
  2. The extent at which anxiety influences marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government Area is high.
  3. The extent at which counselling influences marital satisfaction of couples in Gokana Local Government Area is high.
  4. The factors which enhances marital satisfaction include; effective communication, admiration and praises, sexual satisfaction, and forbearance/unconditional love.

5.3 Recommendation

With respect to the findings and the aim of this study, the researchers therefore recommend that;

  1. Partner intimacy for couples should be promoted within appropriate and approved settings due to the significant influence demonstrated in this research.
  2. A curriculum that addresses factors that contribute to marital satisfaction should be developed for educating young people, dating couples, engaged couples, and married couples. One way of doing this is to have a partnership with Educational and Family Ministries departments and institutions of higher education in an effort to develop educational materials on conflict resolution skills for use in schools and churches. Another approach by these two departments could be to work together in developing appropriate family life materials for use in local religious institutes in an effort to prepare young people for marriage, as well as to nurture existing marriages within each local church.
  3. Relevant governing authorities should ensure family life professionals are made available to provide the necessary educational interventions that are required to address these marital issues.

Get Complete Project Material

6,000 Naira

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦6,500 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($25)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Self-Concept, Anxiety And Marital Satisfaction Of Couples In Gokana Local Government Area Of Rivers State Implication For Counselling

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.