A Study On The Knowledge And Acceptance Of Men Towards Vasectomy As A Method Of Contraceptive Among Male Staff

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

A Study On The Knowledge And Acceptance Of Men Towards Vasectomy As A Method Of Contraceptive Among Male Staff


Abstract


This study was on the knowledge and acceptance on men towards vasectomy as a method of contraceptive among male staff at central hospital, Agbor150 questionnaires were administered and 120 were retrieved successfully and analysed. Closed ended structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the researcher to knowledge and acceptance on men towards vasectomy as a method of contraceptive. The data analysed were incorporated in frequency tables with their percentages after which the tables were elucidated on. 70 (58.33%) said they have heard of vasectomy while 50 (41.67%) has never heard of vasectomy before, 15 (12.5%) said they have thought of choosing vasectomy as a method of contraceptive while 105 (87.5%) did not accept it, 105 (87.5%) said their religious believe was not in support of it while 15 (12.50%) did not see anything wrong with vasectomy. The hypothetical statements was tested using chi-square and a level of significance of 0.05 with a theoretical value of 55.07 which was higher than the computed value which made the null hypothesis to be accepted . The data analyzed were compared with the empirical works for similarities and dissimilarities and reasons for dissimilarities were discussed. It was recommended that the hospital administration should organize seminar and workshop on vasectomy to enhance the knowledge of men on the acceptance of vasectomy as a method of contraceptive also the government should create more awareness on vasectomy via Mass media (Radio, Television, Newspaper).


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Nigeria is one of the most populated countries in Africa, with an estimated 165 million people as at 2014, and a total fertility rate of 5.5 (NPC and ICF international, 2014). With the current population growth rate, Nigeria is expected to double its population in the next two decades (United Nations, 2015). This comes with its attendant socio-economic challenges. Unfortunately, use of family planning methods remain low in the entire population as only 15% of currently married women aged 15 to 49 use any form of contraception and only 10% reported using a modern method (NPC, 2006 and ICF International, 2014). This is in spite of the existence of the national policy on population and sustainable development which encourages voluntary limitation of births to four children per woman as well as utilization of various family planning methods. The use of the two male-oriented contraceptive methods, the condom and vasectomy is low compared to the use of other methods, but it is slowly increasing in some countries (Ezegwui and Enwereji, 2009). In most countries, traditional methods that require male cooperation, the withdrawal and abstinence methods are also less utilised. Worldwide, condoms and vasectomy are among the least used of all the contraceptive methods (NPC and ICF International, 2014; Tolassa, 2004). Vasectomy is the only currently available method other than condoms that allows the man to take responsibility for preventing pregnancy (Kogan and Moshe, 2014). It is more common than female sterilization in only five countries of the world, namely:

Bhutan, Canada, the Netherlands, New Zealand and Great Britain. New Zealand has the highest vasectomy prevalence among married couples of reproductive age at 20% (Population Reference Bureau (PRB), 2008). World vasectomy use significantly varies by region and country; despite its many advantages, vasectomy is used in only a few countries, this includes China, India, Thailand, Korea, the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States. About three-fourth of the 37 million couples who use vasectomy live in Asia; China and India alone account for more than two-third of this number. In the other developing countries, only 4.5million men use vasectomy (UN, 2005). Inspite of the introduction of vasectomy in some African countries such as Ghana, Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania, vasectomy rates in all of Africa are still less than 0.1% (Tsai, 2011; Jacobstein and Pile, 2007). In many developing countries, men hold several misconceptions about vasectomy and the procedure is not widely available. Even if it is available and men have heard of it, many incorrectly believe that the procedure affects a man’s sexual functioning and weakens his strength. Vasectomy is a safe, cost effective and permanent method of contraception, but there are many factors that play a role in its relative lack of acceptance, such as socio-demographic factors, economic factors, low social support and inaccurate knowledge and belief about the procedure (Mahat et al., 2010). Incorrect information and unfounded fears often limit its use, even in countries where the procedure is readily available. In Nigeria, few studies have explored the perceptions of men towards vasectomy. Given the critical role that men play in family decisions; their support, involvement and understanding their reproductive intentions are essential for family planning to become more widespread. In addition, a growing number of family planning and other reproductive health care programmes and providers now understand that men deserve more attention for their own sakes, for women’s sake and for the health of their families and communities. There is currently no record of the number of male initiated contraceptive methods in Nigeria (NPC and ICF International, 2014). A strategy to promote men’s involvement in effective birth control is needed to reduce the population growth and to ameliorate the resultant health, social and economic challenges. Men’s participation in issues related to reproductive health especially family planning, is a promising strategy for addressing some of these pressing reproductive health problems (Akpamu et al., 2010). Furthermore, there is a dearth of information on the awareness and intention to adopt vasectomy. This research therefore sought to find out what the awareness of married men about vasectomy is, barriers to its uptake and intention to adopt it by married men, in typical indigenous Nigerian communities.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

For quite some time in Nigeria family planning has targeted women (Olawepo and Okedare, 2006) probably because of the need to free them from excessive childbearing, reduce maternal and infant mortality (Toure, 1996) and curb population growth. Yet the population growth rate is still an issue that needs public attention. While reports show men in developing countries to make most of the decisions regarding family formation (Bankole and Singh, 1998), research has also shown that men need information and want to be involved in reproductive matters (PIP. 1994). This opportunity can be taken to involve men and make male method of contraception utilized. Vasectomy or male sterilization is a method of contraceptive that involves incision, occlusion or excision of a portion of the vas deferens. Although safer, simpler, less expensive and equally as effective as female sterilization (Bob’s Blog, 2009), throughout the world, it is one of the least used and least known methods of contraception (Jacobstein and John, 2007). While female sterilization is twice as common as male sterilization in the developed world, in Asia, it is 8 times more common and in Latin America and the Caribbean it is 15 times more common (Bob’s Blog, 2007). The rates of male sterilization in sub-Saharan Africa are too low for an accurate comparison (Bob’s Blog, 2007). Worldwide tubal legation accounts for more than five times as many procedures as vasectomy (PRB. 2002). In Africa its prevalence is low and rarely exceeds 0.1% (Bunce et al, 2007) and has remained relatively stable throughout the past decade (Bob’s Blog, 2007). This study therefore investigates the level of knowledge and acceptance of vasectomy among male staff in an organization.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The Study aims to achieve the following underlisted objectives:

  1. To find out Vasectomy awareness level of Male staff in central hospital, Agbo.
  2. To determine the perception of vasectomy by male staff in Central Hospital, Agbo.
  3. To ascertain the challenges encountered by men in accepting or rejecting vasectomy.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The study will xray the perception of people (Male gender) towards vasectomy. This will in turn help policy makers to know the thought of nigerians towards this invention as such reduce or increase the sensitization on vasectomy. Furthermore, the study will provide a reference for further studies as it is a contribution to academic activities.


1.5 Research Questions

The study is guided by the following research questions:

  1. What is Vasectomy awareness level of the Male staff in Central Hospital, Agbo?
  2. How do the male staff in Central Hospital perceive vasectomy ?
  3. What are the challenges encountered by the male staff of Central Hospital in accepting or rejecting vasectomy?

1.6 Research Hypotheses

The study developed and formulated for testing, the following hypotheses:

H0: There is a low Vasectomy awareness level of the male staff in Central hospital, Agbo.

H0: There is a negative perception of vasectomy by the male staff of central hospital, Agbo.


1.7 The Study is Divided into Five Chapters.

Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to reiterate that the objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and acceptance of men towards vasectomy as a method of contraceptive among male staff. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in assessing the knowledge and acceptance of men towards vasectomy as a method of contraceptive among male staff.


5.2 Summary

This study was undertaken to assess the knowledge and acceptance of men towards vasectomy as a method of contraceptive among male staff. The study opened with chapter one where the statement of the problem was clearly defined. The study objectives and research hypotheses were defined and formulated respectively. The study reviewed related and relevant literatures. The chapter two gave the conceptual framework, empirical and theoretical studies. The third chapter described the methodology employed by the researcher in collecting both the primary and the secondary data. The research method employed here is the descriptive survey method. The study analyzed and presented the data collected in tables and tested the hypotheses using the t-test statistical tool. While the fifth chapter gives the study summary and conclusion.


5.3 Conclusion

Vasectomy as a permanent form of contraception. It is important for patients to understand that vasectomy is intended to be a permanent form of contraception. For this reason, the surgeon should be sure that the patient’s request for vasectomy is soundly reasoned and not made precipitously. Some states require a delay or cool-down period between signing a consent form for vasectomy and the surgical date. The experience of the Panel members is that almost all men who request vasectomy have given the procedure serious thought for months or years, making a cool-down period superfluous in most cases. Nevertheless, state requirements must be observed. Vasectomy does not produce immediate sterility. All patients have motile sperm in the ejaculate after vasectomy for some period of time. Other methods of contraception should be utilized until azoospermia or rare non-motile sperm (RNMS, ≤100,000 non-motile sperm/ mL) is achieved. The time from vasectomy to azoospermia or RNMS can vary from weeks to months based on multiple factors, including frequency of ejaculation, patient age, surgical technique and variations in the anatomy of the vasal ampullae and/or seminal vesicles.


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