An Investigation On The Utilization And Effects Of Contraceptives Among Female Secondary School Students In Okpanam Community, Delta State, Nigeria

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An Investigation On The Utilization And Effects Of Contraceptives Among Female Secondary School Students In Okpanam Community, Delta State, Nigeria


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

A contraceptive is used in an emergency situation as a method of contraception (more commonly known as the morning after pill). The contraceptive pill is engineered to act similarly to the female hormone progesterone, allowing for pregnancy prevention when taken for a sufficient amount of time (Onyeli, 2012). Contraceptives should generally be used no later than three days following unprotected intercourse. However, it has been shown to be more successful in situations when therapy began prior to the sexual contact (Mark, 2014). Contraception has the potential to drastically decrease unplanned pregnancies and unsafe abortions, particularly in Nigeria. Despite growing knowledge of contraception among educated young women in Nigeria, its use remains low. As a result, this research investigates the health consequences of contraceptives among female secondary school students.

Omeke (2013) found that adolescents perceived condom usage and abstinence to be the most effective strategies of avoiding unintended pregnancy. Many participants, on the other hand, were uninformed about emergency contraception. Adolescents often depended on untested and unusual methods of contraception such as Ampiclox, “Alabukun,” salt water solution, and lime and potash and believed they were helpful in preventing unintended pregnancies (Johnson, 2015). Zuchi (2013) discovered that respondents’ narratives about methods of preventing unwanted pregnancies revealed that a lack of information about emergency contraception, reliance on unproven crude contraceptive methods, and misconceptions about modern contraception all serve as barriers to emergency contraception use. Additionally, contraception is the practice of preventing pregnancy by the use of a medicine or device. It may be used in the aftermath of unprotected sexual contact, contraceptive failure, compelled unprotected sex, or in instances of sexual assault (Harzan, 2016). Worldwide, studies indicate that the prevalence of unintended pregnancy is quite high, and an undesired pregnancy is the primary reason women seek abortions. Contraception may be critical in reducing unintended pregnancies in areas where abortion is prohibited. However, based on the available research, emergency contraception has not been shown to have a population-level effect on the incidence of unwanted pregnancies (James, 2011, Kally, 2018, and Helnany, 2014). Numerous unintended pregnancies are terminated in both safe and harmful circumstances. Over half of unintended pregnancies in Nigeria are terminated in dangerous settings, resulting in fatalities and major complications. Abortion-related mortality is estimated to account for 8% of all maternal deaths worldwide. Regrettably, half of abortion-related death happens among young women in Nigeria, particularly those in secondary school. This obviously indicates that secondary school girls have a unique need for contraception as a demographic category.

The contraceptive’s health consequences must be investigated to see if it has a beneficial or detrimental impact on secondary school girls; when taken throughout the menstrual cycle, the preparation may suppress ovulation. The pill may alter a woman’s menstrual cycle. Your next period may begin sooner or later than anticipated, with a lighter or heavier flow than usual. It may produce nausea in roughly 25% of users, prompting them to vomit. It may also cause bleeding issues in certain circumstances, around 2-3 days after pill administration. It may sometimes result in breast soreness, headaches, dizziness, and tiredness (Odenna, 2014).

Gynecological exams are recommended in the event of persistent or excessive bleeding. If the user has a history of asthma, heart failure, hypertension, migraine, epilepsy, renal impairment, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, depression, or stroke, the product may be used only in certain emergency situations. It is not suitable for daily usage. Contraceptives, on the other hand, are quite harsh on young girls. The majority of secondary school girls may disregard the guidelines, which may have a detrimental effect on their health.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Female students worldwide are at risk of unintended pregnancies due to the ineffectiveness or non-use of contraceptives (Tsui, 2010). This may result in their incapacity to finish their education, to keep profitable job, or to make autonomous marital choices (Coetzee and Ngunyulu, 2015). Sexual behaviors among young students are a concern for the community, local government, and public health. These behaviors, particularly premarital sexual activities, seem to be rising in popularity among Nigerian students (Chimah et al., 2016), owing to reasons such as fast urbanization and increased exposure to social media (Mehra et al., 2012). As a consequence, adolescents are confronted with a variety of sexual and reproductive health issues. Sexually transmitted illnesses (STIs), particularly HIV, and adolescent and unintended pregnancies are prominent among them (Rose-Clarke) (2019). Likewise, Tunle (2015) said that abortion remains very contentious in Nigeria.

Nigeria has the lowest demand and usage of contraceptives among 15–19-year-olds, according to (Tsui, 2017). Notably, limited access to family planning services and unfavorable attitudes regarding teenage contraception usage among health care providers have contributed to adolescents’ high pregnancy rates (Radovich, 2018).

The purpose of this research was to determine the degree to which female secondary school students are aware of the usage and effects of contraceptives.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically investigate the utilization and effects of contraceptives among female secondary school students in Okpanam community, Delta State. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Ascertain the level female students awareness of the need for contraceptive.
  2. Ascertain the extent to which female students utilizes contraceptives.
  3. Ascertain whether negative attitudes of health workers influences the use of contraceptives among female students.
  4. Ascertain the level of female students knowledge of the implications of the use of contraceptives.

1.4 Research Question

This study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the level female students awareness of the need for contraceptive?
  2. What is the extent to which female students utilizes contraceptives?
  3. Does negative attitudes of health workers influence the use of contraceptives among female students?
  4. What is the level of female students knowledge of the implications of the use of contraceptives?

1.5 Significance of the Study

It is expected that the outcome of this study could encourage at the grass root level, creation of awareness on the use of contraceptives for young people.

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the utilization and effects of contraceptives among female secondary school students in Okpanam community, Delta State.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally investigate the utilization and effects of contraceptives among female secondary school students in Okpanam community, Delta State. However, the study will further ascertain the level female students awareness of the need for contraceptive, ascertain the extent to which female students utilizes contraceptives, ascertain whether negative attitudes of health workers influences the use of contraceptives among female students, and ascertain the level of female students knowledge of the implications of the use of contraceptives.

The participants will comprise female students in selected secondary schools in Okpanam community, Delta State.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Female:

Of or denoting the sex that can bear offspring or produce eggs, distinguished biologically by the production of gametes (ova) which can be fertilized by male gametes.

Contraceptive:

Hormonal and Barrier Contraception. There are about 15 different types of contraceptives which allow you to enjoy sex without the risk of getting pregnant. These birth control methods include: condoms, the diaphragm, the contraceptive pill, implants, IUDs (intrauterine devices), sterilization and the morning after pill.

Implication:

The conclusion that can be drawn from something although it is not explicitly stated.


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Frequently Asked Questions


Which methods of contraception are used by college students?

The most common methods of contraception used by the students were condoms (past users 70% and current users 81%), followed by combined OC pills and condoms (17%). Of those students who had used some method of contraception, 6% had used OC pills; however in the current user group about 9% were using OC pills.

What are the most commonly used contraceptives among the youth?

The most commonly used contraceptives were condoms, followed by combined use of OCP and condom. Conclusion The study highlights the need to motivate the youth for effective and appropriate use of contraceptives when required and arrest the trend towards unwanted pregnancy. Keywords: Family planning, contraception, knowledge, practice Özet Amaç

Does the reproductive attitude and behaviour of Indian teenagers affect reproductive health?

Because of the young age-structure of India’s population, the reproductive attitude and behaviour of teenagers are likely to have an important impact on overall reproductive health, demographic and social outcome. 

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