Attitudes Of Women Towards Utilization Of Modern Contraceptives

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)


Abstract


This study was carried out on attitudes of women towards utilization of modern contraceptives.There is no such socio-economic issue as graver and pressing than that of population growth. Thus to save the country from such graver problem, it is essential the population growth should be planned, well checked and people should see their health as paramount.

The objectives of this study are: to analyze the level of knowledge and practice of family planning especially the modern contraceptives by people in Nigeria with particular emphasis on Hausa community of Katsina-Ala L.G A. Benue state which is one of the populated community in Katsina –Ala L.G.A., examine the characteristic of contraceptives users, identified those factors that create hindrances to the practice of family planning especially the modern method of family planning, identify and discuss strategies that can be adopted to improve the use of modern contraceptive in Nigeria.

The research has the following significance:

  • To create more awareness and positive attitudes towards family planning especially the modern method and aid understanding on how the size of the family can be voluntarily controlled through the use of modern contraceptives.
  • The study was analyzed by taking a random sample of eighty (80) respondents in their reproductive age in Hausa community of Katsina-Ala LGA Benue State
  • Data was collected through primary and secondary data;
  • The research instrument used were questionnaire, personal observation and oral interview;
  • The analysis of data consist of simple tabulation on the background of showing frequencies and percentages.
  • The study confirms that the use of modern method of family planning is still very low in the study area.
  • Finally, conclusions and recommendations were made on the basis of the obtained result to enhance and facilitate the modern family planning practice in our contemporary society.

Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background Of The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
  • 1.3 Research Questions
  • 1.4 Research Objectives
  • 1.5 Significance Of The Study
  • 1.6 Scope Of The Study
  • 1.7 The Study Settings (Hausa Community In Katsina-Ala Lga Of Benue State)
  • 1.8 Definition Of Terms

Chapter Two:

Review Of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Definitions And Views About Family Planning By Some Authors
  • 2.3 Knowledge And Use Of Modern Contraceptives Among Hausas In Nigeria
  • 2.4 Various Methods Of Modern Contraceptives Family Planning, Modes Of Action, Advantages And Disadvantages
  • 2.5 Benefits Of Family Planning
  • 2.6 Factors Hindering The Use Of Modern Contraceptives
  • 2.7 Theoretical Framework On The Use Of Modern Contraceptives

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Population Of The Study
  • 3.4 Study Sample And Sampling Technique
  • 3.5 Methods Or Sources Of Data Collection
  • 3.6 Research Instrument
  • 3.7 Method Of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Problems Of Data Collection

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation And Analysis

  • 4.1 Personal Data Of Respondents
  • 4.2 Knowledge And Practice Of Family Planning
  • 4.3 Gender Decision Making/Spousal Communication On Family Planning
  • 4.4 Religion/Traditional Perceptives On Family Planning
  • 4.5 Discussion Of The Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

The rapid growth of world population in recent times has received wide spread attention especially in Africa where the highest crude-birth rates are found. The present population of Nigeria is between 90 and 100 million persons or perhaps even larger with the annual growth rate of 3.3% (Oni, 2006).

If the current population estimate is something to go by, much population analysis already regard Nigeria as being overpopulated. Based on the context, the federal government recently formulated a policy on the nation’s population. These include management and control of our human population with guided skills, goals, policies, plans, programmes and projects for the improvement of human quality (Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria, 2001).

High fertility rate and hence high population growth rate are among the major economic and social problems facing Nigeria. This is because the level of utilization of modern contraceptive in Nigeria is still very low although it has increased over the last decades from 3.5% to 8.6% (1990 and 1999 Demographic Health Survey; Nigeria National Population and Health Survey 2008:pp4).

It is also indicated that the level of contraceptive use among sexually active adolescent is particularly low contributing to the high level of teenage pregnancy, unsafe abortion and maternal mortality, among others. On the whole, the total demand for family planning (FP) is still relatively low as only 29% of women demanded for family planning in 1999 as shown by the National Demographic Health Survey (NDHS 2003). However, the level of unmet needs for family planning decreased from 21% to 13.3% between 1990 and 1999 (federal ministry of Health (Nigeria) 2003; Reproductive Health Survey, 2003, by federal Ministry of Health Abuja, Nigeria).

There is much concern over high morbidity and mortality associated with biological reproduction, such as material mortality and abortion related complications and death because Nigeria is reported to have one of the highest maternal mortality in the world, with figures ranging from 704 (FOS/ UNICEF, 2000) to1500 (UNFPA, 2002) maternal deaths per 100,000 live births (FGN 1986, 1990, UNICEF 1994, Ladipo 1989, Ante 1986, )

Utilization of modern contraceptives has been and is still an issue of much concerned on the international health agenda., the last two decades have witnessed a growing concern world-wide by policy makers, implementers and scholars to improve the utilization of modern contraceptives especially in the developing countries (World Health Organization, 1999; United Nations, 1996; Family care international, 1994; MDGs 2000).

The establishment of primary Health care as a cornerstone of Health Policy, coupled with the importance attached to the efforts to improve health services (family planning inclusive) at the community level and the efforts of National and International Organizations in the last decades, awareness and involvement in family planning service. An evidence of government end or segment of population programmed is the launching of National Population policy on 14th April 1989 (Funmi Adesokan , 2014. Pp 482-483).

Since then, Nigeria has made substantial effort at improving the health and lives of its people by building more health facilities and training more health personnel for health care service delivery but the available statistic shows that the reproductive health situation in Nigeria is still poor, with outstanding challenges in the areas of family planning, maternal mortality, adolescent reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections and gender based violence (NDHS,1999 PP.3). Other partners who have contributed significantly to reproductive health in Nigeria are the Pathfinder Internal Center for Development and Population Activities (PICDPA), Population Services International /Society for Health (PSI/SFH) Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria (PPFN) etc.

However, most of these efforts have been by various donor private sectors. Example of such donor agencies are:

  • United National Fund for Population Activates (UNFPA): They assist in reproductive Health and Family Planning
  • World Health Organization (WHO): Surveillance on Polio
  • Health System Development Project (HSDP): Assist in area of capacity building and civil works, equipment and remuneration.
  • Plan Parenthood Federation (PPF): Assist in Family Planning.
  • United State Agency for International Development (USAID): Assist in Reproductive Health and Family Planning.
  • Mac-Authur Foundation: Primary Donors. (FunmiAdesokan 2014:482- 483; Reproductive Health Nigeria, the enhance project June, 2005).

While family planning has benefited much from the donor agencies/Nigerian Government, much more is still expected in other to accord it the priority considerations it deserves at all levels of government.

The act of planning the family started back in America in 1912 by a Nurse called Margaret Sanger. In recent decades, health workers have come to recognize that apart from pure or safe water, healthy environment, and balance diet; family planning is an essential component of good health scheme and as unit in a health service which has been neglected to some extent by both individuals and their various communities. This has served as a leading factor towards high risk pregnancy, contributing to the high mortality rate of mothers and children (FGN 1986, 1990, UNICEF 1994, Ladipo 1989, Anate 1986).

High fertility is associated with high levels of material mortality, both because more pregnancies means more chances of pregnancy related deaths and because the risks of pregnancy and child birth increase after the third child. And yet in many communities in Nigeria there is still a strong pressure on women to bear many children despite the risk (family care international, 1991).

The world Health Organization (WHO, 1997) defines family planning as “a way of thinking and living that is adopted voluntarily upon the bases of knowledge, attitude and responsible decision by individuals and couples in order to promote health and welfare of the family, group and thus contribute effectively to the social development of the country” (National Training Manual on Family Planning (NTMFP), 2004: pp 31).

Family Planning was further defined to mean the action by individual and couples to plan the numbers; training and spacing of children that they want in order to promote the health and welfare of the family (G.O. Sofoluwa, 1986).
Although Nigeria is rich in human and national resources it is currently ranked among the 13 poorest countries in the world nearly 66% of Nigerians live below the poverty line. This high level of poverty especially among the rural population which further limits access to quality health care and other basic (Reproduction Health Nigeria, June 2005).

Furthermore looking at the high fertility rate of Nigerian woman which is 5.7 birth per women though it varies from zone to zone, we are mostly concerned with the high material and child mortality rate as indicated by Nigerian Demographic Health Survey (NDH) 2003, which shows that on woman dies every 10 minutes and about 54,000 women die every year due to complication related to pregnancy and child birth (Reproductive Health survey, 2003; Reproductive Health Nigeria, the enhance project June,2005).

National policy on population for sustainable Development and Self Reliance Principle 3 stated everyone has the right to the enjoyment of highest attainable standard of physical mental health including family planning (National Training Manual on Family planning (NTMFP), 2014:pp. 22).

There exist several types of family planning methods which fall under modern, traditional and Natural methods. This research work will be focused on modern contraceptives use in Nigeria with particular emphasis on Hausa commonly in Katsina-Ala LGA Benue state. This is because a number of factors have contributed to the non utilization of the modern contraceptives which could be educational, religion, economy, Traditional beliefs etc.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Nigeria has one of the fastest growing populations in the World (2.9% in a year). In 1963 the population of Nigeria was fifty-six million people (56 million) and over the years it has more than doubled its population which is alarming to meets its political, economic and social development of its citizenry. The present population of Nigeria is one hundred and sixty seven million according to national population commission (2011). The current fertility rate is 5.7 children per woman, Nigerian’s population will double even faster reaching 225 million people in just twenty one years (21 years). Low utilization of modern contraceptives is one of the key determinants of high fertility in Nigeria (NDHS 2008:7; Population studies on population and quality of life, 2004:7).

The percentage of couples and child bearing age who are actually practicing family planning (Modern contraceptives) is often much smaller just as it is in Hausa community Katsina-Ala LGA Benue state, the study area. One reason for the gap between modern contraceptives use is that people are not very familiar with the different types of modern contraceptives methods of family planning, the less utilization of the modern methods also has to do with the way they perceived it and what their ways of life really is. It has to do with their beliefs or values.

Majority people in Hausa community Kastina – Ala Local Government Area do not have enough information’s concerning modern contraceptives such as hormonal, Barrier methods etc. Few people who have been using modern family planning methods are worried by rumours about side effects, complications, perhaps due to lack of adequate information about modern contraceptives.

Sadder still, men in the study area are not always involved in family planning practices or services because they felt that, it is for woman only hence, desired response and results on the issue increases the level of challenge in this regard.


1.3 Research Questions

  1. How does lack of knowledge on modern contraceptives methods of family planning affect its utilization in the area of study?
  2. What is the impact of services providers and facilities on the implementation of family planning programmed?
  3. What is the relationship between inadequate preferred family planning commodities and low responses to its utilization in the area of the study?
  4. How does traditional and religious believe on utilization of modern contraceptives affects its utilization in the area of study?
  5. What step has been taken by the government to improve the utilization of modern contraceptives?

1.4 Research Objectives

The general purpose of this study is to examine the attitudes of women towards utilization of modern contraceptives in Nigeria.

Specifically, the study seeks to;

  1. Assess the impacts of modern contraceptives on Hausa community in Katsina Ala Local Government Area of Benue State.
  2. To examine the factors that is hindering the use of modern contraceptives.
  3. Assess the role of government in promoting the use of modern contraceptives in Hausa community in Katsina Ala LGA of Benue State.
  4. Identify and discuss strategies that can be adopted to improve the use of modern contraceptives in Nigeria.
  5. To recommend possible solutions that will be taken to improve the use of modern contraceptives.

1.5 Significance Of The Study

In recent times, many authors, writers and Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs), have contributed a lot on the issue / subject matters on discussion, but the truth is that it seems their effort are yielding no success at all in Nigeria because of the alarming increase in birth rate.

For the purpose of better planning, the situation needs to be readdressed or revise to find out why the available modern contraceptives are not making passive impact on most woman in Nigeria. The researcher a trained social worker has taken it as a burden to rescue, advocate, sensitize, preponderate occurrence in child birth through modern contraceptives use of family planning and also educate women in accessing quality family planning services (preventive & Curative).

The project work is therefore set out to investigate and examine the use of modern contraceptives in Nigeria with particular emphasis on Hausa community in Katsina-Ala Local Government Area in Benue state. Perhaps there are factors that are militating against the use of modern contraceptives in the area of study if properly investigated.

This study is very important because its result would be useful for government policy making in regard to couples reproductive health right. The result of this study will expose and enlightens couples on the usage and importance of various modern contraceptive types. More so, it will pave or open ways for other scholars who want to carryout research study related to this topic and will contribute to the knowledge and the growing literature in this area of study.


1.6 Scope Of The Study

This research work covers Hausa community in the Township ward of Katsina Ala Local Government Area of Benue State. It covers the use of modern conceptive in Nigeria, specifically in Hausa community Katsina Ala Local Government Area Benue State. The study therefore examines the effect of modern contraceptives on people with emphasis on Hausa community and the factors that creates unfavorable environment for the usage of modern contraceptives will be identified and suggestions on the improvement of the usage will be recommended.


1.7 The Study Settings

(Hausa Community in Katsina-Ala LGA of Benue State)

Geographical Location:

Katsina Ala Township is the headquarters of Katsina Ala Local Government Area of Benue State. Hausa community which is the specific area of study is situated in Katsina Ala Township.

Location:

Hausa community is located in the Western part of Katsina Ala Township ward Benue State.

Boundaries:

Hausa community is bounded by River Katsina Ala at the Western side, by Ikurav – Tiev I community by the northern side by Etulo community by the Southern side by Abaver community at the Western side. All these boundaries are within Katsina Ala Township District.

Population:

The Hausa community in Katsina Ala Local Government Area has estimated population of 5,375 people according to National Population Project 2003.

Health Facility:

The Hausa community has one local government comprehensive health centre located within the community. There is no private health centre situated in the community.

Social Amenities:

The community has very poor housing environment, few primary educational facilities, poor streets, portable water.

Religious Belief:

Majority in the Hausa community in Katsina Ala Township are Muslims, only few are Christians and Pagans.

Occupation:

Most of the inhabitants are jobless few are petty traders and farmers.


1.8 Definition Of Terms

Any academic discipline has specific words that are associated with it. When terms are used literally many convey different meaning from their professional usage. For this reason it has become imperative for one to define the following words for clear understanding of the content in which they are used.

Family Planning:

This term refers to the use of contraceptives to space or limit the number of children.

Modern Family Planning:

The use of manmade contraceptives to space or limit the number of children.

Traditional Family Planning:

It is a family planning practice by the use of native herbs based on the individual culture.

Fertilization:

The impregnation of an ovum by spermatozoa.

Ova:

The female reproductive cell.

Spermatozoa:

The mature male reproductive cell.

Sterilization:

Rendering incapable of reproduction.

Vasectomy:

Surgical incision of part of the vas deference in male, usually for sterilization.

Tuberligation:

Tying off the fallopian tubes usually for sterilization in females.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This research project was primarily carried out to examine the use of modern contraceptives in Hausa community of Katsina-Ala Local government Area of Benue State. To achieve results a number of questionnaires was used to get information from the respondents, observations and personal interviews was held by the researcher .this chapter presents the summary of the research findings, drew up conclusions and possible recommendations of the research work.


5.2 Summary

Looking at the recent population increase in Nigeria as reported by 2006 census with the record of 140 million people and the implications to this increase, if not checked, will lead to more social problems to the existing ones. The situation keeps increasing as birth rate keeps increasing with the instability of the nation’s economic situation, hunger of people, armed robbery. Poverty is on the increase, people will keep producing children without any means of providing them with the basic amenities to life. Thus, there is also an increase rate in juvenile delinquency, theft. Also economic instability will also give rise to political instability. People who have will keep having because of greed; there will be no equality and equity of people before the law. Based on all these issues, the researcher took it as a matter of fact to investigate on the use of modern contraceptives in Nigeria “a case study of Hausa community in Katsina-Ala Local Government Area of Benue State to enable the researcher make possible recommendations that if well addressed will be a solution to the issue of discussion.

The background to this research work was given with detailed information of family planning, followed by research problems which states the major reasons why the phenomenon has to be discussed on, research aims and objectives were also discussed such as modern family planning contraceptives use including the factors that are hindering its’ utilization and factors that can promote the use of these methods and others and also the significance of the study which showed the need to carry out research work while the scope of study reflects the coverage area of research and the historical background of the coverage area. Furthermore, the literature review treated issues like definitions’ and others views on family planning. It further reviews related literature, theoretical framework with their detail information and finally the importance of family planning to enable us understand the subject matter. More so, research design, methodology of data collection were analyzed the various terms used in the chapter were defined, such as research methodology, research design, population of study, study sample, and sampling techniques, method of data collection, research instrument, method of data analysis and problems in data collection or limitations then finally presentation of data and discussion of findings.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study the following conclusions were made:-

  1. That lack of knowledge on modern contraceptive methods of family planning is responsible for the non utilization of the method by most people in the area of study.
  2. Shortage of family planning facilities, commodities and service providers (trained) are responsible for the failure in the implementation of family planning programmed in the rural communities and area of study.
  3. Inadequate preferred modern contraceptives commodities in health facilities are responsible for the less patronage to modern contraceptives.
  4. Traditional and religious values are also contributing factors to the non utilization of modern contraceptive method of family planning by some people.
  5. Lack of family planning clinics and health campaigns in the study area is responsible for increased maternal and child health problems.
  6. No significant role is played by government in assessing and improving the use of modern contraceptives by providing a policy framework for people to control their birth.
  7. Poor spousal communication which is related to gendered incentives that the married couples have to keep having children contribute to the non acceptance of modern family planning method.
  8. Male physically involvement in the utilization of family planning methods is very poor in the study area.

5.4 Recommendations

From the findings of this study, I strongly recommend that social workers with other health personnel should encourage effective communication in the area of reproductive health which concerning couples in their child bearing age and number of children to have.

1. Public Education

Some of the steps to increase the availability and acceptability of modern method of family planning is to increase information, education and communication activities .Family planning providers should use all available channels including mass media, schools, health facilities ,groups and many others is to inform and educate both men and women about reproductive health problems and the contribution of modern family planning to health and development. In Africa, because of the numerous local dialects, it is often difficult to convey family planning massages over the radio and so because of this reason the providers should use illustrated book, family planning songs and dances effectively to convey massages to the non literate population.

2. Provision of More Family Planning Clinics

The community/government should set out more family planning clinics which will help to motivate the clients, more as the cost of transportation to the available clinics is exorbitant.

3. Trainings

The government should train more skillful family planning providers in reproductive health care in order to improve modern family planning program me .Regional training and refresher courses in modern method of family planning including voluntary surgical contraception. Reproductive health training should be integrated into maternal and child health also family planning should be an integral part of the training.

4. Commodities

The health authorities should look into the problem of inadequacy of commodities by supplying according to demands of the clients. The providers should try as much as possible to make the clients to be satisfied with the services given because satisfaction plays a key role in increasing the acceptance of modern family planning.

5. Other services

Other services like laboratory services should be attached to family planning clinics for various lab examinations.

6. Other Recommendation

In order to promote spousal contraceptive communication in and outside the study area, new norms or gender relations are needed to be taking into consideration.

7. Other Recommendation (2)

Men should be motivated to get fully involved in family planning programs by stressing its benefits to them as they are providers for their families. They should be referred to their roles as stated in the National Policy on Population.


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