Influence Of Domestic Violence On Family Relationship Among Couples

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Influence Of Domestic Violence On Family Relationship Among Couples


Abstract


The study examined the influence of domestic violence on family relationship among couples in Oshodi/Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State. The population of the study comprised all he registered married couples in Oshodi Lagos State from 2010-2015. 500 respondents made up 250 couples were used as sample. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire entitled: Domestic Violence Question (DVQ) five research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The research questions were answered using person product moment correlation while regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results obtained showed that Nigerian couples are faced with different types of domestic violence which are: physical violence, psychological violence and sexual violence; age of the couples and their employment status were the socio-demographic factors that significantly correlate with domestic violence among couples and that gender and educational status did not correlate with domestic violence significantly. Based on the findings, recommendations for implementation include organization confirming marriages such as families, religious groups, hospitals, courts etc., ensuring that their clients pass through marital counselling with professional marriage counsellors among others.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Domestic abuse is a problem that is entrenched in many society across the globe and Nigeria is not exception. Research in this area has shown that this type of violence has touched the lives of many Nigerian couples. Although societal awareness and condemnation of the issue has increased in recent years. Domestic violence remain a hidden and persistent problem because of the power and control held by the abuser, the fear, intimidation and humiliation suffered by the victim of this crime.

The oldest and most prevalent institution in the world today is the marriage institution. In all culture, there is a particular sanctity attached to this institution, so much that it is particularly considered to be a building block of any society.

The pivotal position of marriage has made domestic violence a subject of interest to various disciplines, government, religious sects and professional associations.

American Psychological Association (APA) (1996) defined domestic violence as a pattern of abusive behaviour including a wide range of physical, sexual, and psychological maltreatment used by a person in an intimate relationship against another to gain power unfairly or to maintain that person misuse of power, control and authority. If the abuse between intimate partners in which one person tries to control the other person through violence. Domestic violence is other wise called spousal abuse.

The role of spouse in family relationship is significant, such that some people have acclaimed it to the power of surviving family adjustment. However, this role has its own problems. some spouses have been found to be abused in various forms, ranging from sexual to financial abuse and communicative abuse. All these have implication on family relationship.

Domestic violence occurs in traditional heterosexual marriages, as well as in some sexual partnership. The abuse may occur during a relationship, while the couple is breakup, or after the relationship has ended. The key elements of domestic violence are: intimidation, humiliation and physical injury. Going by the definition of domestic violence couples engage in it to control the other partner and keep him/her from departing or quitting the relationship.

A critical look at the definition of domestic violence will reveal that they assume the dimension of portraying women as the victims bearing the brunt, while men are seen perpetrators.

This could be as a result of the widely held beliefs that women are the weaker sex while men are by right, the head of the family that must be obeyed.

Nigeria as a country has her own fair share of domestic violence, which could be seen in the rate of divorce, separation and marital dishonesty in the country.

According to Ajila (2000) in his study on wife beating in western Nigeria, it was found that 32% of women indicated that they have experienced abuse, 21% believe strongly that wives should be beaten while 72% believe that wives should be beaten once in a while.

Bakare (1986) identified marital conflict to exist along a particular continuum which are:

  1. Occasional verbal quarrels
  2. Frequent verbal quarrels
  3. Occasional physiological quarrel
  4. Frequent physical quarrel
  5. Psychological separation
  6. Physical separation
  7. Divorce

A close look at this shows that a particular couple is expected to go through the whole stages, but it is not necessarily so in all situations. Some couples get to the divorce stage without going through physical quarrels and physical separation, while some resolve the conflict completely before it gets to divorce stage.

Researchers indicated domestic violence, through prevalent in Nigeria is still largely under reported, if reported at all. The causes of domestic violence can be seen in two broad categories.

The traditional causes are those factors that are commonly seen and discussed as leading to fighting among couples. They are immediate causes that can be pin pointed as leading to violence in the home. These include, among others, sex role, sexual dissatisfaction and infidelity, ego message, feeling of staying control, income petibility, religion conflict, alcohol consumption, money matters, childlessness, influence of inlaws etc.

Secondly contemporary causes of domestic violence are those underlying remote factors that are not easily seen or implicated, yet they influence violence behaviour in marital relationship.

Domestic violence has now become a common phenomenon. It should be noted here that as husbands abuse their wives so also wives abuse their husbands (Steinmetz, 1977). It is only the degree that varies.

The question then is how well has domestic violence or abuse has been able to achieve its end going by the high rate of family discord, divorce, separation etc experienced today?

Base on the above picture, the study is to determine the influence domestic violence on family relationship among couple in Oshodi Local Government Area of Lagos State.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Domestic violence has being a thorn on the lives of most families in Oshodi local government area of Lagos, the federal government of Nigeria has always kicked against domestic violence; if domestic violence is not being controlled at the early stage, this can grow to become a major crises in Nigeria. The federal governments of Nigeria, families, friends are looking for a way out of this situation in most of the local areas in Nigeria. Most parents do not start at the early stage to correct these issues until it goes out of control


1.3 Aims and Objectives of Study

The aims of the research work are to find out:

  1. The roles of parents in the resolution of domestic violence in Oshodi.
  2. The major causes of domestic violence in Oshodi
  3. The effect of domestic violence on the socio-economic development of Nigeria.
  4. The role of the federal government intervention on the issue of domestic violence in Nigeria.
  5. If education help to reduce the effect of domestic violence.
  6. If the family background have any significant effect on domestic violence in Oshodi.
  7. The effect of high level of poverty on the level of domestic violence in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Question

  1. What are the roles of parents in the resolution of domestic violence in Oshodi?
  2. What could be the major causes of domestic violence in Oshodi?
  3. Does domestic violence have any significant effect on the socio-economic development of Nigeria?
  4. Does the federal government intervention on the issue of domestic violence have any significant effect on the level of crises in Nigeria?
  5. Does education help to reduce the effect of domestic violence?
  6. Does the family background have any significant effect on domestic violence in Oshodi?
  7. Could high rate of poverty in this area be the major causes of violence in Oshodi?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  1. H0: There is no mean difference in gender responses of the respondents that high rate of poverty in Oshodi is the major cause of domestic violence
    H1: There is mean difference in gender responses of the respondents that high rate of poverty in Oshodi is the major cause of domestic violence
  2. H0: Domestic violence does not have significant effect on the socio-economic development of Nigeria
    H1: Domestic violence has significant effect on the socio-economic development of Nigeria
  3. H0: The family background does not have significant effect on level of domestic violence in Oshodi
    H1: The family background has significant effect on level of domestic violence in Oshodi

1.6 Significance of Study

The research work is an interesting one; as it will discuss in detail the origin of domestic violence in Oshodi, the best way to eradicate domestic violence in this area of Lagos; the research work will discuss the effect of domestic violence on the socio-economic development of Nigeria and the roles of education in the resolution of domestic violence in Oshodi.


1.7 Scope of Study

This study basically covered married couples in Oshodi Local Government Area of Lagos. Oshodi Local Government Area of Lagos is predominantly the commercial nerve centre of the state with all its inhabitants from all social classes of the Nigerian economy.


1.8 Limitation of Study

Financial Constraints:

The researcher was unable to go to all the areas of Oshodi; but he was able to get all the information needed for the purpose of the research work from the responses of the respondents in Oshodi, Lagos

Times Constraints:

The research was involved in other departmental activities like attending lectures, doing other assignments, but the research was able to meet up with the time given for the submission of the research work.


1.9 Definition of Terms

1. Domestic Violence:

Domestic violence which is otherwise refer to as spousal abuse is described as when adults in a relationship misuse power to control another whereas such establishment of control in the relationship is through violence and other form of abuse. It is also defined as a pattern of abusive behaviour including a wide range of physical sexual and psychological maltreatment used by one person in an intimate relationship against another to gain power unfairly or to maintain the person misuse of power, control and authority.

2. Family Relationship:

This is defined as the relationship of trust, love and care existing between couples who have agreed to co-exist as husband and wife. It is the foundation or bedrock of all other societal relationship. Family relationship is expected to last till death do couples part.


Chapter Five


Summary of Findings, Implications, Conclusion and Recommendations

The focus of this chapter is on the summary of findings, conclusion, and recommendations.


5.1 Summary of Findings

The study was conducted to investigate the causes and effects of domestic violence in Oshodi Lagos State, Nigeria. Correlational design was used in the study with the population of all the registered couples in Oshodi Lagos State, Nigeria from 2010-2015. The sample of the study was 500 couples from the study area. The sample was selected through a multi-stage sampling procedure. The instrument for data collection was entitled: Domestic Violence Questionnaire (DVQ) developed by the researcher. The instrument was validated by one expert in Guidance and Counselling, one in Educational Psychology, and one in Measurement and Evaluation and yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.80. The data for the study was collected through direct delivery and retrieval of the questionnaires to the couples. Pearson product moment correlation was used to answer the research questions, while regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses.

The results obtained showed that Nigerian couples are faced with three different types of domestic violence which are: physical violence, psychological violence and sexual violence; age of the couples and their employment status were the socio-demographic factors that significantly correlate with domestic violence among couples; and that gender and educational status did not correlate with domestic violence significantly.


5.2 Conclusion

The increasing rate of domestic violence in Nigeria has ignited researches that geared toward finding out the possible correlates of the menace. Unfortunately, the researches recorded so far are full of inconsistent results. However, the current study demonstrated that Nigerian couples are faced with three different types of domestic violence which are: physical violence, psychological violence and sexual violence. The study has established that, in these three types of domestic violence, the age of the couples and their employment status were the socio-demographic factors that significantly correlate with intimate partner violence among couples. Other factors like gender and educational status did not correlate with domestic violence significantly. Thus, based on this conclusion, the implications, recommendations and suggestions for further study are therefore drawn in this study based on this conclusion.


5.3 Recommendations

  1. Couples should cooperate with each other to ensure that physical, psychological and sexual needs of each partner in the marriage are achieved. In other words, each partner should play his or her role effectively to make sure the other partner meet his or her physical, psychological and sexual needs.
  2. Couples should upgrade each partner’s educational status instead of criticizing it. They should not allow low or high statuses of education to cripple their marriages since educational status does not correlate with intimate partner violence.
  3. Age should be taken into consideration by the intending couples before they reach the final decision to marry. Intending couples should establish satisfaction with each partners’ age and the satisfaction be maintained through the marriage.
  4. The role of each gender in the marriage should be clearly specified and followed. This is because, even though gender does not correlate significantly with DV, there might be tendency that if the couples are not performing their roles effectively they will experience the menace.
  5. The couples should always appreciate each partner’s employment status and in case of any dissatisfaction, they should work together to upgrade the status. Also, intending couples should establish satisfaction with their employment status before they reach the final decision to marry.
  6. Pre-marital and marital counselling should be provided to students in secondary schools and high institutions.
  7. Marriage seminars and workshops should be organized in strategic positions for both married and unmarried individuals.
  8. Every organization that confirms marriages such as families, religious groups, hospitals, courts etc. should ensure that their clients pass through marital counselling with professional marriage counsellors.

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