The Impact Of Employees Absenteeism On Performance Of Local Government Workers

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The Impact Of Employees Absenteeism On Performance Of Local Government Workers


The purpose of this study was to make an assessment on the impact of workers absenteeism on performance in Ado-Odo LGA. This concern has been studied within several working areas and departments of the Ado-Odo LGA both at the headquarters and in other places like the ward level as well as villages in the governmental subdivisions. The objective of these case studies was to find out the genuine effects and possible recommendations that could be helpful to the local government authorities for their performance and good services provision. In this study Qualitative (interviews) was utilized to collect data and then data was analyzed. Workers absenteeism is a costly problem in most of the government authorities especially in the Local government authorities in Nigeria. Absenteeism costs huge amount of money for replacements, where by additional costs are incurred through new employees that are needed to replace the absent workers. The impact of workers absenteeism has not been given considerable attention by human resources professionals in Local government authorities in Nigeria. This research is valuable since it helps to understand the impacts of absenteeism consequently come up with the suggestions on how to reduce or deal with the problem. The study has found that excessive work load for remaining staff, delay in daily routine, poor customer’s satisfaction and complaints from the society are some of the impact of absenteeism. Hence, the management should take necessary steps to correct deficiencies in various institutions and fulfill the needs of workers which will enhance their satisfaction and motivation and thereby improve retention of the employees so as to provide quality care and services to the society.

Table of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.2 Background to the Study
  • 1.3 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.4 Objective
  • 1.5 Research question
  • 1.6 Hypothesis
  • 1.7 Significance of the Study
  • 1.8 Scope of the Study
  • 1.9 Delimitation of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 The history of Absenteeism
  • 2.2 The conception of Absenteeism
  • 2.2.1 Blameless or Innocent Absenteeism
  • 2.2.2 Culpable or Blameworthy Absenteeism
  • 2.3 Theories Relevant to Absenteeism
  • 2.3.1 Psychological Theory
  • 2.3.2 Sociological Theory
  • 2.3.3 Economic Theory
  • 2.3.4 Attribution Theory
  • 2.3.5 Equity Theory
  • 2.3.6 Nicholson’s “Attachment” Theory on Absenteeism
  • 2.4 Timing, Measurement and Length of Absence
  • 2.4.1 Short-term absence
  • 2.4.2 Medium-Term Absence
  • 2.4.3 Long-Term Absence
  • 2.5 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.6 Research Gaps
  • 2.7 Summary

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Study Population
  • 3.4 The Sample Size
  • 3.4.1 Sampling Technique
  • 3.4.2 Random Sampling
  • 3.4.3 Purposive Sampling
  • 3.5 Data Collection Tools
  • 3.5.1 The Interview as a Tool in Research
  • 3.5.2 Characteristics of Interview
  • 3.5.3 The Reason for Using Interview
  • 3.5.4 Document Review as a Data Collection Tool
  • 3.5.5 The Reason for Using Document Review
  • 3.6 Data Analyzing Procedure
  • 3.6.1 Methods of Data Analysis
  • 3.7 Qualitative Validity
  • 3.7.1 Credibility
  • 3.7.2 Transferability
  • 3.7.3 Dependability
  • 3.7.4 Confirmability
  • 3.8 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four

4.0 Findings / Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Profile of Respondents
  • 4.1.1 Gender of Respondents
  • 4.1.2 The Designation of Respondents
  • 4.1.3 Years Respondents have been working in Ado-Odo LGA
  • 4.1.4 Respondent’s Educational Qualifications
  • 4.2 Findings and Discussion of the Research Objectives
  • 4.2.1 Absenteeism rate at Ado-Odo LGA
  • 4.2.2 Reasons for Absence of Workers In Their Jobs
  • 4.2.3 Consequences of Employees’ Absenteeism
  • 4.2.4 Disciplinary actions taken by the management to reduce absenteeism of employees
  • 4.3 Supervisors Competence on Management Issues
  • 4.4 Measures to Reduce Absenteeism

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusions and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations / Suggestions
  • 5.3 Directions for Future Study
  • References
  • Appendices

Chapter One


1.1 Background to the Study

Organizations over the years have sought means of improving employee resource management particular with the interest of reducing the employee work absenteeism and to maintain low level of employee turnover in manufacturing industry. Employee motivation, shift work system, team work and other means of enhancing employee happiness and job satisfaction have been applied by management to reduce employee absenteeism and labour turnover to improve overall organizational performance. However, despite the awareness of the adverse effect of absenteeism on overall organizational productivity and performance, the level of absenteeism tend to remain high in Nigerian, especially in the public sector.

Cascio (2003), defined absenteeism as any failure of an employee to report for or remain at work as scheduled, regardless of reason, expresses a monitory implication. The term ‘as scheduled’ is every significant, for this automatically excludes vacations, holidays, jury duty and the like. It also eliminates the problem of determining whether the absenteeism is excusable or not. Medically verified illness is a good example. From a business perspective, the employee is absent and is simply not available to perform his or her job, which means the absenteeism will cost money.Tiwari (2014) defined absenteeism as absence of workers from the regular work without prior permission. Excessive absenteeism involves a considerable loss to the enterprise because work scheduled are upset and delayed and management has to give overtime wages to meet the delivery dates. The rates of overtime wages are doubled than the normal rates of wages. Therefore, study of cause of absenteeism is essential to deal with the problm.Ivancevich and Matteson (2004) were of the view that absenteeism is costly because it reduces output and is disruptive because it requires that schedules and programmes be modified. Van der Merwe (2008) also establishes a relationship between absenteeism and labour turnover in that they share withdrawal behaviour where with absenteeism the behaviour is temporal and permanent with labour turnover.

Although all employers are aware that sometimes absences are inevitable, reduced attendance by employees can affect the bottom line by harmfully impacting output, work excellence, self-confidence and customer service and satisfaction. There are numerous contributing reasons that impact on an organization’s objectives but one of the most costly is absenteeism. Employers need to handle all forms of nonattendance in a fair and transparent way to reduce disharmony in the workplaces. Within the context of the public subdivisions in Tanzania there could be dissimilar interpretations of conditions of service that relate to absence from a workplace. For example, some employees employed in the Local Government Authorities (LGAs) could perceive that they are on duty when consulting any client while at home.

Managing workplace absenteeism is one of the difficult human management issues facing employers and employees for years and even today. This study tried to identify the causes of absenteeism in the workplace as well as its impacts; the findings of this study will be useful to the management of human resources and reduce employee’s absenteeism at work places. In his article Munro (2007) suggests that the issue of absenteeism should be researched to assess the extent of such perceptions and actual loss of working hours in a given productivity.

Most organizations do not usually connect monetary cost to the loss caused by workers absenteeism, they usually feel very unwilling to attack the problem and some organizations are unaware of the problem. Extensive time, effort and cash are 4 poured into attracting, selecting and training members of staff, but too little of the same are directed towards reducing absenteeism. It was worthwhile carrying out this study because of the numerous problems associated with employees’ absenteeism and its attendant effect on the productivity and effectiveness of an organization or firm.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Coming late and absenteeism is just a normal thing in the public service and it is caused due to the lack of control and indiscipline in the public service and had given room for inefficiency among public servants. Both government and the public servants themselves is responsible for this disease which had eaten deep into the fabrics of the public service in Nigeria. Nnawuba (1996) refer to control as discipline has been responsible for the poor economy of our nation. For instance, the inflation of contract award by the public servants, embezzlement of public fund, and civil servants engagement in political activities and so on and so forth.

Employees’ absenteeism has been in the middle of the serious troubles facing majority of the workplaces for years particularly in the government authorities. Employee absence at the place of work doesn’t only affect someone or an employee who is absent at the workplace, but rather the employees in general and their departments are affected. From the economic point of view absenteeism leads to the loss of potential productivity plus the increased government expenditure on needless interventions for example overtime costs and other benefits to workers may be required to make up work. Absenteeism reduces spirits of others and hence low output of an organization, the researcher therefore.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to find out the impact of employee absenteeism on performance of local government workers, specifically the study intends to;

  1. Find out the causes of absenteeism among local government workers
  2. Analyze the impact of absenteeism on the performance of Local government workers
  3. To proffer strategies that can be to reduce staff absenteeism and stabilize performance.

1.4 Research Question

  1. What is the causes of absenteeism among local government workers
  2. Is there any significant impact of absenteeism on the performance of Local government workers
  3. What strategies that can be to reduce staff absenteeism and stabilize performance.

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho: there is no significant impact of absenteeism on the performance of Local government workers

Hi: there is a significant impact of absenteeism on the performance of Local government workers

1.6 Significance of the Study

This research is very significant because it will be of immense benefit to the management in the Nigeria public, since the ability to apply this will help them to stem the tide of inefficiency and low performance in this sector. This study will be of great benefit to the workers in the public service especially local government as the study will unveil some of the disciplinary methods and procedures and their effects on workers. Therefore, workers will be opportune to have insight and take necessary correction for improve performance in the public service. Private sector organizations would benefit from this study because the findings and subsequent recommendations by the researcher will make them learn more about control and discipline and its impact on workers performance and this will enable them know how to apply them in their sector.

Finally, this study saves as another contribution to the academic development to the concept control and discipline, and for this reasons will be of immense benefit to students. They will find this study very useful since the information they will gather, would assist them especially those who may wish to carry out further research on the subject matter in future.

1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will be conducted in Ado-Odo LGA in Ogun state. All employees were included to participate in this study. The results of this study will be useful in addressing harms linked with employees’ absenteeism in the LGA.

1.8 Delimitation of the Study

Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.

However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusions and Recommendations

Employees’ absenteeism in Local Government authorities has become a serious issue in the recent year’s studies. This is evident by the survey which was carried out by the World Bank in rural and urban areas in Nigeria which revealed that 14% of health care providers were reported to be absent from their work stations. The report showed that doctors especially in urban areas were the most likely to be absent from work and their absence was more likely not to have been approved by the authorities
(Buguzi, 2016).

The above discussions are mere evaluation of the employees’ absenteeism at Ado-OdoLGA as well as the recommendations on how to rescue the current situation. The following is the synopsis of analysis of the findings in general.

5.1 Conclusion

The objectives of study were to analyze the impact of employees’ absenteeism in Local Government authorities and offer suitable suggestions to control and prevent the absenteeism of workers. The objectives of the study have been achieved by collecting primary data and secondary data from various institutions in Ado-OdoLGA. The study has found that excessive work load for remaining staff, delay in daily routine, poor customer’s satisfaction and complaints from the society are some of the impact of absenteeism. Hence, the management should take
necessary steps to correct deficiencies in various institutions and fulfill the needs of workers which will enhance their satisfaction and motivation and thereby improve retention of the employees so as to provide quality care to the society.

Among other solutions, employees motivation is said to be one among the significant tool towards enhancing the employees’ commitment to their job hence reduce absenteeism. Lack of motivation to employees limit commitment to their job and hence may result to employees absenteeism.

The findings revealed that the rate and trend of employees’ absenteeism is growing year to year at the Council although at the moment the situation is in a medium stage. Although it is in a medium level there is a need of immediate plans to rescue the situation in future. Some of the strategies which can be proposed to rescue the situation include; formalizing the organization’s expectations for attendance by writing an attendance policy, sharing the attendance policy with employees as part of the new employee orientation process and discuss expectations for attendance, rewarding good attendance by giving employees a bonus for having no unplanned absences in a 12 month period and also providing support through Employees Assistance Program(EAP) which can help to deal with personal issues that might be affecting their attendance.

5.2 Recommendations / Suggestions

Based on the above findings and discussion held with employees of the various offices in Ado-OdoLGA, the following suggestions are offered by the researcher so as to control and prevent absenteeism of employees.

  1. Supervision system should be strengthened. The supervisors should be competent to take the duties, well-educated and able to handle all employees in a good manner. There are no employees who like to be governed by under qualified manager or administrator.
  2. Human resources and other staffs should be employed basing the number of works and its volume so as to reduce workload to some employees.
  3. Keep human resources motivated and fully participate in various organizational strategies. Fulfilled and satisfied workers are less likely to abuse an nonattendance policy, hence think about rewarding excellent attendance.
  4. Job safety and security of the human resources should be ensured. The Head of departments and supervisors should consider the appeal of the workers in terms of departure and leave. It should be known by supervisors that sometimes workers in an organization becomes absent in an organizations due to the complications of the supervisors in some aspects.
  5. The job description should be well elaborated and provided to the workers or employees. There should be also provision and conduct of orientation to new workers so as they can be aware of the mission and vision of the organization. vi)The open performance appraisal should be taken in each year at least after every six months; also salary fixation should be done fairly without favoritism. There should not be unfairness in them particularly for persons who are close to the administration or executive. The managers and supervisors should treat their workers equally regardless of their colour, education level, sex and any other factors.
  6. Good relationship should be strengthened between the managers and the workers. There should be as may meetings as possible so as to enable workers socialize with their supervisors and give out their challenges so as to improve services and production in organizations as well as reduce absenteeism.
  7. The management should give enough training opportunities to the employees. Also employees should be given the chances and opportunities to attend further studies like for the diploma level, degree levels, masters level and even higher up to doctorate level.
  8. Psychotherapy and health education should be made available to all employees in organizations. Several times workers should be counseled on health issues so as to strengthen their wellbeing as a result reduce absenteeism rate.
  9. There should be job rotations to the workers so as commitment of the employees on work can be improved in various specialized areas hence enable them advance their understanding on various specializations.
  10. The organizations are advised to use the automatic machines which can be used to track absenteeism accurately.
  11. There should be a clear attendance policy. Employees should not be free to do whatever they want whether to attend at work or not, rather there should be a very clear policy which will guide all employees regardless of the type of work.
  12. Managers should undertake various training on supervision of employees. Some of the trainings which they should undergo include absenteeism management and control of their departments.

The Impact Of Employees Absenteeism On Performance Of Local Government Workers

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