Effects Of Rural-Urban Migration On The Rural Development In Nigeria (A Case Of Umuahia North Local Government Area)
This topic, “Effect of Rural-Urban Migration on the Rural Development in Umuahia North Local Government Area” has been considered as an avenue to know the rural development process in Nigeria and its insurance. This work will present the remote effect of rural-urban migration on rural development. This study has been able to cover new growth which was hitherto neglected by government.
Table Of Content
- Title page
- Approval page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Significance of the Study
- 1.6 Scope of the Study
- 1.7 Limitation of the Study
- 1.8 Definition of Terms
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 Migration
- 2.3 Causes of Rural Migration
- 2.4 Non-development Theory of Migration
- 2.5 Development of Theory of Migration
- 2.6 Concept of Development
- 2.7 Functional Relationship between Urban and Rural Area
- 2.8 Effect of Rural Migration
- 2.9 Strategies of Rural Development
- 2.10 Agricultural Extension
- 2.11 Integrated Rural Development
- 2.12 Why Rural Development
- 2.13 References
3.0 Research Design and Methodology
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research Design
- 3.3 Sources/Methods of Data Collection
- 3.4 Population and Sample Size
- 3.5 Sampling Techniques
- 3.6 Validity and Reliability of Measuring instrument
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Presentation of Data
- 4.3 Analysis of Data
- 4.4 Interpretation of Data
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Summary of Findings
- 5.3 Conclusion
- 5.4 Recommendation
Rural development is a process of planned change for which one approach or the other is adopted for improvement and transformation of the rural populace. It is a process of ensuring that the power section of the population has some share in fruit of the economic activity. It is the means by which the provision of social services for rural population is combined with the promotion of economic growth.
In order to bring about real development in the rural areas there must exist active collaboration between government, non-government agencies, the private sector and the rural communities themselves. Only such collective attempts can improve the quality of life of those communities and significantly reduce the rate of rural- urban migration.
The problems of our urban centers cannot be solved unless those of the rural areas are first solved. Rural-urban migration is functional to rural development and also to the continual development of the urban areas and therefore needs to be stemmed. In order to do this, those facilities and opportunities that exist in the centers need to be available to the rural dwellers in the rural area.
Rural development as a concept and as a programmes of action has therefore attracted so much attention and material resources that it has become enthroned as an article of faith in the development of many third countries with the conviction that rural development is the wonder formular for replacing rural poverty with rural prosperity in the third world, national government, development agencies and relevant international organizations across rural development in almost all the third world countries.
To many people, rural development simply means agricultural development, to some, it is primarily concerned with welfare. These views are myopic because rural development should include the political lives of the rural dwellers and should be relevant to the alleviation of all the conditions associated with the rural sector. It is true that economic box of the rural people is agriculture, but beyond food.
They also need education, employment, decent housing, medical care, electricity, good roads and other means of communication.
The rural development task environment is an inter governmental, supral ministerial, organizational world which is important by a myriad of complex, large scale, formal and informal organizations, private and public organizations.
Dallam (2003) therefore, conceptualizes rural development involving four levels of functioning in organization.
- A planned programme of action through national formulated policies.
- Self-help through community mobilization and participation
- Technical assistance through a large pool integration of federal recruited professionals.
- Integration of various specialists through a systematic approach to rural development.
From this perspective, the motional planning process would start from the grass roots by ascertaining from the people, their needs and this will make maximum achievement of plan programmes. It will therefore relate projects to local resources base and eliminate the bare wagon effect by which communities proliferate the same projects over short distances without regards to their optimum utilization; rural-urban migration in Nigeria therefore is a steady flow of young school leavers from the rural areas to the urban areas.
Reasons for this rural-urban migration are to search for job opportunities that will improve one’s standard of living. Another reason is that people like living or residing in a suitable environment. The third point why people migrate from rural-urban areas is to escape from religious, political and social situation of knowledge and skill.
Almost all the universities and institutions of higher learning are located in urban cities. Those seeking for higher education therefore move to the urban areas in order to attend those institutions. Due to inadequate modern facilities in rural areas, life in rural areas is generally dull. There are no social amenities such as electricity, pipe borne water, good and quality health care centers. Also, there are no social activities like luxury restaurants, hotels, social entertainment and good road networks etc. many youths move to urban areas for the sole purpose of enjoying these facilities.
1.1 Background Of The Study
Umuahia North Local Government Area was established shortly after independence formally in 1961-1964, the local government was under district council headed by district officer (Do). Umuahia generally was under Bende district unit 7th August 1976 when local government system came into being in Nigeria. By 1976, Ikwuano Umuahia became one separated local government with the headquarters in Umuahia in 1991 when Umuahia was carved out from old Imo state when new states were created. Ikwuano now became local government from the entire Umuahia. In 1996, they now divided Umuahia into two parts namely, Umuahia North housing the capital territory and its environs. The headquarters of Umuahia North is Umuahia.
Another one is the south which was also carved out from Umuahia.
In Umuahia North local government of Abia state, there exist eight (8) departments which include thus:
- Administrative Department
- Environmental Health Department
- Finance Department
- Health Department
- Planning and Statistics Department
- Social Development and Adult Education Department
- Agricultural Department
- Works Department
These eight departments that exist in Umuahia North have their different heads of department (HOD) that heads each department.
The first chairman that headed Umuahia North was Mr. Echeghika Akpunku Iheuwa under the governorship of Ike Nwosu. The previous executive chairman by name Royal High Chief Princewill Ikechukwu Ukaegbu left that seat on 21st January 2010 after completing his tenor. Presently, Umuahia North local government has no executive chairman rather; they have the head of service (HOS) whose name is J.O.C Kalu.
J.O.C Kalu is the one heading Umuahia North local government until another executive chairman is elcted. Umuahia North have twenty (20) political wards and 48 autonomous communities.
The 20 political wards include
- Isingwu ward
- Afaraukwu ward
- Ibeku east ward I
- Ibeku East ward II
- Ibeku East ward
- Urban ward I
- Urban ward II
- Urban ward III
- 9) Ugba Urban ward iv
- Urban ward
- Afor-Ugiri ward I
- Afor-Ugiri ward II
- Nkwo-Achara ward
- Azu-eke ward
- Mbocha ward
- Ndume ward
- Orie-ndu ward
- Okanga-Alaike ward
- Nkwo-egwu ward
- Umuhu ward
The 48 autonomous communities included as follows:
- Adume autonomous Community
- Abocha autonomous community
- Azu-ek autonomous
- Afaraukwu autonomous community
- Okwunaga autonomous community
- Isiama Afara autonomous community
- Isiagwu autonomous community
- Okpu Isingwu autonomous community
- Umunkanu Umuawa autonomous community
- Umunkanu Umuawa autonomous community
- Afor Ugiri autonomous community
- Egku-Ukwu autonomous community
Each autonomous community have their different Ezes and town union that helps in carrying out their specific functions.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Some factors leads to the high flow of rural-urban migration such as:
- Lack of good road network to transport farm products to market where the farmers will sell their products.
- Insufficient educational facilities to improve the educational standard of the rural dwellers.
- Inadequate pipe-borne water that will improve health and living standard of the people living in the rural areas.
- Lack of electricity that will enhance the standard of local dwellers.
- Unemployment due to lack of industries in rural areas has also encouraged rural-urban migration in Nigeria.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of rural-urban migration on the rural development of Umuahia North local government area which will be outlined.
- To examine the reason for rural-urban migration has contributed to the failure in the process of trying to develop the rural area in Nigeria.
- To discover the effects and setback which the rural-urban migration has caused in the process of rural development.
- To offer solutions to the causes of rural-urban migration and outline the measures for development of areas to continue migrating to urban areas in search for better living, such as improve standard of living, good education, good pipe borne water, electrification, better and quality recreation centers and reducing unemployment rate through building of industries and firms to youths to find jobs.
- To find solution on how to reduce the rate of urban migration which is a problem in rural development process in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
- What are the effects of rural-urban migration in the rural development of Nigeria?
- Do you believe that the educated ones migrate more than the illiterate ones?
- What factors lead to rural-urban migration?
- Does migration affect labour supply?
- Can industrial hazards in the urban area discourage migration?
1.5 Significance Of The Study
The significance of the study is aimed at finding lasting solutions to rural-urban migration and facilitates rural development through the process of job creation for the youths, laying emphasis on improving rural economic condition and also to make meaning and sustainable economic decisions necessary for the acceleration of rural development thereby reducing drastically rural-urban migration in the country.
1.6 Scope Of Study
The study covers the rural villages in Umuahia North. This will relate on the effect of rural-urban migration in the rural development of Nigeria. In Umuahia North local government area, there are no basic industries that will employ the development active labour force, this prompt to the urban migration to the urban areas in search of job opportunities, business enhancement, quality education and quality medical facility etc.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
A research work is never an easy task to overcome. There are occasions when the researcher would encounter problems which are basic and unavoidable. The research question and questionnaires distributed were limited. The inhabitants of Nigeria and all questions related to effect of urban migration in rural development in Nigeria was asked, obtaining information for accurate work was not easy. These are obstacles and hindrances which range from limited time, unwillingness and unreadiness of the respondents to give the needed information as objectives and validity of any conclusion drawn from the study.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
For the purpose of clarity, the following terms are being used in this study and defined.
Living in the village and people who are underdeveloped.
Living in the city or town that is civilized and developed.
This means, moving from one place to another may be in search of food, shelter and clothing to be comfortable in life.
This is the action or process of moving in an upward manner or being developed.
To make a system, methods, etc more modern and more suitable for use at present.
5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations
This work was aimed at investigating the effects of rural-urban migration on the rural development process in Umuahia North local government area. It also made possible solution on how to curb rural-urban migration as to effect change on the lives of our rural dwellers and bring development to rural indigenes of the state and Nigeria at large.
The cause of rural-urban migration is associated with the following:
- Unemployment, underdevelopment, lack of basic amenities such as good water, good road and electricity.
- Negligence of rural development by the government is another factor that leads to rural-urban migration in Umuahia North local government area.
- Unfavourable economic condition:
These are the reasons for migration to urban centers thereby hindering development of rural areas. The problems of the urban centers cannot be solved unless those of the rural areas are solved. Rural-urban migration is dysfunctional of rural development and also to the continued development of the urban areas; therefore needs to be stemmed in order to do this, those facilities and opportunities that exist in the urban centers need to be made available to the rural dwellers in the rural areas.
In order to bring about real development in the rural areas, there must exist active collaboration between governments and non-government agencies, the private sectors and rural communities themselves. Only such collective attempt can improve the quality of life of those people living in community and significantly reduce the rate of rural-urban migration.
5.2 Summary Of Findings
In this research, this study questionnaire was employed and at the end of the study, the following findings were made. Migration actually affects rural development. In addition a large number of labour forces were mostly the migrants which adversely affected the economic, social, cultural and political settings of rural development. Reasons of migration was to improve economy for better quality and standard of living and the migration that occurred in rural development has to do with the age, structure because large labour force that migrated ranges from 24-49 (see table 4).
The government on the other hand contributed on the negligence of agriculture which is the main stay of the economy of the rural dwellers, for instance the market boards was supposed to pay the farmers reasonable decline but these bounds bought only from licensed agents to whom they ensured monopolistic profits. In this way, state government accumulated money at the distribution of the private projects derives from producing trading. The causes of rural-urban migration as stated in table (2) has really created an impact that has contributed in the difficulties of rural development process in Nigeria based on the research findings and questionnaire study being carried out.
The effect of migration on the socio-development of Umuahia North local government area in Abia state cannot be over emphasized. Therefore, incentives and mechanized system of agriculture should be implemented in the community, improved seedlings, fertilizer, extension workers in order to reactivate agricultural practice and make it worth while hence the rural area is blessed with large fertile land which is suitable for agriculture. The rural dwellers in the area should not be neglected in the process of developmental programme as this will motivate their interest in citizen participation on community development. That government should rehabilitate the roads in the area to enable free and quick transportation system and conveyance and educate agricultural farmers on how to preserve farm products are essential and should be topmost priority. This will inject bountiful yield on agricultural products and increase in financial income in expert market or transaction.
To this project, the researcher has investigated on effects of migration on the socio-development of Umuahia North local government area. However, in the effect, recommendation should be sent on effects that could be introduced towards solving the problems identified which should focus on:
- Firstly, the provision of mechanized method of agriculture through the institution of extension workers and government. This will increase agricultural production and income generation which will serve as development. Incentives should be granted to the rural dwellers which will motivate the development active group to reside in the village.
- It equally eliminates cultural orientation which majority revealed that one cannot make it in the village.
- Government should locate industries in the areas and also make land available for investors to invest in the areas which will employ the inhabitants and reduce pressure on urban facilities, improve market standard.
- Police post should be provided to facilitate security of life and property. If these recommendations are being implemented, it will gainfully reduce migration and promote socio-development in Umuahia North Local Government Area.
Effects Of Rural-Urban Migration On The Rural Development In Nigeria (A Case Of Umuahia North Local Government Area)
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