Employee Participation In Decision Making And Its Impact On Workers Performance (A Case Study Of Oguta L.G.A. Imo State)

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


This research work is solely with gratitude dedicated to the one and supreme God of the universe, LORD JESUS CHRIST for his immeasurable mercy upon me through out my stay as an ND holder in this institution.

And also to my parents Mr. and Mrs. Emmanuel Nwaneri for their enthusiastic, moral and financial support throughout my academic pursuit. I say may God bless them all, Amen.


This research work is acknowledged to the Almighty God who has seen me through despite all odds. This pursuit for education has brought me under the guidance of my parents Mr. and Mrs. Everest Orji for their physical, spiritual, moral and tireless support and also to my beloved younger brother Orji Maxwell for his support and as well other siblings for their relentless support in seeing that my pursuit becomes a successful one.

My special thanks go to my elder brother Mrs. Mrs. Emmanuel Nwaneri for his moral supports both advice, financially and otherwise, I say may God guarantee him good life and prosperity, Amen.

The completion of this research work would not have been possible without the assistance of all my lecturers in public administration department for all their support and encouragement. In this regard, I am highly indebted to my supervisor Mrs. Chidinma Amadi for her positive contributions to my life ad encouragement.

Finally, ,y gratitude goes to Comr. Samuel Onyenakorom, B. Sc certificate holder for his immense cooperation and advice towards the writing of this project.


This study gives suitable details of employee participation in decision making and its impact on workers performance (Oguta LGA). It is obvious that most organizations are affected with the problem of employee participation in decision making.

This project entails how employees in Oguta LGA service participate in decision making and its impact on workers performance. The significant of the study is stated on for the limited uncovering the reason for the negative participation of employee in decision making and it impacts.

Finally, the objectives of the study include among other thing: to define and analyze the concept of employee participation in decision making and its impact on the organization as a whole.

To obtain those factors underlying human behaviours, factors that determine how employee participate ion decision making and also their behaviour under certain conditions. To reveal those factors that prevent him from doing his best.

To select employee and their placement will be appraisal a well as finding solution to the negative employee participation ion decision making and its impacts at Oguta LGA to offer suggestion on how best to make decision.

Table Of Contents

  • Title page i
  • Approval page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of contents vi

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction 1
  • 1.1 Background of the study 1
  • 1.2 Statement of the problems 5
  • 1.3 Objective of the study 8
  • 1.4 Research questions 9
  • 1.5 Significance of the study 10
  • 1.6 Scope of the study 10
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study 11
  • 1.8 Definition of terms 12

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature review 15
  • 2.1 introduction 15
  • 2.2 Concepts of employee participation 16
  • 2.3 The concept of performance 18
  • 2.4 Participation and performance relationship 19
  • 2.5 Leadership style 20
  • 2.6 Leadership 24
  • 2.5.1 Autocratic Leadership 25
  • 2.5.2 Democratic leadership 26
  • 2.5.3 Laissez-faire 28
  • References 30

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Research design and methodology 31
  • 3.1 Introduction 31
  • 3.2 Research design 31
  • 3.3 Population and Sample size 32
  • 3.4 Source of data 35
  • 3.5 Sample technique 36
  • 3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument 37
  • 3.7 Method of data Collection 38

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Presentation and analysis of data 39
  • 4.1 Introduction 39
  • 4.2 Presentation of data 39
  • 4.3 Analysis of data 47
  • 4.4 Interpretation of results 50

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation 52
  • 5.1 Introduction 52
  • 5.2 Summary of findings 52
  • 5.3 Conclusion 54
  • 5.4 Recommendation 54
  • References 56
  • Appendixes 57

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

When we talk of decision making, we have to bear certain things in mind. Decision making is the role of a leader. Some leaders do not allow subordinates to make decisions (authoritarian leaders). Some leaders go to extent of allowing the subordinates to make all major decisions (Laisser-faire leaders). Yet some other leaders create opportunities for their subordinates to join in decision making (Democratic leaders). Each of the above leadership styles has an implication or effect in organizational performance.

The focus of this study is on the democratic leaders style which allows subordinates participation in decision making. And the aim is to discover the effects of such participations on work performance using Oguta Local Government in Imo State.

Advancement is the study of management with emphasis on the humanistic approach has strengthened the urge to discover and to know more about the individual interest in the organization and how it has contributes to the achievement of organization goal concepts like “participation” when related to performance have attracted the attention of researchers, management practitioners, physiologist and sociologist who devoted their time, money and human resources in trying to discover the relationship between participation in decision making and job performance.

Participation is the mental, physical and emotional involvement of person in group situation that encourages them to make their own contributions towards the achievement of goals and sharing of responsibility. Devis (1981) define it as motivational techniques. Koortz (1983) says the right lend of participation yield both motivational and knowledge valuable. For enterprise success, decision making could be seen as processes of selecting from among alternatives of course action according to certain set criteria.

The dynamic of modern organization place a heavy burden on its manager to interpret plans and activities. Managers sometimes see decision making as their central job because they must constantly choose what is to be done, who is to do it, when, where and occasionally how it will be done.

The primary task of managers is to get people to contribute to the activities that will help in achieving the organizational goals and mission. Managers need the assistance of employers in the form of information, suggestion views and ideas from both of information, subordinates in order to function and make decisions that affect the employee and organization goals.

Performance entails achieving the goals when required and how required. It could be seen that there has been many identified relationship between participation and work performance some of which centers on the believe that if workers participate in issues concerning them, and their environment, it boosts their morals, feeling of recognition and finally motivates them to increase their performance.

The study seeks to make additional contributions to the impact of employee participation in decision making on work performance and also to identify the different level of performance and the different motivational impact of the different levels of participation.

1.2 Statement Of Problem

Since the concept of participation involved from the field of human relations, it has been misunderstood by many organizations participation therefore is the act of one taking part in something that affects him or her directly or in a special way of delegation in which the subordinates gain control and freedom of choice with respect to his or her responsibility.

Unfortunately, the extent to which participation of workers in decision making is allowed by most managers has been minimal. The problem is that some managers adopt leadership style that does not permit the participation of their employees in decision making. Consequently, such employees are denied the opportunity to contribute their own ideas or provide useful information that can lead to sound decision making.

Such decision making requires a lot of information, the employees or ground whose jobs are mostly affected by decision making based on their experience at work. Employees are likely to support a course of action in which they took part in making them otherwise. None participation of employee in decision making is counter productive in the sense that their moral will be low; on the other hand, employees’ participation in decision making will increase their productivity.

The assumption by some managers that employees will divulge officials secret if allowed to participate in decision making may seem reasonable in principle. While one does not rule out the possibility that employees may lack important secret is allowed to participate in decision making. We cannot equally overlook the overriding advantage of employee participation, the assumption that subordinates are potentially incapable of making useful contributions in decision making not be true. Most subordinates by virtue of their experience in a particular job setting are in a very good position to contribute ideas that will prove very useful in decision making.

As a result of this efficient and effective job performance together with reached goals requires certain and maintenance of an environment by which individual work together in groups towards the accomplishment of common objectives, thus representing a balance group judgment and a more diversified point of view which creates a sense of loyalty and commitment to decision reached.

1.3 Objective Of Study

The study attempts to achieve the following objectives:

  1. To determine the impact of democratic leadership style on employee performance.
  2. To determine the impact of democratic leadership style on employee morale.
  3. To find out how autocratic leadership style affects employees performance.
  4. To discover how laissez-fair leadership style affects employee performance.

1.4 Research Questions

This research seeks to know the different levels of participation and in the process identify the different motivational impact of different levels of participation.
The following research questions will be post to guide the study:

  1. How does democratic leadership style affect employee performance?
  2. How does autocratic leadership style affect employee performance?
  3. How does autocratic leadership style affect employee moral?
  4. How does laissez faire leadership style affect performance?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The findings if this study will guide the management of Oguta L.G.A in formulating appropriate personnel policies. The application of the recommendation of this research will lead to increased employee performance in Oguta Local Government and other local government areas. Furthermore, other researchers also will find this study a useful tool in further research.

1.6 Scope Of The Study

This research work will be restricted only to particular in Oguta Local Government Area in Imo State. This is the decisions organization take that makes employee to behave or perform well in the organization must make positive decision to enable workers enhance their productivity.

1.7 Limitation Of The Study

Academic enterprises, traditionally encounter some limitations and constraints. This project failed to live this tradition. One of constrains encountered was lack of related materials (Books) on the topic from most of the libraries I went to. Also, I could not obtain the appropriate information needed from the Oguta L.G.A because I was not given free access by the security men.

Another constraint was on the questionnaire, the respondents could not complete them as required. I did not use oral interview, because people did not disclose information needed because of the fear of what it will be used for.

1.8 Definition Of Terms


in this research work participation is defined as a special way of delegation in which the subordinates gain greater control, greater freedom of choice with respect to the responsibility. It could be defined as the act of one partaking in something that affects him or her directly.

Decision making:

This is defined as an action consciously taken or chosen from available alternatives for the purpose of achieving desired results.

Job Performance:

This is extent to which a worker does his or her job in relation to existing standards.


These are people employed to work in an organizations.


The efficient of one thing ort another.

Leadership Style:

This is authority or behaviour of a leader while performing his or administrative function of planning, organization staffing, evaluating and decision making.

Democratic Leadership Style:

This is the ability of a leader to consult or allow subordinates to participate in the process of making decision.

Laissez-Fair Leadership Style:

This is leader whose administrative policy is not definite. He gives the subordinate in decision making.

Autocratic Leadership Style:

Here the leader takes unilateral decision (makes decision alone) and imposes them on the subordinates to implement. They do not trust any other person’s capacity.

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