Leadership And Development Crisis In Nigeria

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Leadership And Development Crisis In Nigeria


Abstract


The development of a nation does not entirely depend on the abundance of her natural and mineral resources. It is therefore not a contradiction for a nation to be well-endowed with both natural and human resources, yet, the nation may remain underdeveloped. It is generally acknowledged that Nigeria that is greatly endowed with resources but bankrupt of visionary and selfless leadership. What is the missing link between the resources abundant in Nigeria and development? This project holds that the reason why Nigeria is yet to be ranked among the developed countries of the world is its leadership orientation. Much has been written on issues related to leadership but this paper looks at the issue from a different perspective. It adopts a quantitative analysis of the concept of leadership and development. This perception underscores the persistent underdevelopment and leadership crisis, and suggests some ways forward.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study:

The socio-economic and political development of any country depends largely on the ability of its leadership to facilitate, entrench and sustain good governance (Afigbo, 2007). The extent of development of any nation globally is often been determined by the quality and selfless nature of its leaders(Onigbide, 2007). However, when there is a culture of impunity in any society and there is a wide spread of lack of leadership by example to enthrone transparent and qualitative public bureaucracy, a degenerated symptoms of underdevelopment continues to manifest as exemplified in Nigeria public administration.

Now, the manifestation of symptoms of underdevelopment does not imply that Nigeria lacks quality and competent human resources to engender development, but the process of enthroning leaders is bedeviled with crisis and it does not provide room for morally upright, competent, visionary leaders to emerge. Imhonopi and Ugochukwu, (2013) vehemently assert that Nigeria is richly endowed by providence with human and material resources critical for national development and advancement. However, since gaining political independence, Nigeria has continued to meander the path befitting failed, weak and “juvenile” states.

According to the Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI), “Good governance is the process and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised; the process by which governments are selected, held accountable, monitored and replaced; the capacity of governments to manage resources efficiently, and to formulate, implement and enforce sound policies and regulations; and, the respect for the institutions that govern economic and social interactions among them” (Onigbide, 2007). It also includes both a broad strategy and a particular set of initiatives to strengthen the institutions of civil society with the objective of making government more accountable, more open and transparent and more democratic (Minogue, 1997 cited in Abe, 2010).

A state that had very great prospects at independence and was touted to lead Africa out of the backwoods of underdevelopment and economic dependency, Nigeria is still stuck in the league of very poor, corrupt, underdeveloped, infrastructurally decaying, crisis riven, morally bankrupt and leadership-deficient countries of the South. Rather than become an exemplar for transformational leadership, modern bureaucracy, national development, national integration and innovation, Nigeria seems to be infamous for whatever is mediocre, corrupt, insanely violent and morally untoward.

History has shown that no nation in the wide world grew and enjoyed steady development in almost all spheres of its national life without experiencing good and selfless political leadership (Ogbeidi, 2012). This is mainly because qualitative growth and development has constantly been a product of good governance.

Therefore, the undertaking of this study will investigate the effect of Leadership and Development Crisis in Nigeria with a special reference to Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.


1.2 Statement Of Problem:

The problem of leadership and its pervasive bearing on social cum economic development in Nigeria is multifaceted. Now, the root cause of the Nigerian problem is attributed to bad leadership. There is nothing basically wrong with the Nigerian character. There is nothing wrong with the Nigerian land, climate, water, air, or anything else. The Nigerian problem is the unwillingness or inability of its leaders to rise to their responsibility, to the challenge of personal example, which is the hallmark of true leadership.

Developmental research indicates that Nigeria is fraught of poor leadership, corruption and weak bureaucratic institutions. It is an axiom that since attainment of political independent, Nigeria has never been governed by selfless, truly transformational and intellectually endowed leaders. That is, Nigeria has never selected its best sons to positions of leadership and mediocre leadership can only lead to mediocre government without any serious achievement.

Moreover what has been common over the years in Nigeria governance is the enthronement of clueless, parochial, attitudinal debauchery and uninspiring leaders, with attendant formulation of series of ill-informed and poorly implemented policies leading to the exit of dedicated, competent bureaucrats and provided incentives for corruption. Competent and morally upright leadership engenders strong bureaucratic institutions. The success or failure of any society depends largely on the attitude and competency of its leadership. Nigerian leadership suffers from extreme moral depravity and attitudinal debauchery. Hence, the need to investigate the effect of Leadership and Development Crisis in Nigeria becomes sacrosanct.


1.3 Objectives of the Study:

The major objective of this study is to examine the effect of Leadership and Development Crisis in Nigeria. While other specific objectives are:

  1. To examine the effect of leadership and development crisis in Nigeria.
  2. To investigate the effect of leadership on socio-economic development in Nigeria.
  3. To determine the effect of leadership style on development in Nigeria.

1.5 Research Hypotheses:

Hypothesis 1:
  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between leadership and development crisis in Nigeria.
  • Hi: There is a significant relationship between leadership and development crisis in Nigeria.
Hypothesis 2:
  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between leadership and socio- economic development in Nigeria.
  • Hi: There is a significant relationship between leadership and socio- economic development in Nigeria.

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study will be of immense importance to many sectors, and organizations especially the government who will adopt the findings of this research for better productivity and efficiency in the leadership of public offices. The research, if put into use will enhance further efficiency. This study is innovative in the sense that it will be first study to promote the leadership patter for effective management. This research will provide additional evidence to authorities in choosing or training their leaders.


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study covers the Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. The researcher encountered some constraints, which limited the scope of the study. These constraints include but are not limited to the following.

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Development:

The process of developing or being developed or an event of constituting a new stage in a changing situation

Leadership:

This refers to the action of leading a group of people or an organization the state or position of being a leader.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concerned with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction and Summary

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain a critical analysis of the leadership and development crises in Nigeria. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations are made, which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefit in addressing the critical analysis of the the leadership and development crises in Nigeria. The development of a nation does not entirely depend on the abundance of her natural and mineral resources. It is therefore not a contradiction for a nation to be well-endowed with both natural and human resources, yet, the nation may remain underdeveloped. It is generally acknowledged that Nigeria that is greatly endowed with resources but bankrupt of visionary and selfless leadership. What is the missing link between the resources abundant in Nigeria and development? This project holds that the reason why Nigeria is yet to be ranked among the developed countries of the world is its leadership orientation. Much has been written on issues related to leadership but this paper looks at the issue from a different perspective. It adopts a quantitative analysis of the concept of leadership and development. This perception underscores the persistent underdevelopment and leadership crisis, and suggests some ways forward.


5.2 Conclusion and Recommendation

Bad governance and leadership failure is indeed the socio-political virus that has eaten deep into the fabric of Nigeria’s nationhood, leaving in its trail languishing economy, infrastructural haemorrhage and decay in almost all sectors. A reawakening to nationhood by leaders and aspiring leaders, a sanitisation and purging of government from corruption and corrupt practices, and a commitment by the mass generality of eligible voters to vote in credible candidates to public offices while voting out non-performing leaders would go a long way in restoring the dignity of the nation Nigeria. There is a need to imbue upcoming generations with an understanding and lifestyle of national consciousness. In this regards, credible and astute personalities with a history of integrity and honesty should be elected into power rather than those who have a higher purchasing power of the conscience of the electorates. The electorates should exercise their rights to vote with wisdom and discretion and not sell off themselves. Selectionor election of leaders should be founded on distinct sound value systems and should be with a probe for probity and accountability if good governance and leadership is to be attained.

The rule of law, independence of the judiciary and supremacy of the constitution are vital to quality leadership and good governance in Nigeria. Therefore, individuals convicted of perpetuating corruption must not be allowed to go free due to their position in the society. Appropriate punitive measures should be meted to corrupt officers. Lastly, all allegations of corrupt practices of the past should be duly investigated and affected public officers made to face the wrath of the law, if the on-going crusade against corruption is not to be seen as a continuation of the rhetoric and sloganeering of the past. Bad leadership cannot enhance accountability, productivity, creativity, unity, patriotism, discipline, social justice, good and democratic governance. It is therefore imperative therefore that redeeming the image and destiny of Nigeria should become the concern of all stakeholders in the Nigerian project.


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