The Effect Of Industrial Disharmony On The Nigerian Educational System
This study is on effect of industrial disharmony on the Nigeria educational system. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Kogi state University. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up heads of department, senior lecturers, junior lecturers and graduate assistants were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
1.1 Background of the Study
Education worldwide is regarded as the citadel of knowledge, the fountain of intellectualism the most appropriate ground for the incubation of leaders of tomorrow.
According to Ike (1991:1), an education fulfills, one major function it is a knowledge an value provider it stand or fails in its ability or inability to deliver on this criteria.
According to Magna Carta, ‘’The education is an autonomous institution at the heart of societies differently organized because of geographical and historical heritage, it produces, examines, appraises and hands down culture by research and is an enterprise that serves multi-disciplinary purposes. Education are key actors in national development, more so in Africa than in other regions. Their roles in research and this explains why the federal government of Nigeria is acknowledging the education as a fulcrum for national development, set up a commission headed by Chief Gray Longe (1992) to review higher education in Nigeria with particular reference to universities in Nigeria. The commission was given terms of reference among which are;
Determine the middle and higher level manpower supply and demand of the country and advice in the area of under/over population and under/over utilization of the same.
To re-examine the development roles of education system in developing countries such as Nigeria
Investigate the nature, sources and criteria of funding in higher educational institutions. (especially universities) with a view to improving the situation and guaranteeing steady sources of funds for optimal functional of these institutions.
Review the general condition of staff in higher educational institutions such as salaries, pensions and retirement benefits, housing of the public service and private sector and particularly to stemming the brain drain phenomenon.
Review the criteria for appointment of administration, including the vice chancellor, provost, rectors, registrars and other principal officers, their terms of office and the process of renewal of their appointments.
The commission held special sessions with a number of eminent personalities and educationist from whose knowledge and experience of the educational system in Nigeria it benefited immensely.
Finally, the commission defined higher education as the type of education in higher educational institutions especially in universities (conventional and specialized) which produce high level and middle level manpower, but no specialized set up by professional bodies.
The commission, however, frowned at the discovery that the following physical conditions are still the trade-marks of the Nigerian Education System.
Dilapidate workshop equipment in most of the higher institutions
Inadequate facilities such as libraries, lecture rooms, laboratories and work farms.
The commission was also appalled by the fact that education have not achieved much in terms of the goals and objectives for which were set up, owing to incessant disruption in the academic flow chart caused by strike actions, industrial unrest, students hooliganism, political instability etc.
Based on these discoveries, the commission recommended among others that;
Universities education is not a means to earn a living. It should also equip the individual to the highest level of his ability wit the intellectual and physical skill which he requires to be an innovative creature and self-reliant member of the society
The university education as the apex of the system of higher education should play a leadership role in the nation providing people of special qualification and motivation
The education because of its key role in the overall economy should always encourage and facilitate industrial harmony and provide a conducive atmosphere for learning and attainment of other goals and objectives.
The government on its part accepted these recommendations and thus, commented as follows:
The government on its own part should render its lawful obligations to the education by providing funds, research grants, the required infrastructure (road, laboratories, electricity, telephone) a conducive learning environment.
In order to develop closer academic and industrial relationship and also ensure that the programmes of tertiary institutions are relevant to the needs of the industry and the national economy, there should be regular interaction between the institutions, the employers of their products and the national manpower board.
To encourage industrial harmony in the higher education institutions by passing laws that will preserve the rights of the various interest groups within the education system, especially organized trade unions and employees associated.
This is however; the general picture of the events that surrounds the education system in Nigeria. We shall examine at the appropriate chapters of this work how far these major actors in industrial disputes have discharge their respective obligations in order to reduce the rate of industrial dispute in the Nigeria education system.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
Over the last thirty years in Nigeria, the educational system has witnessed an unprecedented industrial disharmony and so many officials assaults that other social institutions.
According to Onuoha (2001), this is so perhaps, because of its strategic place both in the nations hierarchy of priorities and its considered role as a veritable machine for development.
In his own contribution, Nwankwo (2000:37) opined that Nigeria educational institutions, characterized by military intervention interference and a seeming calculated mores to submerge it in the river of irrelevances. He further argued that those in authorities see education system as a burden and as institutions to be exploited and left desolate. Consequent upon this disharmony, non-payment development, our education system he posited, have become aberrations of themselves. The manifestation are in form of cultism, brain drain, under funding by government, erosion of academic freedom, general insecurity, dilapidated structures, non-payment of staff salaries. These are indications that all is not well with the Nigeria education system.
The sources of discontent in our education system are in exhaustive. According to Akpala (1982:56), it has bearing with present economic situation in the country, our political history and inheritances authoritarian attitudes of both government and education. Management towards labour issues, the presence of obsolete labour laws, corruption in all segments of the society, mal administration, class conflict and struggle, struggle for survival etc also in the list of the problems in the inability of the Nigerian education system to actualize the objectives for which they were established, such as a training of high caliber manpower etc. it was on the basis of the above problems that the researcher was motivated to conduct The research work to find out the true position of things in the Nigeria education system and to state the facts as they are without any bias and to proffer some solutions.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are;
- To determine of ways of ensuring industrial harmony in Nigeria educational system
- To ascertain the causes of industrial disharmony on the Nigeria educational system
- To find out the consequences, implications of industrial disharmony in the Nigeria education system
- To ascertain steps taken by government in solving industrial disputes on the Nigerian education system
- To know how industrial dispute could be managed.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
- H0: there are no ways of ensuring industrial harmony in Nigeria educational system
H1: there are ways of ensuring industrial harmony in Nigeria educational system
- H02: there are no causes of industrial disharmony on the Nigeria educational system
H2: there are causes of industrial disharmony on the Nigeria educational system
1.5 Significance of the Study
A study on industrial relations would not only be beneficial to the state, employers of labour and employees but to the society as a whole. Labour issues have bearing with integrated national planning. It contributes to manpower development and harmonized industrial relations, which promotes rapid economic development. Besides a peaceful industrial atmosphere is required to actualize the noble objectives for which education system were set or established to achieve the research work is significant in a number of ways which includes;
- The study is significant to the state and federal government who will appreciate that the inability to implement the joint decisions reached has been a source of dispute on education system.
- With the introduction of the concept of management in industrial disputes, the research has contributed to the pod of knowledge already available and therefore adding to the existing literature
- The study would also benefit labour union that in the course of this research would understand that even though their demands are imperfection in lien with the economic realities, must consider the learn resources of the state and the position of management before embarking on strike.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of the study covers effect of industrial disharmony on the Nigeria educational system. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational Privacy:
Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Many attempts have been made to give a proper definition education many scholars have abandon the attempt as no single definition can do justice to the word ‘’education’’ many scholars have abandon the attempt as no single definition can do justice to the word ‘’education’’ because the word education is a concept or an ideals. Education is a is a concept or an ideals. Education means therefore, the process by which people are brought to an understand and appreciation of what is valuable in human life.
In a another word, education is an influence to which every one is continually subjected by the physical, biological and social environments in which he lives. It also mean the nature of personal growth and conservation, transmission and renewal of culture. In summary, education is the heart of die, so also if education of a nation, suffer the nation will suffer. Industrial harmony is the key to educational growth.
A tripartite relationship involving three parties namely, the owners of work, the employees or their representatives and government agency for the purpose of setting job rules and regulations.
When there is inability among the participating parties in industrial relations to reach peaceful agreement as it affects job rules and conditions of work generally.
This is the employers action of closing a business enterprise for the purpose of enforcing a demand on the employees by causing them to be thrown out of work.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain effect of industrial disharmony on the Nigeria educational system.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of effect of industrial disharmony on the Nigeria educational system
This study was on effect of industrial disharmony on the Nigeria educational system. Five objectives were raised which included:To determine of ways of ensuring industrial harmony in Nigeria educational system, to ascertain the causes of industrial disharmony on the Nigeria educational system, to find out the consequences, implications of industrial disharmony in the Nigeria education system, to ascertain steps taken by government in solving industrial disputes on the Nigerian education system, to know how industrial dispute could be managed.In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff ofKogi state University. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up heads of department,senior lecturers, junior lecturers and graduate assistants was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
Universities as ivory tower of knowledge have very salient roles to play in the national development as well as manpower development. There expected roles in the development of the nation have often been forestalled due to federal and state governments intervention or encroachment in university autonomy. The frequency of industrial crisis/disputes was discovered to be high in the Nigerian university system. Also it was discovered that dispute affect the intellectual effectiveness of our universities due to strikes and related activities. The appointment or rather imposition of key officers like vice-chancellors on the university has been traced as a contributory factor to industrial crisis within the system. This is because such appointments usually leave the appointed vicechancellors as stooges to those that appointed them, sometimes neglecting the wishes and aspirations of other members of the university community. It was gathered from the responses of some respondents that for universities to move forward and overcome industrial disputes and other such vices, that the works must participate symbiotically in the decision making process through their representatives. On this note the systems approach to management is advocated. It should be noted also that when disputes occur, that a chain reaction is triggered off. Such chain reactions can come in form of loss of man-hours. It can also come in form of elongation of academic calendars, intellectual ineffectiveness, disorganization of the education industry, brain drain, etc. government also can suffer when crisis arise in the university system because their policy on education cannot be implemented effectively resulting in loss of fund. In summary, the problem of industrial relations in the Nigerian university system were found to be lack of education of some labour leaders, the rigid structure of relationships, lack of flow of communication, management and government meddling with union affairs, frequent trade disputes, under funding and inadequate teaching facilities. Political factors were also discovered as some of the causes of industrial disputes within the university system
The researcher, having looked at both sides of the coins and having obtained information from respondents in connection with the study, considered the following recommendations as desirable.
- Trade disputes should be avoided because of the negative effect on the work force. The loss of man-days would reduce, as strikes would be curtailed if trade disputes were avoided, this would lead to growth in industrial relations.
- A flexible organizational structure should be instituted to improve the relationship between management and staff. Communication should also be improved to avoid break down in industrial relations.
- Both union leaders and management representatives should from time to time embark on training to understand the workings of industrial relations.
- When workers are aggrieved, they should follow the appropriate grievance procedure before going on strike.
- Federal and state government should endevour to increase their budgetary allocation to universities to the UNESCO recommended 26% of their total annual budget.
- Systems approach should be adopted in university management so that workers will start to see themselves as a part of the university thereby working hard to keep it going.
- Works should be allowed to participate in decision making process through their representatives.
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