Establishment And Management Of A Small Scale Poultry Farm

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Establishment And Management Of A Small Scale Poultry Farm


Abstract


This work has its main objectives as the determination of investment potentials in poultry farming at Omuma. To the best of the researcher’s knowledge, this is the first conscious attempts to address this issue as it affects the suitability at Omuma for poultry farm.

Chapter one is the introduction. It covers such preliminary information like the General Background of the study, Problems associated with the study, Problems that the study will be concerned, the importance of studying area. Definition of important terms.

Chapter two is literature review. Literature is reviewed under six major headings: the origin of the study matters. The school of thought to the problem study, different method of solving the problem of the study, summary and references.

Chapter three is on project research and methodology, method and sources of data presentation, analysis of data, recommendation, conclusion and references.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

This work is the study of the feasibility of the establishment and successful management of small scale poultry farm at Omuma despite the various rural limitations existing in the town.The choice of this study did arise from impulse, rather, it was well thought out of the so many years of my association with the town, Omuma where I was born and brought up.However, my decision to embark on the topic was reinforced by the statement made by G.T. Williams who said modern economic pressures are such that as one could contemplate a future in farming until they first acquire reliable up to data knowledge in every aspects of animal husbandry.

This is a sector of farming which requires more than any other, a careful application of managerial expertise, if one’s capital investment is to be safeguarded let alone show a profitable return.

This return is agreeable to me and further re-affirms my desire to find out the extent to which failures in this important sector of agriculture could be attributed to mismanagement through small scale business is quite relation to the general economic conditions. It is good that most business be started a small business before they graduate into big business and conglomerates. This has informed my desire and intention to relate my study to the establishment and management of a small scale poultry farm. It is my intention that is study would be a springboard for further insight into the management aspect of poultry farming, such that available information and research on poultry farming could be optimally applied to, to maximize the contribution of poultry to the social economic advancement of OmumaOru East Local Government Area Imo State and Nigeria in general.

This is not the first time that an attempt will be made to establish poultry farm neither is it the first attempt to emphasize the contribution of management to successful poultry farming.

However, this is the first time that serious are being asked about the reasons for the failure of pre various attempt to engage in successful poultry farming at MPU. Study is being made to ascertain the best contribution of management towards making poultry farming both alternative and profitable at MPU first and later ate other places in the country. A good knowledge of the background to this study is therefore necessary for the achievement of the researcher’s aspirations. Prior to the industrial revolution, there was no problem of meat deficiency.

This is because there was multiplication in reproduction of wild animals and the catching of the wild beasts, which were abundant in supply. But with industrialization things changed. The forests were cleared and industries emerged with its demand and problem:

  • Urban centres were created where paid employees lives and industries were concentrated.
  • Subsequent to urbanization, rural to urban migration started as people searched for paid employment.
  • Forest gave way to industrial centres as industries dominated the scene. As a result, the urban dwellers could neither produce their primary food needs to catch wild animals as they used to do in forests. The above situation created problems, which called for solution.

In attempt to solve the problems it becomes clear that subsistence farming was no longer adequate as those paid employees in urban centres have to be fed.

That the dependable and wild beast to satisfy protein needs was no longer sufficient as the virile group who capture the animals have gone to the urban centres for paid employment, commercial farming and animal husbandry was introduced to solve these problems. But while the activity of crop production was limited by use of crude implements to which it was subjected to, animal husbandry failed the problems of lack of fast growing and improved species of birds and animals.It is to be noted however that prior to the period of industrial revolution, chicken poultry domestication had started but not on commercial buses. For example, Bible account the other available evidences show that goat and sheep domestication dated back to 1000 years while chicken domestication dates back to about 2000BC that is about 4000 years ago. The reasons for the slow development of poultry are not clear but might be connected with adverse cultural practices like the situation in some areas in Nigeria where the consumption of chicken and eggs are forbidden. The researcher’s emphasis is however not on the period of domestication but on modern commercial poultry management. No remarkable improvement occurred in animal husbandry in general until the 18th century when an Englishman Robert Bakwell showed in 1700 that animals can be improved by intensive breeding of desirable traits. Major improvement however, followed Gregormendals study and theory on genetics in 1800, which showed how different animals with desired morphology.

Full commercial poultry started in 1920, but just as industrialization started late in Nigeria. Commercial poultry also started late contributing to the late development of commercial poultry in Nigeria was colonial government policy of promoting that aspect of agriculturethat produces cash crops for supply to their home government. The protein needs of colonial officers were met through import.With independence the new Nigerian government attempts to reverse the neglect of animal husbandry in national planning. During the first nation development plan period (1961 – 1966).7.844 thousand Heads of poultry were produced in the Eastern region while 16.771 thousand tons ofegg were produced. This figure was however, insignificant when compared to population of 8,100,000. In 1966, 14,560,000 heads of poultry was produced a remarkable improvement that was to be disrupted by Nigeria civil war.

In the second national development plan period (1970-1975) the government procure 658, 584 day old chicken for sale to farmers at subsidized rate. In addition it embarked on the policy of direct production to reduce exclusive dependence of direct production to reduce exclusive dependence on the importation of day-old chicks. To this effect, the Agricultural Development Authority (ADA) produced between 1972 and 1975, 52, 722 day old chicken forms ADA hatderies and sold them to farmers. It also produced 73, 593 dozen table eggs within the same period. Commendable as they may be, those efforts were insignificant considering the population that needs to be served. The situation is even more precarious when we realize that cattle and sheep are not recorded in the then East Central state but are imported from Northern part of the country.

The third National Development Plan period (1975 – 1980) envisaged accelerated agricultural growth as being essential for future nutritional growth an emphasized the needs for qualitative rather than quantity food output. This followed the publication of a national food balance sheet by the federal ministry of Agricultural and National Resources, which revealed the critical extent of essential food deficiencies in the country. The target of the improvement of production management, the breeding and fathering of livestock and the provision of veterinary services.

Even with the creation of new states which gave birth to Anambra State, things were not better as the Abudu Cattle Ranch the only service of cattle meat in the East, went to Cross River state. In the end, it was observed that the output of animals products are falls below the minimum nutritional requirements lending to severe deficiencies. This situation was not better at MPU where many people had never eaten an egg in a year as against the re commended average of about 240 eggs in a year per person. Even vegetables an alternative source of protein was rarely available as only fluted pumpkins leaves are occasionally used to make soup.

The foregoing indicates that despite several actions by both the government and few individuals the solution to the chronic deficiency in qualitative for output is far from being solved as the following latent problems still exist:

  • Insufficient supply of hatchable eggs and day-old chicks are still experienced even with substantial amount of import. Hence peasant poultry farmers could be seen booking for order and waiting for weeks without supply.
  • There is still no base stock in which future improvement in the country might be based. It is in appreciation of these problems that the national seminar or universities of Agriculture recommended research in the establishment of based stock of poultry in the country.
  • Lack of Adequate qualitative feed appropriate to the age and use of the extent of feed development in the country, information collected from few available poultry house and farmers indicates that poultry feeds are a very critical factor in poultry management. The quality of feed can undermine the health and laying ability of birds. There is therefore the need to formulate a standard feed based for the country.
  • The dietary protein requirement is yet to be met.
  • Apart from feeds, there is insufficient Medicare and veterinary attention resulting from short veterinary.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Recent reports from several hospitals in the country tell of increased incidence of “Kwashiorkor” and other food deficiency disease reminiscent of the situation during Nigerian civil war. Medical experts believe that most of those deficiency diseases arise fromlow intake of protein foods, which is essential for body building and the synthesis of certain essential vitamins the mayor source of protein deficiency is caused by low protein intake. This situation is not different are MPU where available local birds are specifically reserved for sacrifices and few special occasion and meat supply from bush meat has been threatened by massive deforestation aimed at promoting crop production.

The low meat supply and the subsequent high cost of meat has further threatened the United Nations target of “Health for all by the year 2000”.It is opinion of the researcher that the solution to this problem lies in the efficient and domestication of chicken with a view to increasing livestock supply at an affordable price consumer.This will be the major trust of the project. Therefore, the development in the world oil market has confirmed that the nation can no longer afford to concentrate on exchanges. This solution has therefore prescribed the need to harness alternative sources of export income to the nation. It is on record that poultry contributes about 7 billion dollars to the United Nations national income in 1970. An annual contribution of about 700 million dollars is reported for the conclusion economy. Among these figures, the United Sate export reasonable amount of its production to other countries.
Countries to export and nation income of the named countries are quite promising and elicits efforts on the part of Nigerians to improve their export income and general well-being through a proper management of poultry.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The study seeks to achieve the following objectives:

  1. To determine if the establishment and management of poultry farm contribute to livestock production in Omuma.
  2. To determine if the establishment and management of poultry farm contribute to employment in the area.
  3. To determine if the establishment and management of poultry farm in Omuma help to bridge the rural-urban drift.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

The following are the hypotheses developed for this study:

  1. H0: There is no significant relationship betweenestablishment and management of poultry farm and livestock production.
  2. H0: There is no significant relationship between establishment and management of poultry farm and employment in Omuma area.
  3. H0: There is no significant relationship between the establishment and management of poultry farm and rural-urban drift.

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study will be of immense benefit to three categories of people. Firstly, it will be of an academic benefit to the student and the faculty as it contribute to existing literature. Secondly it will be of great importance to poultry farmers as they would benefit from the articulated literature. Thirdly, it will be of benefit to the government. The government should encourages farming as the way out of starvation and decline in low food production. Thus they will find out the challenges involved in this business and adopt necessary strategies to curb the challenges.


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study integrates the studies on small scale business, poultry farm and management. However, the study is limited by time. It does not capture other aspects of agriculture but focuses on poultry farming only.


1.7 Definition of Important Terms

Farmers:

This term is used to describe the art of rearing chicken for meat and egg production.

Pullets:

This refers to the young female birds (chicken) rose for egg production.

Layers:

This is a term used for female’s birds (chicken) which has started dropping eggs.

Broilers:

These are bird (chicken) raised primarily for me at.

Drinkers:

This refers to equipment used to supply drinking water to the chickens.

Feeders:

It refers to equipment used to administer feeds to the chickens.

Extensive Systems:

This is used to describe the management system in which the birds 9chicken) are allowed unrestricted access to sunshine and pasture.

Intensive Systems:

This is a management system which restricts the chicken from access to sunshine and pasture and allows such sunshine and pasture as are supported by the attendant or farmer.

Deep Litter:

This is a kind of intensive system of management in which many birds (chicken) and housed together and the floor of the pen is laid with a depth of litter (absorbent material) to prevent growth of disease organization.


1.8 Organization of the Study

The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to reiterate that the objective of this study was to assess the establishment and management of small scale poultry farm.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in supporting the view that there huge benefits are accrued to the establishment and management of small scale poultry farm.


5.1 Summary

Small Scale poultry farming is can be described as small-scale poultry keeping by households using family labourand, wherever possible, locally available feed resources. The poultry may range freely in the household compound and find much of their own food, getting supplementary amounts from the householder.The study has tried to examine the establishment and management of small scale poultry farm in Nigeria. A review of related and relevant literature has been conducted and the findings has also been done.


5.3 Conclusion

Poultry farming is the process of raising domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food. Poultry are farmed in great numbers with chickens being the most numerous. More than 50 billion chickens are raised annually as a source of food, for both their meat and their eggs.Chickens raised for eggs are usually called layers while chickens raised for meat are often called broilers. It is therefore pertinent to state that the establishment and management of small scale poultry farm is of much benefits to the country as it contributes to livestock production; it provides employment and it reduces the rural-urban drift.


5.4 Recommendation

Based on the above findings, the researcher makes the following recommendatins:

  1. The government and other financial bodies have been contributing to the establishment of these poultry farms, so we urge them to invest more in this profitable venture.
  2. To improve management, the poultry farmers are advised to get more knowledge of the management of poultry farms, bearing in mind the challenges surrounding the business. However, big poultry farm are encouraged to employ personnel with the right knowledge to help manage the venture.
  3. The youths are encourage to turn their gaze to this type of entrepreneurship as this platform provides an opportunity to make money and stay engaged.

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