Influence Of Increase In Price On Poultry Production In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Akure, Ondo State)

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Engineering AE

Influence Of Increase In Price On Poultry Production In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Akure, Ondo State)


Abstract


The study investigated the Economic Impact of poultry production in Nigerian Katsina State based on the total number of 285 poultry farmers in the area in which out of the total number, 100 poultry farmers were selected based on the random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviation and percentages to analyze the Socioeconomic characteristics, management practices, and constraints to the poultry production in the study area. The multiple linear regression model was employed to analyze the productivity of poultry production i.e. Economic Impact. The empirical findings based on the regression results indicated that, backyard poultry experience and level of education had a positive coefficient and statistically significant in influencing output. In other words, costs of labor and feeds had a negative coefficient but significant in explaining output. The R2 value of 0.678 implied that the regression accounted for 67.8% of the variations in the output, while the F-value (4.57) was significant and therefore, implies that all the predictors considered for the analysis jointly exerted significant influence on the output of the poultry production in the area under study. However, the result of the analyses regarding the challenges facing the backyard poultry owners revealed that out of ten (10) problems identified, inadequate fund (98.0%) was ranked highest as the problem encountered by the sampled respondents. The research recommended that government establish agricultural banks with minimum interest rate to helps the poultry farmers in stabilizing the price and create conducive market environment especially during the festive periods.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Birds are natural creatures reared or hunted for useful purpose, belonging to a number of bird groups collectively known as poultry. Most of these birds are domesticated and managed in the same principles as domestic fowl. Most of them belong to avian class example, chicken, duck, guinea fowl, turkey, and geese, etc. Animal protein apart from its palatability is essential for normal physical growth and mental development of men. According to that, its deficiency exerts tremendous adverse effects in terms of reduced human productivity due to abnormal development. Its deficiency can also cause advances in infant mortality, pronounced malnutrition and diseases. This underscores the importance of livestock farming as a means of meeting human nutritional needs as well as improving incomes of farmers and their standards of living.

Before the Second World War, Katsina poultry production often raised small flocks, in villages and some parts of towns as well as at some farms. These small flocks supplied eggs and meat for the family and also for sales in the market. In some areas of Katsina, poultry farming was still raised this way. Since the Second World War, however, the poultry production in Katsina town has become highly popular in the villages; most of the eggs and chickens sold in the markets are now produced in commercial quantity.

Poultry production in Katsina town has two main divisions namely:

  1. Eggs production division, and
  2. Meat production division.

Eggs production division is the division that deals with the production of eggs and sold as table eggs and also sold to the farmers or any other person willing to hatch them for the purpose of breeding. Meat division is the one that deals with the production of chickens broilers and roasters for turkeys, ducks for the purpose of meat and other consumption purposes either at home or other places in the area.

Going by the increase of population in towns, the demand for foods especially protein becomes acute. To meet the demand for animal proteins, the development of animal production, especially in the fast developing and rapidly multiplying areas poultry production becomes necessary. Poultry production in Katsina town has a bright future. The production of poultry is very necessary to meet the high demand of animal protein, meeting the needs of the common man. Chicken has many advantages over other domesticated animals, of which production is costly and highly demanded. It is also being affected by temperature, environmental diseases and lack of food at certain period of time.

Adekanbi, (2000) defines the terms “poultry” as birds that are raised domestically by human being for the purposes of food and other reasons produced freely under intensive management and control. Those birds include chicks, turkey, duck, guinea fowl, pigeon, ostrich, geese, and others as a source contribution of meat and egg production to the economy.

Adoan, (1997) stated that poultry is a range of domesticated birds, such as chickens, ducks, turkeys, guinea fowl, pigeon and geese. Akinsoye, (1976) instead said that poultry is the management of domestic birds raised for food and other economic purposes. Agriculture in Nigeria today is a popular business undertaken by the people. “Famous Agriculture” business magazine (1993) referred to poultry as the raising of chicken either for meat or for egg production. Poultry production also refers to poultry farming of birds reared or hunted for useful purposes (Oluyemi, et al, 1979). The number of the bird groups collectively is known as poultry.

Youdewen, (1986) on the other hand analyzed poultry as a general terms for birds of several species such as chickens, fowls, turkeys, ducks, geese, guinea fowl, pea fowl, pigeons, partridges, ostriches, and other domestic birds. Accordingly, poultry production has Economic Importance that has ever been useful to peoples since time immemorial. Hence, they kept poultry of different sizes and had been the contribution to men. Poultry can be regarded as a source of food for men, because eggs and meats have been recognized as the most balance diet, with vitamins and nutrition that people need. Most of the producing eggs are used in soap industries, and bakeries industries for producing bread for human consumptions, and some are used for vaccines drugs. Similarly, eggs can be used as poultry production output as a resources as well as its’ provides meats which is acceptable all over the world as a food for human consumption and economic growth.

Despite the fact that urban poultry production has become the most rapidly developing enterprises especially in Katsina where the research is carrying out. The industry in the area has not attained the expected level of economic impact among participating members. This opinion was supported by Adekanbi, (2000) in which his research work stated that, the following factors that causeslow productivity of poultry in Nigeria includes: problems of poor selections of the birds by farmers, which must of the time, may cause low productivity. Normally production is usually slow due to such problems. It is advisable for farmers to keep males chickens away from the layers stock, and it is the objective of farmers to produce table eggs, which will contribute towards income generating abilities to generateEconomic growth.

Another thing we need to consider is the age of the poultry also a factor that needs to be observed. Because the old ones do not lay often and do not yield good quality meats. Therefore keepings layers, broilers for more than one laying year can bring about low production. We observethat poor feeding and lack of diseases control are among the factors militating rapid growth of the poultry,

Moreover, the inefficient and unbalanced feed can affect the level of growing (“growth”) and laying capacity of the birds. Many poultry diseases, especially those associated with viruses, have no cure. Lack of disease control within the poultry industries is capable of bringing about low production. Closely alinkedto this factor is poor feeder and water troughs these resulting in wasted and contamination of feeds. Such feeds help to spread disease like coccidiosis. This contributes to the fall in productivity and leading to high mortality rate.

The problem of poultry production in Katsina is associated with inadequate record keeping among the participating members. Good record is an essential part of modern system of poultry management; therefore after exploring this research work we want the Katsina local community to embrace the challenge for economic impact. Lack of accurate records of materials, cost of production, cost of labor and poultry feeds, may consequently determine the output level (Economic Impact) on participating members. Another noticeable problem is the problem of selection of the required poultry in terms of their age, sex, shape, and size, in which finally it might determine the good economic impact. In short accurate and up to date records will enhance the participants’ capacity building and economic growth.

In summary, we were able to determine how the Nigerian Economy may be affected as a result of poultry farming in the country. The research work also has looked into the problems of poultry production and try to find the possible solution to the problems. The literature reviewed in this research work is related to the stated objectives to achieve both general and specific objectives.

1.1.1 Global Perspective of Poultry Production

The levels of profitability for all the areas of organic poultry production examined are low or nonexistent for small-scale production, but it may reach the reasonable level of income for large-scale production, where poultry production is the main or sole enterprise. Profit of about N20,000 may boast the business and economic development and personal income being very marginal. The main reason for positioning across all areas is relatively high, due to human (labor) and cost of capital for small units and gross margins are generally favorable for organic systems. In addition to that, costs of day old chicks and pullets, transport, feedstuffs and processing, packing and marketing are likely to be higher for small producers because of the small quantities involved. At the gross margin level, the primary determinants of profit ability of all systems analyzed are total feed costs (reflecting price, feed conversion efficiency and finishing age) and sales value.

An analysis based on current premium prices and feed costs indicates that both organic meat and egg production can achieve better level of gross margins per bird than any of the alternative production systems evaluated. However, the likely increase in feed prices which would result from the European Union (EU) organic livestock proposal could lead to significant negative gross margins unless prices received by producers increase correspondingly.

The (This) study examines the global overview of the development of the poultry sector and the role of small-scale, family-based poultry production in a developing countries(country). Major initiatives undertaken to develop poultry as (economic activities) for rural development and their rationale are presented. The constraints facing the future of small-scale poultry production are statedwith a particular focus on poultry diseases given the current outbreak or highly pathogenic avian influenza in Asia. Geographical hot spots are identified where intervention is urgently required and where small-scale poultry (farming) has the potential to give a substantial impact. Finally, there is the need for more long- term and wider perspectives in the policies and strategies guiding the development of the poultry sector (Otte, 2000).

Dolberg, et al. (2003) stated that the evolution in the work of government of Bangladesh into the poultry production in the area by bringing some models which have been very effectives in reading? and involving poor people on economic development on poverty reduction through poultry production program. The idea was to replicate large scale commercial poultry production with small-scale service production and consumer units was being participated ones (Mack, et al 2005).

Poultry production has been regarded as the traditional component of small and large farms that can contribute large quarter? to the developing world economy. In Africa, it was estimated that 80% of the poultry production was found in these production system that contribute up to 90% of the chickens reared and they supply the bulk of the national requirements of eggs and meat for the urban populations (Moreki, 2006).

1.1.2 Structure of the Nigerian Economy

Nigeria is a middle-income mixed market economy with expanded financial services, communications and entertainment sectors. It is ranked 30th (40th in 2005, 52nd in 2000) in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) as of (2012) and 2nd largest within Africa (after South Africa). On the track to be one of the 20th largest economies in the world by (2020), poultry farmers have to contribute their quarter. Emerging through current performing manufacturing sector, Nigeria is the third largest country on the continent, and produces a large number of population that need goods and services in the African region.

Previously hindered by years of mismanagement of economic reforms of the past decade have put Nigeria back on track towards achieving the full economic potential. Nigerian gross domestic product ( GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) has almost trebled from 8170 billion naira in 2000 to 8451 billion naira in (2012), although the estimated size of the in formal sector (which is not including in official figures) put the actual number close to 8630 billion naira corresponding. The gross domestic product(GDP) doubled from 81,400 per person in (2000) to an estimated 12,800 per person in 2012 (again with the inclusion of the informal sector, it is estimated that the gross domestic product (GDP) and per capita incomes round to 83.900 per person). While, the country population increased from 120 million in (2000) to 160 million in (2010). These figures might be revised upwards by as much as (40%) when the complete the reversing the economy in (2013) (Economy of Nigeria Wikipedia, (2013).

1.1.3 History of Agriculture in Nigeria

The agricultural sector has suffered mismanagement for many years, and this occurred due to the inconsistent and poorly conceived government policies and the lack of basic infrastructures. Still, the sector accounts for over 26.8% of GDP and provides two thirds of employment opportunity. But Nigeria is no longer a major exporter of cocoa, groundnuts (peanuts) rubber and palm oil. Cocoa production mostly from absolute varieties and average trees is stagnant at around 180,000 tons annually where 25 years ago it was 300,000 tons. An even more dramatic decline in groundnut and palm oil production has also taken place.

Once the biggest poultry producer in Africa, corporate poultry output in Nigeria has from 40 million birds annually to 18 million, Import constrains limit the availability of many agricultural and food processing inputs for poultry and other sectors. Fisheries, most critical for the country’s future are poorly managed, Also, Nigeria’s land tenure system does not encourage long-term investment in technology or modern production method and does not inspire the availability for rural credit (Economy of Nigeria, WIKIPEDIA).

1.1.4 Poultry Production in Nigeria

Before the outbreak of HPAH in 2006, the poultry population in Nigeria was estimated at around 150 million, with a large majority of local chicken and a minority of exotic breeds. Maps?, Annexes 6 and 7, show the available data concerning the Nigerian poultry sector as presented in graphics 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.

  1. Sectors 1: Industrial Integrated System
  2. Sectors 2: Commercial Production System
  3. Sectors 3: Small-scale Commercial Production System
  4. Sectors 4: Village or Backyard System. Nevertheless, the parameters that differentiate the four sectors vary from country to country.

At this point, it is necessary to clarify interpretation of the term “backyard” because it may generate confusion in the FAO scheme. Backyard indicates a low level Input and Output production sector, comparable to the village or scavenging system. In Nigeria, however, backyard is interpreted literally as “at the back of the yard” and is often used to identify the lowest level sector, characterized by improved flock management and at the same time with a primarily commercial objective. The researchers also observed the so-called backyard with 1000 layers and (500) broilers.

Drawing on the opinion of representatives of the Nigerian veterinary services, (previous studies and personal observations) the four sectors in Nigeria may be roughly divided in terms of scale of production as follows:

  1. Sector 1: Commercial (more than 10,000 birds)
  2. Sector 2: Medium scale commercial (2500 – 10,000 birds)
  3. Sector 3a: Small-scale commercial (500 – 2500 birds)
  4. Sector 3b: Backyard (a few 1500 birds)
  5. Sector 4: Rural (a few 200 birds or more)

But this is just theoretical because the management practices of sectors 2 and 3, and part of sector 1, are the same poultry production differs more in relation to the environment then size. In the northern part of the country (Katsina) for example, marked by drier conditions and notables fluctuations of temperature between day and night, flocks are better protected from the external climatic attack then in the southern part of the country, where production also differs in relation to above scheduled.

The above drawn schedule describes the nature of poultry production with giving certain basic criteria. The nature and aims of production, the species of the birds involved, flock management, poultry marketing and commercialization, the level of investment in bio-security. Similarly, the study divides Nigerian poultry production into three sectors.

  • Industrial sectors are the sector represented by 10 highly integrated industries, most of them with foreign French sign or entrepreneur in Europe. They are the foundation of the entire commercial production system, hold parent and grandparent stocks, and produce the day old chickens (DOCS), they have some level of integration with, breeding rearing and commercial activities and machine automation (feed milks, incubators, cooling facilities) and produce all or part of their feed requirements. This report does not deal with this sector.
  • Commercial sector (part of sector and all farms in sectors 2 and 3) thus sector includes the so called backyard farms.
  • Traditional sector. This sector includes all sorts of scavenging birds, in both rural and urban areas in most of town in the country the sector is variously called traditional village local rural or free range. (An assessment of Nigeria poultry market chain, (2008)

Adekanbi, (2000) defines the term “poultry” as a bird that are raised domestically by human being for the purposes of getting food and other reasons produced freely under his management. Those birds include chicks, turkey, duck, guinea fowl, pigeon, ostrich, geese, and other ones. There are principle raised for eggs production and meat.
Adoan, (1997) stated the mean of poultry as to a range of domesticated birds, such as chickens, ducks, turkeys, guinea fowl, pigeon and geese. While, Akinsoye, (1976) said poultry is the management of domestic birds raised for food and other economics purposes. Agriculture today in Nigeria is the famous business of the peoples. In famous agriculture business magazine (1993) examined poultry as the raising of chicken either broilers (for meat production) or a layers (for eggs production). Oluyemi, et al. (1979) refers poultry farming as any birds reared or hunted for a useful purpose, the number of the birds group collectively is known as poultry.

Youdewen, (1986) analyze poultry as a general term for birds of several species such as chickens, fowls, turkeys, ducks, geese, guinea fowl, pea fowl, pigeons, partridges, ostriches, pea saints, and other homes birds. Poultry production has extensive economic importance and the has ever been dear to peoples from time immemorial, hence they kept poultry of different sizes and mates the stated contribution to man, poultry product will be regards as the sources of food to the human being because it produces eggs and meats that we recognized as the most balance diet vitamins and nutritious of all animal product that peoples need or wants. Most of the producing eggs are used in soup industries, and bakeries industries for producing bread for home consumptions, and paints all so vaccines production also belong to the output for poultry resources and lasting meat we eat is acceptable all over the world as a food human body wants.

Despite the fact that urban poultry production has become the most rapidly developing enterprises especially in Katsina where will be my case study area, the industry in the area has not attained the expected level. It is against the background that Adekanbi, (2000) stated the following factors that causes of low productivity of poultry in the area. One of the problems facing the sectors is poor selections of the birds by the farmers sometimes may cause low productivity normally production is usually low because of that problems, it is advisable for farmers to keep males chickens away from the layers stock, it is objective of the farmers is to stable egg which will contribute towards the income generating abilities of the farmers.

Another thing we need to consider is the age, is also a factor, that has been observed by the consultant, old ones do not lay often and do not yield good quality meats. Therefore keepings layer, broilers for more than one laying year can bring about low production of poultry in the area. Observe stated that on how a poor feeding and lack of diseases control are facing the growth productivity of the sector that brought inefficient and unbalanced feed can affect the level of growing and laying capacity of the birds. Many poultry diseases, especially these associated with viruses, have no cure, lack of disease control within the poultry industries is capable of bringing about low production closely allied to this factor are poor feeder and water troughs these result is wasted and contamination of feeds. Such feed help to spread disease like coccidiosis, this contribute to lowering of productivity and bring more mortality rate to the higher level.

In summary we are able to state how the Nigerian economy is and how the sector are breaks through what the poultry production is contributing towards the life and economy of the people living in the area. We also state on how the sector is having problem, and what will be problem of the sector, the literature are review on how the general objective can be improved, and the issue of specific objective is been solve by determining the level of output and those the poultry production have an economic impact or net.


1.2 Research Problem

The low level of literacy of the production farmers in Nigeria has resulted in poor Understanding of the required amount of Inputs to bring about the optimum output and subsequently the quality and quality of output that will bring Economic Impact directly to the general well being of the farmers themselves.


1.3. The problem Statement

It was difficult for the government to market the idea of the best poultry farming method to the farmers. They are illiterate to fully comprehend the impact of poultry farming on the Economy of Nigeria.

However, from the above problem background, the research work has intended to elaborate some of the current issues in the field of poultry production in Katsina. These issues include the problem within the background of the respondents, which it may occur due to low level of literacy. This means that, there is low level of literacy among the participant. There is problem of knowing the required level of Inputs that can determine the economic Impact among the participating members. There is problem of knowing the required number of poultry that can easily be manage and taking care up effectively for quality and quantitative output for economic impact directly to the general wellbeing of the members. These are consequently what attributed to poor economic growth.

In addition to that, among other problems include the problem of marketing, poor electricity, good road networks, fencing and ventilating cage and Extension worker.

The discovery of oil at the late 1960’s, and its subsequent boom in the early 1970’s, there was a shift of emphasis from agriculture-dominated the economy of the country totally to that oil; this had far reaching implication for food security and sustainable and economic development of the country.

In the last decade Nigeria witness a progressive decline in its domestic food supply, both in calories and animal protein. As a result, the federal government of Nigeria resorted to massive importation of food stuff including poultry products (Ogunbanmeru, 1986).

Some of the problems the research work intended to are as follows:

  1. Marketing problem:- A modern system of poultry production cannot thrive without a well-organized marketing, the Katsina state have to make adequate arrangement for the disposed of its finished products in the market, the producers may have to spend some money to advertised their eggs and birds and make personal contracts with those they think are likely to purchase them. They should reach and arrangement with individuals on the price of their product and their quantity they will be able to supply regularly.
  2. Lack of proper sanitation: – It is best to adopt management practices that will prevent the problem of pest and diseases that are most prevalent. In duck, are Mareks diseases, new castle diseases, Gambaro, fowl pox and fungal diseases Coccidiosis both internal and external parasites, such as red mice and scaly, leg metes are also problems to contend with.
  3. Housing problem: – Housing is one of major problems facing poultry production in Katsina Local Government Area, Lack of housing expose the poultry to adverse weather, rain, winds sun and cold, weather, including predator’s kike hawks, cats and even human beings (thieves).
  4. Temperature: – The best temperature in Katsina poultry production depends on local weather condition excessive temperature in Katsina local government area will affect poultry production among others.

Some of the issues geared to this research work are practical issues, like lack of participation by some community members’ low level of input which consequently led to low level of output (economic impact). While some issues are theoretical issues, like lack of research similar to this conducted in the area, as such no available literature to be found. But notwithstanding, the researcher is able to find some relevant text that can serve as relevant materials for guide and making the research work successful and completion of the work within the short period of time.

It is a known fact that poultry production can enables members to produce more meats and eggs, which translates into better diets and under good market. Similarly, its’ pave ways for Farmers to earn more income (economic impacts) for the economic growth and general wellbeing of the members.

The fact that village chickens are adapted to harsh environment stresses most rural areas and their contribution to rural economy is low.

Shumba, et al (1988) stated that, there is limited reliable information on performance level, constraints and opportunities of village chickens in the area; this makes it difficult to design and implement village chicken based development programmers that benefit rural livelihoods. Production constrains is another problems of reproductive wastage and mortality village chicken flock productivity is mainly determined by egg production hatchability, Chicks survivability and growth rates. (Tadelle, et al 2003).

Pedersen, (2002) any management factors that would have a positive impact on eggs production and chick survival can be used to increase the output from village chicken flocks. The flocks’ size is a function of egg production per hen and the proportion of mature laying hens in a flock (katalyi. 1998). Various studies done in the smallholder communal areas showed average flock size of between 15 and 20 chickens (Pedersen 2002) challenge of improving productivity of their flock in terms of quantity of food (meat) and incomes generated from their sales, another one are particularly great in western part of the area where indigenous chicken production is characterized by low levels of inputs and outputs with low productivity levels, which limits their potential for commercialization (Okitoi, et al. 2007). The potential of indigenous chickens in this region is not fully exploited when compared to the hybrid industrial chicken despite the growing preference for their meat and egg they are familiar with the consumers due to their tasty, safety and nutritious qualities and increasing shift towards traditional produced animal products Upton (2000).


1.4 Research Questions

In an attempt to conduct a study on Influence of increase in Price on poultry Production in Nigeria, the study needs to critically examine these research questions for clarity and genuinely of the research work, analysis and interpretation of the central focus of the research work were conducted with help of STATA software. The traceable questions this research work plan to identify and seek for their solutions include

  1. What are the backgrounds of the respondents?
  2. What are the levels of poultry production, inputs, outputs, and Economic Impact among the participating members?
  3. What are the relationship between poultry production, inputs, outputs, and economic impact of the respondents?

1.5 Objectives of the Study

The general objectives of the research work, is to evaluate and analyze Influence of increase in Price on poultry Production in Nigeria.

Specific objectives are as follows:

  1. To identify the background of the respondents
  2. To determine the levels of poultry production, inputs and output (Economic Impact)
  3. To determine the relationship between poultry production, inputs and outputs (Economic Impact).

1.6 Significance of the Study

The methodology vise in successful carrying out of the research is through review of the main Economic Variables in production like Input, Output, and finally the End Results (Economic Impact).

Factors of production was also Observed like land (farm size), lab our, capital entrepreneur and market. The research works also use questionnaire method in collecting the first hand Information from the potential respondents.

Moreover, the contribution of this research work include

  1. The study is intended to focus on the Importance of poultry production in Katsina.
  2. The research work is trying to see how possible the poultry farmers can improve their capital and Economic wellbeing.
  3. The research work was also intended to Investigate the problem of poverty among the Katsina local government through massive investment in poultry farming.
  4. The research is also trying to see how possible the governmental and non-governmental organization will empower the poultry farmers to maximize their farm productivity.
  5. The research is also intended to investigate social capital among the participating members of poultry producers.

1.7. Methodology

This study is based on a questionnaire survey that consists of quantitative approach for data analysis. Secondary data and views from the expert have been analysed. This sets the direction for an effective questionnaire design, which was used as a pilot tested, before distribution, by sampling to households in Katsina.

The target population are poultry farmers who have the birds in their farm and they could probably form the largest group that generate more outputs as their products. There are two types of poultry farmers these are eggs producers and meat producers. In this study both the two types of poultry farmers were used for the sampling technique due to the fact that most of the poultry farmers under study area combined the two in their poultry yard.

The target population are poultry farmers who have the birds in their farm and they could probably form the largest group that generate more outputs as their products. There are two types of poultry farmers these are eggs producers and meat producers. In this study both the two types of poultry farmers were used for the sampling technique due to the fact that most of the poultry farmers under study area combined the two in their poultry yard.

The target population are poultry farmers who have the birds in their farm and they could probably form the largest group that generate more outputs as their Products. There are two types of poultry farmers these are eggs producers and meat producers. In this study both the two types of poultry farmers were used

The main aim of this study is to assess the Economic Impact of poultry farming in Nigeria, Katsina state. Research questions were formulated and developed in this research.

Besides the primary datawere collected by survey, secondary data (such as articles from books, journals, magazines, and newspaper) that are generally about poultry farming and management as well as relevant literatures and survey-based data were utilized to meet the study’s objectives.

Lastly but not the least, a computer program package of STATA, version 11 was utilised to facilitate the statistical analysis and result tabulation of the data collected. The analysis included descriptive statistics, factor analysis and multiple regressions.

The main aims of this study are to assess the Economic Impact of poultry production in Nigerian, Katsina state. Research questions were formulated and developed in this research. Besides the primary data were collected by survey, secondary data (such as articles from books, journals, magazines, and newspaper) that are generally about poultry farming and management as well as relevant literature and survey-based data were utilized to meet the objectives of the study.


1.8 Organization of Study

This research is organized in five chapters which consist of:

  1. Chapter One – Introduction, This chapter presents the background of the research, research problems, research questions, research objectives as well as significant of the study.
  2. Chapter Two – Literature Review, This chapter presents a theoretical literature on the subject matter by discussion the measure aspect of poultry production, its problems and the determinants.
  3. Chapter Three – Methodology, in this chapter the general methods used in this research were stated. This include theoretical framework of the research, model specification, sampling design and method of data collection.
  4. Chapter Four – Results and Discussion, This chapter presents and analyses the data by first presenting descriptive statistics and regression analysis with the aid of STATA 11 software.
  5. Chapter Five – Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations, This chapter summarizes the major findings of the research, conclusion as well as recommendations based on the findings of the research.

1.9.0 Scope and limitation of the Study

The scope of the study is to explore the influence of increase in Price on poultry Production in Nigeria, Katsina State, and centered to only participating members in the field of poultry production. The total of 570 population sample were surveyed and selected, out of this figure the researcher arrived at 100 sample size according Kreijcie and Morgan (1977) table of sample size dueto the reason of illiteracy and lack of confidence in answering question from the respondent the researcher decidedto use 100 sample size instate of the exactlynumbers .

1.9.1 Research Gap

Many researches were conducted globally in line with poultry production but they filled to include the Economic Impact. The current research was able to find this gap and by constructing the research topic to address the Economic Impact of poultry production in Nigeria, Katsina state through an established frame work to address the Input, Output and Economic Impact.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The research work is finally summarized that, despite the importance role of poultry farming among the peoples of Katsina community. The respondent and field observation shown that there are problems which can state as follows: The issues include the problem of within the respondent’s background, which it may occur due to low level of literacy. This means that, there is low level of literacy among the participant, and there is problem of knowing the required level of Inputs that can determined the Economic Impact among the participating members, There is problem of knowing the required number of poultry bird that can easily be manage and taking care up effectively for quality and quantitative output for Economic Impact directly to the general wellbeing of the members. These are consequently what attributed to poor Economic growth.

In addition to that, among other problems include the problem of marketing, poor electricity, good road networks, fencing and ventilating cage and Extension workers.

Similarly the Researcher use descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviation, percentages to analyze the socioeconomic characteristics, management practices, constraints to poultry production in the study area. The multiple linear regression models were employed to analyze the productivity of poultry production i.e. Economic Impact.

The study investigate the Economic Impact of poultry production in Nigeria Katsina State based on the total number of 285 poultry farmers in the area in which out of the total number 100 poultry farmers were selected based on the random sampling technique. The respondent of the study were selected from four areas within the Area under study; namely: Kofar Kwaya Katsina area, Kofar Marusa Gida Daya Lay Out Katsina, Shagari Low Cost Sabon Fegi Katsina and Kofar ‘Yan Daka Katsina.

The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics to analyze the socioeconomic characteristics, management practices, constraints to poultry production in the study area. The multiple linear regression models were employed to analyze the productivity of poultry production i.e. Economic Impact.

The empirical findings based on the regression results indicated that, backyard poultry experience and level of education had a positive coefficient and statistically significant in influencing output. It means that any increase in their value, will increase backyard poultry output. It explicitly indicated that the higher the number of years in backyard poultry production couples with advancement in the level of education would definitely increase and boost production efficiency vis-à-vis output. In other way round, costs of labour and feeds had a negative coefficient and significant in explaining output. It implies that any increase in their value will reduce output.
Lastly the research work is to recommend that government and non-governmental, should work together in ameliorating the problems for the general wellbeing of Katsina state local government.


5.2 Conclusion

The study investigated the influence of increase in Price on poultry Production in Nigeria. It was observed that the enterprise was profitable despite the constraints affecting the poultry owners in the study area. Poultry farming experience and level of education increase the productivity of the enterprise significantly, while costs of labour and feeds were significantly reduced in order to maximize output. Therefore, poultry owners should pay close attention to these factors in order to boost poultry production. The amount spent on labour should be drastically reduced while local feeds can be encouraged among the poultry owners by using concentrates feed stuffs like dried cassava peel and rice bran so that the costs expended on the two variables can be reduced in order to boost poultry productivity.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this research, it indicated that, working experience and level of education have positive impact of poultry production in the study area. Therefore, any individuals want engage in poultry farming in the study area there is the need for him to learn the process of poultry farming before he invest his resources in to the system.

More so, the findings indicated that, poultry farmersfaced challenges on funds, prices and market, and extension services, it is therefore recommended that government should establish agricultural banks close to the farmers with minimum interest rate and as well help the poultry farmers in stabilizing the price and create conducive market environment most especially during the festive periods.

Competent extension workers should be employed to visit and enlighten poultry owners on the technicality of production processes and how they can formulate feeds for their birds. This will not only enhance the skills of the farmers but also create employment opportunity mainly to the youth and profoundly increase their incomes.
Moreover, poultry owners should therefore pay close attention to the factors (especially costs of labour and feeds) in order to boost poultry production. The amount spent on labour should be drastically reduced while local feeds can be encouraged among the poultry owners by using concentrates feed stuffs like dried cassava peel and rice bran so that the costs expended on the two variables can be reduced in order to boost poultry productivity.
Since the poultry farming is profitable in the study area government should encourage farmers to engage in poultry farming by provide favorable environment which have a multiplier effect on poverty reduction in the area.


5.4 Policy Implications and Recommendation

The result of this study implies that young people has dominated the poultry production in Katsina. Therefore, study is recommending the policy makers and community leaders to encourage the ageing population to participate in this project. Because it requires less energy only that the ageing group can employed working class to take care in the production site.

Moreover, the results of the finding shows that, about 54% of the respondents were female, indicating that female dominated the enterprise. The probable reason is because female has enough time in taking good care of birds at home more than male most especially rearing of the local birds. Author of the current study is to recommend the policy makers (governmental and non-governmental organizations) to encourage the male to participate actively for the general wellbeing of the community.

Majority of the respondents (77%) had been in backyard poultry business for at least 6 years’ old. This implies that the sampled respondents were well groomed and experienced in the enterprise. Moreover, the policy makers should encourage the use of out sketch settlement area and improve the size and location for poultry production for Economic wellbeing.

Educational factor, indicated that, 70% of the sampled respondents were educated and had at least primary school education. In line to this government and non-governmental organization should encourage the use of higher learning of education in this program? This may reduce the rate of unemployment in the country.

Result of this study shown that, there was a problems related to lack of fund, instability of price and market problem, good medical care and health personnel. Therefore, government and non-governmental organization should try to improve and ameliorate these problems for farmers and country economic growth.


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