Poultry Farming: A Veritable Tool For Economic Empowerment (A Case Study Of De-Olabs Farm, Otan-Ayegbaju, Osun State)
This project work is primarily designed to provide complete understanding of poultry farming as an economic tool commercial poultry farming is practiced by most rural households throughout the developing world; despite the fact that its contribution to livelihoods appears to be of little nominal value when observed by researchers and other outsiders. This project utilizes sustainable livelihood framework to view how commercial poultry contributes to households. The method of data collection for the project are through: questionnaire, personal interview, observation while the data collected were analyzed with the use of Chi-square in the testing of hypothesis. It was asserted that employment opportunity can be enhanced by the engagement of Nigerians in poultry farming as a venture.
Commercial poultry production is practiced by most rural households through out developing world, despite the fact that its contribution to livelihoods appears to be of little nominal value when observed by researchers and other outsiders. This project utilizes sustainable livelihood frame work to review how commercial poultry contributes to households and livelihoods.
It would be recalled that the rate of unemployment in Nigeria is very high as reflect by the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) with the statistics that 700,000 jobs were available in the country compared with 7,000,000 graduates being turned out by Nigeria Universities. This is as a result of imbalance in labour supply, rapid population growth rate and faulty educational system among others.
This project write up will focus attention on commercial poultry farming production. A prospective commercial poultry farmer should consider the following factors for the establishment of poultry farming:
These include broiler production, egg production, and marketing.
Broiler: is a North American term used to describe young male or female chicken less than 12 weeks old based on fast growing breeds, reared and sold specifically for poultry meat. For broiler production, the rapidity of turnover is very high and the current projected profit per broiler is 300.
Egg production: the expansion of the business of egg production can partly be attributed to quick turn over. The current estimated gross or net daily profit from the sale of eggs ranges from #2,000 layers is #5000 depending of course on the use of birds of superior genotype, provision of favourable environment and managerial skill.
Location of the Poultry Farming
Legal clearance must be obtained from appropriate authority before establishing poultry enterprise to prevent the demolition of structures, culminating in the termination of the enterprise. The enterprise must not be a source of nuisance in the nature of fowl odor and noise to neighbor . Ensure access to water, electricity and proper damage.
Capital Outlay: This will depend on the size and type of operation and the management system. For the take off, personal savings of up to #250,000 can be utilized particularly for small scale broiler production. Alternatively Agricultural Bank Loans on liberal terns can be considered. Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme (ACGSF) and the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) poultry farming scheme can as well provide loans to prospective farmer.
Manpower Required: For a small scale operation, one poultry attendant should be able to manage a minimum of 2,000 birds either on the deep litter system or in cage. Occasional operations such as manual removal of drops and vaccination require additional labor which could be provided by the members of the family.
Feed Supply: In Nigeria, feed cost accounts for about 70% of the cost of poultry production. This is due to the high cost of some critical feed ingredients (e:g maize and soya beans ) which are needed in poultry ration. From the standpoint of a profitable enterprise, the genetic potential of the birds is the beginning of employment. This research is determined to critically examine poultry farming as a veritable tool economic empowerment in Nigeria.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
Poultry farming as a veritable tool for economic empowerment depends largely on the attractiveness of this agricultural sector to the Nigerian youth (young graduates), government support in terms of financial support (loan, overdraft) and market potentials for poultry products. In view of this, the following highlighted problems are intended to be solved by this research work.
- Can poultry farming actually provide economic power to the Nigerian youth?
- Is poultry farming business feasible in the Nigerian economy?
- Will the Land Use Act of 1978 (LUA 1978) not be a stumbling block to the attainment of poultry farming as a business concern?
1.2 Objective of the Study
The objective of the research study work is to examine poultry as a veritable tool for economic empowerment.
1.3 Scope of the Study
This research work focuses on poultry farming as an economic tool tool for man`s empowerment. Majorly to be investigated is egg production as a means of livelihood. Therefore, it is limited to a local commercial poultry farm in Osun State as a case study.
This study intends to analyze the relevant process of egg production and the attracting factors to the Nigerian youth.
1.4 Research Methodology
The research will be conducted to examine poultry farming as an economic tool in the hands of Nigerian youth. The source to be used for this study is based on data collected through the two available sources, which are primary and secondary data.
The primary source includes data collection through personal observation, interview, questionnaire, and other primary means of getting information.
The secondary source includes the use of journals, newspapers, internet, annual reports of agricultural agencies and some other relevant text books.
In the analysis of questionnaire, which were administered in order to get information from the customers and the employees of the enterprise, simple percentage will be used to present the various data and Chi-Square will also be used test the relevant hypothesis.
Chi-Square is a non-parameters measure that does not depends on population but deals with frequency count.
Chi-Square is defined by the formulae
= At 5% level of significance = 0.05
= Degree of freedom is given by the formula =(r-1) (c-1)
1.5 Statement of Research Hypothesis
Since the paramount aim of this study is to examine poultry farming as an economic tool for economic empowerment. The following hypothesis is thereby drawn for the purpose of this study.
H1: poultry farming as an economic tool enhances employment opportunity
H0: poultry farming as an economic tool does not enhance employment opportunity.
1.6 Research Question
Research question are declarative statement meant to obtain answer which will state what the researcher is looking for the purpose of this research, the major questions are:
- Can poultry farming business feasible in the Nigeria economy?
- Can poultry farming actually provide economic power to the Nigeria youth?
1.7 Justification of the Study
The researcher therefore, belief that by studying poultry farming, it will be of benefit to the economy and individuals alike. It will be beneficial to the economy in the sense that it will help us determined how self employable Nigeria youth can be by engaging in poultry farming.
This study will equally evaluate opinion of Nigerian on how they perceive poultry farming as a means of livelihood. In addition, this study will serve as a reference point for future researchers who wants to embark on a project alike.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In the course of justifying this research work, information were difficult to access because of the strict knowledge and technical know-how of poultry farming which is not available to the researcher. Other constraints include among others:
Transportation is one of the problem encountered during the period going up and down to the industry to get the needed information.
Another problem is the associated problem in the process of data collection in relation to scheduling of time. The scarcity of text books as well as on-line materials .
This project research as a limited time lag within which the research work is to be carried out, completed and submitted for approval. As a result, more data pertaining to the subject matter of this research could not be collected and gathered for analysis.
There is also the shortage of funds to carry out this research findings at the researcher’s disposal.
Lack of Cooperation:
Some of the respondents were reluctant or refuse to obtain questionnaire from the researcher on the pretext of time wasting and others who misplaced theirs even misplaced them.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Is a North American terms used to describe young male or female chicken less than 12 weeks old based on fast growing breeds, reared and sold specifically for poultry meat.
There are the fowls kept in a poultry being provided with all the foods they need by the chicken raiser.
It is an economic indicator that refers to the number of people in an economy who are willing and able to work, but are unable to get a job; a person in this situation is said to be unemployed
This is a feeder of carved stone, wood, or metal construction used to hold food for animals (as in a stable)
This is a term used to mean a program that seek to directly (not through education or health) help people raise their incomes and standard of living. Empowerment refers to the spiritual, political, social, or economic strength of individuals and communities.
Collection of young animal who exist in the same space.
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
This chapter focuses on summary of research findings, conclusion drawn from the whole study and recommendation to help the general public to understand and see the importance of poultry farming as a veritable tool for economic empowerment.
The research is based on poultry farming as a veritable tool for economic empowerment among the Nigerian youths, using De-Olabs Investment Nigeria Limited as a case study.
De- Olabs Investment Nigeria Limited was established in November 12, 2010 initially at the backyard of the private house of the director situated at Estate in Iree. The poultry was starred with about 1250 birds but, now it is having about 6000 birds. The company has been on the increase ever since the company was floated 37.66% increase between January and February sales in the year 2012.
Conway (1991)”a livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets and activities required for a means of living; a livelihood is sustainable when one can cope and recover from stress, maintain or enhances its capabilities and assets and sustainable livelihood opportunities for the next generation, and which contributes net benefits to other livelihoods at the local and global levels and in the short and long term”.
The business of poultry farming can be carried out under the following systems: (a) scavenge-based poultry system (b) free-ranged system (c) intensive system.
Choosing a chicken breed involves lots of factors to be considered, they are:
- Market situation
- Farm management, and
- Local preference and availability.
In the course of the research, the Instruments of data collection used in the project were: questionnaire, personal interview, observation. 50 questionnaires were analyzed and Chi-Square was used in the testing of hypothesis which comes to a logical conclusion that poultry farming as an economic tool enhances employment.
Considering all that have been discussed so far, this dissertation with special interest in De-Olabs Investment Nigeria Limited, it is my opinion that I have taken necessary efforts to explore poultry farming as an economic tool that enhances employment opportunity. I feel and belief that my analysis, observation and recommendation are all right within the limit of human error.
On the whole, the analysis of the hypothesis stated and analyzed in chapter four asserts that employment opportunity can be enhanced by the engagement of Nigerian youth in poultry farming as a venture.
In order to live upto the competitive and challenging spate of unemployment in the country, both the government, the Nigerian youth, tertiary institutions should embark on or more of the following itemized points from the researcher`s point of view:
- The government should see as one of her paramount duties to provide loans for fresh graduate who are willing to involve in poultry farming.
- The government also through National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) should place emphasis on entrepreneur as a course in our institutions so that graduating students can be exposed to one vocation, profession_ poultry farming inclusive.
- Youths on their own part should noy be 100% inclined to securing white collar job as there are no jobs out there any more.
- Nigeria tertiary institution can still do better in the production of graduates who possesses entrepreneurship skill.
- The government again can embark on symposium, seminar, conference and summit that will open the eyes of any potential entrepreneur to the gains inherent in poultry products.
5.3 Suggestion for Future Research
The researcher could not get enough information for this project due to time limit, finance and access to comprehensive poultry farming. The researcher is therefore suggesting that enough time should be given in case of further research.
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