Bacterial Contamination Associated With Poultry Feeds From Three Different Companies (Vital Feed, Guinea And Top Feed)

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

Bacterial Contamination Associated With Poultry Feeds From Three Different Companies (Vital Feed, Guinea And Top Feed)


Abstract


The bacteria contamination associated with poultry feeds from three different companies (vital, Guinea, and Top) were studied using streak plate techniques. The culture media used were nutrient agar and MacConkey agar. The aim/Objective of the study is. To ascertain the microbial safety of poultry feeds, to identify the bacterial types and to determine the microbial load of poultry feed. The microbial mean count was highest in vital feed as 1700 per ml followed by Guinea feed having mean count of 1490 per ml and least microbial mean count was got in top feed.

Having 1070 per ml. The study revealed Staphylococcusaureus as the most predominant bacteria organism. Followed bySalmonella typhi, The next bacterial organism isolated wasBacillus cereus with and the least was Pseudomonas aeruginus. Also vital feed has the highest isolation of Staphylococcusaureus. The result showed that the poultry feeds in general had bacterial contamination.

But the microbial load was minimal increasing with decrease in acidity.


Table of Contents


  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of content
  • List of table
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Objective of study
  • 1.2 Aims of study
  • 1.3 Statement of problem
  • 1.4 Limitation of the study
  • 1.5 Significance of study

Chapter Two:

2.0 Literature Review


Chapter Three:

3.0 Materials And Methods

  • 3.1 Materials (see appendix)
  • 3.2 Methods
  • 3.2.1 Sterilization
  • 3.2.2 Sources of sample
  • 3.2.3 Preparation of media
  • 3.2.4 Preparation of sample
  • 3.2.5 Gram staining and microscopic
  • 3.2.6 Biochemical test for identification of bacterial isolates

Chapter Four:

4.0 Results


Chapter Five:

5.0 Discussion Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Discussion
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

List of Table


  • Table 1: Plate count of bacterial from the three different feed samples examined
  • Table 2: Preliminary identification of bacterial isolates
  • Table 3: Biochemical tests for the identification of bacterial isolates for the three different poultry feed
  • Table 4: Average count per ml and types of bacterial isolated from the three different poultry feed

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Poultry are collection of birds raised domestically for meat, egg and feathers, chickens, clucks, turkeys and geese are fowl and squabs are chiefly of local interest. These birds are source of income and food to the rarer. In the past, only hens that could no longer produce eggs were killed and sold for meat but by the mid – 20th century, meat production had outstripped egg. Production as a specialized industry (Barnes, K. 1993)

Today, poultry production in the country is increasing at a tremendous rate and yet cannot meet the demand because of population growth and the awareness created by the campaigns for the need of animal protein in the diet

There are different types of feeds given to poultry birds depending on the purpose, these different types are the breeders, starters, growers and layers feeds. The percentage of each ingredient in the feed varies depending on the type of feed. The ingredient includes ground yellow corn, ground oats.

Poultry have been found to be susceptible to infection due to certain microorganisms and man may be secondarily infected through heavy contaminated food such as poultry meat and eggs. Microorganisms that contaminate feed include,Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Probidence, (Leonard, 1981).


1.1 Objective of Study

The objective of this study is to ascertain the microbial safety of poultry feeds production by companies (Vital, Guinea, and Top).


1.2 Aims of Study

To isolate bacteria that contaminant poultry feeds.


1.3 Statement of Problem

Poultry feed is known to contain Salmonella and other microorganisms. ( Lapidot, 1990). It is therefore pertinent to carry out microbiological examination of commercially prepared poultry feeds to ascertain their safety to livestock.


1.4 Limitation of the Study

This work is limited to bacteria contaminates associated with poultry feeds from three different companies (Top, Guinea, and Vital).


1.5 Significance of Study

At the end of the project work, the results will be a guide to the microbiological safety or otherwise of the commercially prepared poultry feeds.


Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Discussion

The bacterial contaminants associated with commercial poultry feed from three companies was carried out. The highest microbial mean count was got in vital feed as 166 per ml with pH 7.80, folowed by Guinea feed having mean count of 153 per ml with pH 6.46 and the least microbial mean count was got in Top feed, having 105 per ml with pH 6.00.

From the results of this project research, it was found that the number of micro-organisms increased with decreaded in acidity. The vital feed with a pH of 7.8 had the highest microbial mean cousnt. This is in agreement with the view of Abu (1996), who stated that high pH values favour the growth of bacteria. The higher bacterial count may be due to faecal contaminants from the birds. William (1980) showed that poultry feeds which come in contact with faecal matter from poultry haeve high bacterial counts of salmonella. Some of the bacteiral could have been contaminants of the raw materials used for compounding the feeds. Contamination could also have occurred during or after proccessing.

The different types of bacteria isolated from the poultry feeds belong to the genera, staphylococcus, salmonella, Bacillus and pseudomonas. This study revealed starphylococcusauresu as the most predominant bacterial organism with 52cfu (33%), followed by salmonella typhi with 48cfu (30%). The next bacterial organism isolated was Bacillus cereus with 40 cfu (25%) and the least was Pseudomonas acsuginosa with 18 cfu (12%). Also vital feed has the highest isolation of staphylococcus aureus, as 60 cfu per ml followed by Guinea feed having 57 cfu per ml and least isolation was obtained from top feed as 40cfu per ml. While the highest isolation of salmonella typhi was obtained also from vital feed as 57cfu per ml, followed by Gunea feed with 36cfu per ml. The highest isolation of Bacillus cereus was still from vital feed as 50cfu per ml, followed by Guinea feed with 19cm per ml while least isolation was from top feed as 10cfu per ml.

The highest occurrence of staphylococcus aureus could be attributed to its invasiveness and pathogenically (Monica cheesbrough 2000) Naturally occurring salmoellatyphi in feeds have been demonstrated to the pathogenic and capable of inducing infection usually in order of 103 and above while salmonella typhi 1 taken in water can cause infection (Gordon and Turker 1965). Riberts (1982) and Barrell (1982) showed that the presence of salmonella typhi in feed is of particular interst due to their observed public health significance such as Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid). Bacillus is usally found in a wide range of habitats. The occurrence of this bacterium in poultry feed is of public health significance as some of them (e.f Bacillus cereus) cause food poisoning. The control of this organism in poultry feed involves both care at the farm and feed processing plants (Thomas et al 1967).

Psendomonas aeruginosa is associated with air, water and soil (Jawetz et al, 1982). Contamination by this bacterium could therefore be from the raw materials used in feed processing or form air.

If the infective dose of certain bacteria such as salmonella typhi are consumed by the birds, there is a tendency for ovarian transmission of bacteria and eggshell contamination. When infected eggs and carcasses from poultry forms are consumed raw or slightly cooked, they could initiate infection in man when counts are up to 105 organisms (Anon, 1983). Some times according to meat et al (1985) and Barnas (1979). The infected, chicken may spontaneously recover from infection, thereby creating situation where the feed may be contaminated with the feed may be contaminate with bacteria but the droppings are negative or contain host adapted organisms.


5.2 Conclusion

The bacterial counts obtained in this study were high and indicated the need for improve sanitary conditions in the factories and farms. Much of the contamination may have occurred after processing since the processing techniques utilized did not destroyed many of the micro-organisms, especially the spore forming organisms. Care should be taken during handling and packaging of the finished product and adequate sanitation of poultry farms will improve the bacteriological characteristics of poultry feeds.


5.3  Recommendations

  1. Condition of feed storage and handling could be a source of contamination, therefore hazard Analytical critical control point (Haccp) should be observed during the harvesting of the raw materials, processing, packaging and storage of the finished product.
  2. Storage conditions of the feeds should not be in a humid environment
  3. To maintain healthy birds, trained personnel should be employed to man poultry houses to ensure that only properly processed feeds are given to the poultry birds.
  4. Well trained personnels should be employed to work in poultry feed factories to ensure well processed poultry feed.

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