Climatic Change; Implication On Poultry Production

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Economics and Extension

Climatic Change; Implication On Poultry Production


Abstract


This study is on climate change: implication on poultry production. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected poultry farms in Delta state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up farm managers, farm attendants, supervisor and junior staffs were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Climatic change is one of the greatest environmental issues of our time. There is a general consensus among scientists, economists and policy makers that the entire globe is facing a real and serious long term threat from climatic change (Obioha, 2009; Hanseur, Baethgeri, Osgood, Ceceato, et al, 2007).

According to Goni et al, (2011), projections by experts suggests that by the end of the 21st century climatic change would have had substantial impact on agricultural production and hence, on the scope for reducing poverty.

The inter-governmental panel on climatic change (IGPC, 2007) defined climatic change as statistically significant variations in climate that persist for an extended period, typically decades or longer. It includes shift in the frequency and magnitude of sporadic weather even as well as the slow continuous rise in global mean surface temperature. The main causes are the increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide (FAO, 2008).

Climatic change is a change in climate that is attributable directly and indirectly to human conditions. It affects atmospheric condition of the earth thereby leading to global warming. According to Raymond and Victoria (2008), climatic change has the potential to affect all natural systems thereby becoming a threat to human development and survival socially, politically and economically. A comprehensive summary by the inter-governmental panel on climatic change in 2007 stated that human actions are very likely the cause of global warming; meaning a 90% or greater probability is attributable to man. Various activities carried out by man have varying contribution to change in climate system. The burning of coal, oil and various agricultural and industrial practices, are altering the composition of the atmosphere and are contributing to climatic change. This human activity leads to increased atmospheric concentration of the number of greenhouse gases which in turn produce greenhouse effect.

Climatic change is a major challenge to agricultural development in Africa and the world at large. Africa is more vulnerable because agriculture is predominantly rain fed and hence fundamentally depends on vagaries of weather (Watson, Zintower and Moses, 1987) climatic change affect agriculture in several ways, one of which is its direct impact on food production. Ozor, et al. (2010) stated that almost all sectors in agriculture crop, livestock, pastoralism and fishery depend on weather and climate whose vulnerability have mean that rural farmers who implement their regular annual farm business plans risk total failure due to climatic change implication.

The poultry site (2009) reported that poultry production is particularly vulnerable to climatic change because birds can only tolerate narrow temperature ranges. Some of the potential disadvantages of climatic change on poultry include- heat stress in both house and outdoor flocks, reduced egg production and growth rate at higher temperature, higher mortality rate, increase persistence of some endo and ecto parasite, increase in appetite of birds, etc.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Poultry production is becoming the first priority of supply of animals’ protein sources and is an income generating activity. FAO (2010) reported that nowadays, poultry meat represent about 33% of the total global meat production.

However, poultry flocks are particularly more vulnerable to climatic change because birds can only tolerate narrow temperature ranges. Studies have shown that the level of performance of birds depends on environmental conditions; which includes temperature, relative humidity, sunshine prevailing at a given time, housing system and ventilation. High temperature and humidity for example have some active effect on poultry. Increase of body temperature, decreases feed consumption and feed efficiency, reduction in life weight, high mortality and decrease in productivity and quality of egg (Ozbey and Oscellic, 2004).

Climatic change poses the challenges of both loss of productivity and increase in cost of production. The question at this juncture is are poultry farmers aware and knowledgeable in climatic change threat?

This study is designed to provide answers to these question and others, relating to climatic change implication on poultry production in Delta State.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of the study is to investigate climatic change implication on poultry production in Delta State. The specific objectives are to:

  1. Examine the demographic characteristics of poultry farmers in Delta State.
  2. Assess the level of awareness of the farmers on implication of climatic change
  3. Examine the sources of information on climatic change
  4. Ascertain the implication of climatic change on poultry production
  5. Examine measure adopted by poultry farmers to control the implication on climatic change

1.4 Research Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1
  • H0: There is no significant relationship between demographic characteristic and measure taken to control climatic change implications
  • H1: There is significant relationship between demographic characteristic and measure taken to control climatic change implications
Hypothesis 11
  • H0: Demographic characteristics of poultry farmers have no significant relationship with awareness about climatic change implication
  • H1: Demographic characteristics of poultry farmers have significant relationship with awareness about climatic change implication

1.5 Significance of the Study

The poultry sub-sector of the livestock sector is seen as viable sector to boost deficiencies in Nigeria. However, the sector faces some constraints for future development especially the trends from climatic change. This investigation on the implication of climatic change on poultry production will therefore be useful as the findings will be useful tools in enhancing production as guides for policy makers. The result of the findings will assist poultry farmers identify indigenous technologies that could help in adapting to climatic change threats


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers climate change: implication of poultry production. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Climate Change:

Climate change is caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions and certain human activities have been identified as primary causes of ongoing climate change, often referred to as global warming.

Implication:

The conclusion that can be drawn from something although it is not explicitly stated.

Poultry Production:

Broilers are chickens bred and raised specifically for meat production. Broilers are the main type of chicken produced by modern integrated poultry raising facilities due to their high feed-meat conversion ratio. … Bird health is of extreme importance in broiler production.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain climate change: implication on poultry production

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of climate change: implication on poultry production


5.2 Summary

This study was on climate change: implication on poultry production. Five objectives were raised which included: Examine the demographic characteristics of poultry farmers in Delta State, assess the level of awareness of the farmers on implication of climatic change, examine the sources of information on climatic change, ascertain the implication of climatic change on poultry production, examine measure adopted by poultry farmers to control the implication on climatic change. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected poultry farms in Delta state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up farm managers, farm attendants, supervisor and junior staffs were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


5.3 Conclusion

The study revealed that majority of the respondents are aware of the climate change and hence, most likely to make observation on how it affect poultry production pattern, effects of climate change which results in temperature fluctuation, increased in sunshine intensity and global warming has a negative effects on poultry production which many at times results to high mortality rate of the chickens, low egg and meat production and prices of feed grains are usually high in hot and dry seasons as result of effects of climate change which may affect cost of production and number of birds to raise for egg and meat production in the farm. From the findings of the study, egg and meat production pattern are affected by climate change because periods of high temperature and sunshine intensity makes the birds to drink more water and reduce feed intake which many at times results to high mortality of the chickens, low egg production and low feed conversion ability of the birds to meat, hence, low meat production (ICAR, 2010). The study further revealed that climatic changes influence the emergence of new poultry diseases and increased its distribution. There is dire need to intensify awareness campaign to poultry farmers on how to reduce the effects of climate change on poultry production. Extension agents and other development agencies need to educate the poultry farmers more about the effects posed by climate change on poultry production


5.4 Recommendation

  1. Training workshops should be organized among the farmers on how best they can cope with the effects of climate change.
  2. Commercial poultry farmers should be educated more on other species of poultry production as against the chicken that is more prominent in the areas of study.
  3. Government should intensify more efforts in assisting commercial poultry farmers through agricultural extension services in most of their agricultural programs most especially the mitigation of effects of climate change on agriculture and adaptation strategy to employ.

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