Comparative Studies Of Methods Of Processing Pathogen-Free Poultry Manure

Project and Seminar Material for Fishery and Aquaculture

Comparative Studies Of Methods Of Processing Pathogen-Free Poultry Manure


Abstract


This project was aimed at finding out the different microorganism that are associated with the method of processing pathogen free poultry manure, identifying various contaminants that are associated with poultry manure. It is also aimed at comparing the different method of processing pathogen free poultry manure to find out the different contaminants that are associated with the poultry manure; and the different methods used was Boiled, Sundried, Roasted, Oven dried and Raw poultry manure. The contaminate found from the different methods were Escherichia coli, spore of fungi, staphylococcus and streptococcus pyogenes. And out of the five methods, Roasted and Oven dried poultry manure had no contaminate. The result of the study shows that there was no significant different (p>0.05) in the entire poultry manure sample in bacteria count.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

Poultry population is rising every year leaving large amount of poultry refuse. The poultry population in India is 489 million and the manure availability is estimated to be 12.1 million tones (Livestock Census, 2003), while in Nigeria, about 935.5 metric tones of manure is produced annually. The poultry population is not spread throughout, but is concentrated in some pockets only. Normally, the manure is stored in most of the farms before disposal, at least for a period of one month and this leads to loss of nearly 40% nitrogen (N) which reduces the value of the manure.
Fish raised in semi-intensive, fresh water system provides the major proportion of farmed, global production (FAO, 1995). A high proportion of this aquaculture occurs in rapidly developing Asian countries, which are also experiencing sharply increased consumption of poultry semi-intensive system are usually based on ponds fertilized with livestock manure and fed with low cost supplementary feeds.

There are different types of poultry manure such as deep letter manure, broiler manure, cage manure and high rise manure. Nutrient values of poultry manure vary considerable depending upon the conditions. Under which it is processed. The ration of litter to manure and the moisture content causes considerable variation among manures from different house. Poultry manure contains about 3-5% nitrogen, 1.5-3.5% phosphorus and 1.5-3.0% potassium and macro nutrient at consideration amount.

Poultry are more nutrient dense than other livestock wastes. Typically they contains less moisture, fiber and compounds such as tannins that discolor water when used widely in both fresh and brackish water aquaculture.
The import of poultry wastes in aquaculture is relatively recent. In areas of traditional fish culture , ruminant and pig manure have predominated as pond fertilizer in the India subcontinent and China respectively. Poultry manure was not used to any extent probably because small flock size and extensive management precluded collection. A range of poultry by product are produced and re used in livestock feeds including feather meal, blood meal, poultry letter meal etc. (Muller, 1980) and poultry wastes are used as feedstuffs for fish and also as soil conditioner.


1.2 Justification Of The Study

Nutrient value of poultry manure varies considerably depending upon the conditions under which it is processed. Therefore, they study hopes to highlight the characteristics of poultry manure chemical deposition, and methods of processing pathogens. Free poultry manure for use in aquaculture practice.


1.3 Aims and Objectives

  1. To know the methods of processing in the usage of poultry manure.
  2. To know the problems in the usage of poultry manure in aquaculture.
  3. To recommend the best method of preparing pathogen-free poultry manure that is free or devoid of micro-organism in fish culture.

Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

Drying has been reported to reduce the nutritive value of poultry waste depending on the age of droppings before drying, moisture content when fresh, method of storage, type, age and physiological status of the bird, the processing method and the speed of drying (Ologhobo and Oyewole, 1987). In view of the variation and probable reduction in the nutritive value of droppings, the use of poultry droppings as fertilizer to boost production of natural food organisms may be more beneficial than its usage as a food source. Sin (1980) reported fish kill caused by a continued build up of poultry wastes resulting in subsequent bacterial, plankton bloom and oxygen depletion. While processing of poultry droppings before use in fish production eliminates micro-organisms to a large extent, the use of raw droppings introduces pollution of fish ponds due to its organic nature (Adewunmi et al., 2011). The use of raw poultry droppings may have negative effects on the water quality of fish ponds as it may introduce micro-organisms into pond water. Offensive odour emanating from the droppings may also constitute problem in waste-fed ponds. The use of raw poultry droppings has necessitated the need for pollution control in order to prevent oxygen depletion by waste-degrading microbes. With proper management however, pollution can be controlled.


5.2 Recommendation

This study has shown that processing of poultry droppings using steam heated and cooked oven-dried methods before application to fish ponds are preferred methods to ensure pathogen free fish and fish ponds and also enhance high fish yields.


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