The Problems And Prospect Of Poultry Marketing And Production (A Case Study Of Orhionmwon Local Government Area, Edo State)
The purpose of this study was to investigate problem and prospect facing the marketing of poultry product in Orhionmwon Local Government Area of Edo State four research questions formulated and analyzed. The respondents were made up of poultry farmers who were into selling of poultry product like eggs, chicken and turkey in Orhionmwon Local Government Area. All the respondents were randomly selected from the three main markets in Orhionmwon Local Government Area and seven poultry farmers also within Orhionmwon Local Government Area. One set of instrument was used in collecting data for the study i.e. questionnaires. The data collected from the respondents were analyzed using simple percentages from the analysis of data, the following were the findings.
- Transportation contributes greatly to the overall cost and there by reduces profit margin.
- Finance contribute one of the major problem
- Storage is one of the problems posing the production and marketing of poultry products
1.1 Background of the Study
Poultry refers to all domesticated birds kept for meat and eggs production. Eggs and poultry meat are produced primarily for food consumption. Eggs are also used in various food industries like the manufacturing of confectionary (i.e. sweet chocolate cakes etc.). They are also used for the manufacturing of cosmetics of infection diseases while the feathers may be used for making pillows and mattresses. Some species of poultry are suitable for genetic nutritional and physiological studies because of their relatively low cost of maintenance, proliferation (a rapid growth or increase in numbers) and short generation intervals. In the earlier time, the keeping of poultry were not being considered as a major occupation; that is birds were kept to obtain some money and in most cases for pleasure and pastime cock fighting. In some areas or communities, fowls are still used in the past as a means of knowing what times of day, most especially the cock (i.e. male fowl).
Poultry farming started those days when our local farmers used the old and extensive method in keeping fowls, goats, sheep, pig and other related domestic animals proved that the poultry section was a profitable venture too. Gradually, poultry keeping developed into a commercial enterprise involving thousands of birds, large poultry units, replace small ones while more efficient strains of birds, balanced feeds, intensive housing and better poultry equipment come into use. All these industrialized system of keeping poultry birds in a recent development in Edo state as in most humid tropical countries. The effect of some environmental factors like the industries are less capitalized, consists of smaller units and depend more on manual labour. These lead to less production of the birds or the birds perform at a lower level. Due to this account, the cost of poultry production is higher. All these factors contribute to the lower consumption of poultry production in the tropical areas like Edo state. For example, the recent estimate of eggs consumption in Nigeria was far low when compared with the European countries and the United States. Moreover, the industries in the tropical areas are not as diversified as in the temperate. In the tropics, the emphasis is on egg production and only one species of poultry (the domestic fowl) is used. Whereas economic and nutritional benefits can be derived from keeping other species, for example some strains of ducks are fast growing, resistance to many diseases of the domestic fowl and can produce as many as 300 eggs per annum. These can be used to increase the consumption of poultry products in the tropics.
However, throughout the world, the domestic birds are unique for its popularity in producing both poultry meat and eggs while the other species are kept primarily for meat. In order for poultry birds to produce efficiently, there is need to raise them under a conducive environment. We have various ways of rearing birds like the industrialized system of rearing birds.
1.2 Statement of Problems
Poultry, which is of economic importance to the entire members of the society because it provides meat and eggs for consumption. The bones are being used as bone meals to farm animals. It is therefore important that these products get to the final consumer at the place and time they are needed. This is only possible when the marketing system is efficient. This study is therefore concerned with the appraisal of the problems of marketing poultry products in Orhionmwon Local Government Area.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The study is designed to achieve the following objectives:
- To identify the type of poultry products sold in Orhionmwon Local Government area.
- To identify the problems affecting the marketing of poultry products.
- To find out how best the problems of marketing poultry products can be solved.
- To make recommendations based on finding of the study.
1.4 Research Question
To assist in carrying out appraisal into the problems of marketing poultry products in Orhionmwon Local Government area, some research questions will be useful and these include:
- How does extension system of rearing poultry affects its product?
- What is the importance of transportation in the marketing of poultry products?
- Which part of poultry products do you sell most daily?
- Why are poultry products difficult in market?
- What way so you think will help in the marketing of poultry products?
1.5 Significance of Study
The need for appraisal of this type is to know the problems facing the marketing of poultry products in Orhionmwon Local Government area in Edo state. it is assumed that at the end farmers and the consumers within the territory in which the appraisal was carried out will benefit from the findings of the study. During the appraisal, some farmers were questioned and they responded actively and also ask various question s, which help them to rear their livestock very well. Therefore, this study will help the farmer within Orhionmwon local government area to known the various system of rearing birds in other to keep them away from infection diseases. It will also help them to known the best the best marketing channel to sell their products. Also this study will help the consumers in that same area to known the most hygienic place to purchase their meat and other domestic products from.
1.6 Scope of Study
In this scope, poultry products in Orhionmwon local government area will be carefully examined. This study will pay particular attention to factors affecting the marketing of poultry products in Orhionmwon. It will also appraise some selected types of poultry products and causes of their low marketing and make recommendation that will enhance more distribution in Orhionmwon local government area.
1.7 Definition of Terms
The processes and methods employed to transform tangible input into goods.
The action or business of promoting and selling products.
The like hood of success.
A matter or situation regarded as unwelcome or harmful and needing to be death with and overcome.
Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation
The study has succeeded in highlighting the major problems of marketing poultry products in Orhionmwon local government area in Edo state. It reveals that the industry has not been able to meet the demands for the marketing of poultry products in the area on the account of a number of problems. It was discovered that the free range or backyard system of poultry production is more predominant in the area and carried out by people who have low academic and professional qualification. This hinders the adoption of modern poultry management techniques, which combines with problems of disease and high cost of feeds result in low productivity. Source of finance to start and to expand poultry farm is another major problem in the area. Most of the farmers rely solely on limited personal savings. This problem is worsened by lack of finance, house in the area and the framers inability to provide suitable security for loans and credits.
The ever increasing population of Orhionmwon local government area, better education and enlightenment of its citizens as well as the increase in the income. The government may also consider the exemption of new poultry farm paying taxes to act as incentives to them. Veterinary clinics should be established in the area to help in preventing poultry diseases. Most of the inhabitants have all helped to increase the demand for poultry product making the prospect of the business very bright in the area. However, this bright prospect is masked by a legion of problems such as poor finance, inadequate number of qualified personnel, poor housing, high cost of feeds, diseases and inadequate modern poultry equipment. These problems portrays dangers for the economic survival of the industry which lead to poor marketing system in the area unless steps are taken to reverse the ugly trend.
The following recommendations are made based on the finding of works.
- The government should grant loans to the poultry farmers in the area to increase their capital investment.
- Extensive services in the area should be intensified to make information on modern poultry management techniques available to the farmers.
- Government should help to subsidize some poultry inputs like day old chicks, feeds cages etc.
- The formation of farmers cooperative societies should be encouraged.
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