Assessment Of Vegetative Growth Of Some Groundnut Varieties Subjected To Different Quantity Of Poultry Toppings

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Economics and Extension

Assessment Of Vegetative Growth Of Some Groundnut Varieties Subjected To Different Quantity Of Poultry Toppings


Abstract


An experiment was carried out for one season (2007) in the Experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture at Shambat to investigate the response of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaeaL.) to phosphorus and organic fertilization under irrigation.

The treatments comprised two types of organic manures: farmyard manure (FYM) and chicken manure (CHM) at rate of (0, 10 tons/ha), two phosphorus levels (0, 50kg P2O5/ha) in form of triple super phosphate (48% P2O5) and three times of application for Organic manures two months and one month before sowing and at sowing. Phosphorus was applied at sowing.

The design was Factorial Split-Plot design with four replications. The organic manure treatments were assigned to the main plots and phosphorus and its combinations treatments to the sub-plots. Parameters studied included: vegetative parameters (number of nodules/plant, nodules dry weight/plant, shoot and root dry weight/plant and number of branches/plant), reproductive parameters (days to 50% flowering and number of flowers/plant), yield and yield components (plant density, number of pod/plant, pod set(%), weight of pods/plant, shelling(%), pod yield(t/ha),hay yield(t/ha), and harvest index), and chemical composition (seed oil, protein and phosphorus contents).

Results showed that application of organic manures significantly increased number and weight of nodules/plant, shoot dry weight, oil, protein and phosphorus contents, while organic manures insignificantly increased root dry weight, number of branches/plant, days to50% flowering, number of flowers/plant, and yield and yield components. Also results showed that application of P significantly increased hay yield, protein and phosphorus contents. Phosphorus also insignificantly increased number and weight of nodules/plant, shoot and root dry weight, number of branches/plant, days to 50% flowering, number of flowers/plant, yield and yield components, and oil content. In addition, there were significant effects of the interaction between P and organic manures on seed oil, protein and phosphorus contents.


Chapter One


Introduction

Groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) also named monkeynut and earth nut, is a member of the family Leguminosae, sub family Papilionaceae and is a native of South America (Brazil or Peru). It was brought to Africa and Middle East by early travelers from its native area.

Groundnut is one of the most wide spread and important food legumes in the world and the third largest source of edible oil after soybean and sunflower. The seed contains 42-55% edible non-drying oil, 25-32% protein, and appreciable quantities of phosphorous, calcium and vitamins.

The groundnut oil is used as table oil and for the manufacture of soap, margarine and other products such as sweets and butter. The shell may be used as manure, animal feed, a source of energy and raw material source for many products (Vankatanarayana, 1952).

Groundnut hay contains about 7% protein and thus it is a valuable animal feed. The total annual world production amounts to about 25 million tons of unshelled nuts, 70% of which is contributed by India, China and U.S.A (Khidir, 1997). The main producing countries are India, Chaina, U.S.A., Sudan, and Indonesia, and in Africa Sudan, Senegal, Nigeria (FAO, 1998).

In the Sudan, groundnut is one of the main cash crops; it plays an important role in the economy of the Sudan (MANR, 1985). It is produced by two production systems (Khidir, 1997). In the rainfed sector, the crop is grown in small holdings on sandy soils of low fertility, mostly under low and erratic rainfall, where the early maturing Spanish types (Barberton and Sodari) used to dominate the area. In the irrigated sector, groundnut is produced on heavy black cracking clay of central Sudan, where only late-maturing Virginia types (Ashford, MH383, Medani, and Kiriz) are grown.

The main areas of production in the rainfed sector include South Darfur, South Kordofan, North Kordofan and Southern region (Equatoria), while the main areas of production in the irrigated sector include Gezira scheme, Rahad scheme, New Halfa scheme, Suki scheme, Blue and white Nile schemes.

Under irrigated conditions, the average yield ranges between 1.5 and 2.5 tons/ha whereas the yield under rainfed conditions ranges between 0.2 and 0.8tons/ha (Maragan, 1996).

Research work on groundnut in the Sudan covers some aspects such as weed control (Ishag, 1971), plant population (Ibrahim, 1976), nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers application (Nur and Gasim, 1974; Mohammed, 1980), and the effect of sulphur application (Salama, 1983; Hago and Salama, 1987; Hago and Salama, 1987). However, there is still a paucity of information in the area of groundnut nutrition, particularly organic manuring.

So, the main objective of this work was to study the response of groundnut to phosphorous and organic fertilization under irrigation.


Chapter Five


Discussion

5.1 Nodulation and Vegetative Growth:

In this study, application of organic manure and phosphorus had significant effect on nodulation and some vegetative growth parameters.

The application of FYM significantly increased number and dry weight of nodules per plant in this study. A number of studies were reported on some response to organic manures. Khalid, (1999) reported that chicken manure significantly increased nodules in lablab and soybeans. Alzidany, (1995) reported positive effect of chicken manure on nodules of faba bean. Mohamed (2002) reported that chicken manure significantly increased shoot dry weight, number and dry weight of nodules of inoculated soybean. Application of FYM significantly increased shoot dry weight at early stages of growth and insignificantly at harvest.

However, application of FYM showed insignificant increase in root dry weight at early stages of growth and harvest time in this study. The non-significant effects of organic manure in this study may be due to the low rate of decomposition of organic manure in the soil. Cecil et al., (1997) and Khalid (1999) reported that soil microorganisms more fully decompose the manure and release its nutrients for use during the following cropping season. Clark (1999) reported that addition of organic matter to the soil significantly increases and maintains the soil fertility for long term.

The application of CHM had no significant effect on number of branches per plant. Sharma et al., (2002) reported that farmyard manure application at 10 ton/ha improved plant growth parameters except number of branches/plant in soybean. RAO (2001) reported that application of FYM significantly increased root dry weight and number of branches in groundnut. Hassan (2002) reported that higher rate of chicken manure (7.5 tons/fed) significantly increased number of growth attributes of two sorghum forages. The organic manures affect plant growth directly by supplying nutrients, particularly micronutrients and indirectly by improving availability of nutrients (P and micronutrients), improving soil aeration which promotes nodulation and improves moisture holding capacity.

Organic manures also enhance survival and activity of nodulation bacteria. Mullins et al., (2002) reported that organic matter has an important role in regulating soil pH.Woomar and Swift (1999) reported that organic matter significantly affected soil fertility in addition to its influence on soil physical properties, particularly aggregation, reaction, and water holding capacity. Elamin, (1991) found that the organic matter decomposition improved the physical and chemical properties of the soil. Mullins et al., (2002) showed that in general, organic amendments improve soil physical properties (infiltration rate, water holding capacity, and bulk density) and increase biological activity more than the inorganic fertilizer. Stolze et al., (2000) found that organic farming increased microbial activity by 30-100% and microbial biomass by 20-30%.

Phosphorous did not significantly increase nodulation and vegetative parameters of groundnut in this study. This may be due to the low P solubility in the alkaline heavy soil at the experimental site. Tisdale and Nelson, (1966) agreed that the availability of phosphorus element in the soil solution is favoured by low pH (5.5-7.0). Phosphorus deficiency results at pH more than 8.0 (Lomuja, 1992). Moreover, the response to P in this study was inconsistent. Kulkorniet al., (1986) reported that application of 50kg P2 05/ha increased number and weight of nodules of groundnut. El-Habbashaet al., (2005) reported that increasing phosphorus rates significantly increased shoot dry weight of groundnut. ElTahir (1997) showed that application of phosphorus significantly increased root dry weight in groundnut. Ahmed et al., (2000) showed that P application alone had no significant effect on number and dry weight of nodule of faba bean. ElTahir (1997) reported that application of P at the level of 50 and 100kg P2 05/ha did not significantly affect number of branches in groundnut. Ahmed (1988) found that phosphorous had no effect on number of branches in cowpea. Growth parameters of alfalfa were increased by phosphorous application (Mohammed, 1994; Mustafa, 1996). Tomar et al. (1990) observed that application of 40kg P2 05/ha had no significant effect on number of branches/plant. Abdel Azim (1988) found that application of P did not significantly affect number of branches in cowpea.


5.2 Reproductive Growth:

In this study generally, application of organic manures and phosphorous did not significantly affect the reproductive parameters. ElAwad, (2004) reported that chicken manure had no significant effect on the days to 50% flowering in teff. ElTahir (1997) showed that application of phosphorous did not significantly affect number of flowers in groundnut.


5.3 Yield and Yield Components:

In this study application of organic manure and phosphorous did not significantly affect plant density, number of pods, pod set percentage, weight of pods, shelling percentage, pod yield or harvest index. Chikowo, et al., (1999) reported that application of FYM at rate up to 20t/ha increased yield of groundnut. Mohamed, (2002) reported that chicken manure significantly increased yield of inoculated soybean. Khidir, (1997) reported that phosphorus did not significantly affect pod yield of groundnut. Ahmed et al., (2000) showed that P application alone had no significant effect on pod yield of fababean. El-Habbashaet al (2005) showed that increasing of P levels increased pod dry weight, number of pods and pod yield, but decreased shelling percentage. Lal et al., (1988) stated that yield did not increase with 80kg P2 05/ha. Kumar and Ras (1990) observed that P application significantly increased shelling percentage and pod yield of groundnut. RAO (2001) showed that application of 60kg P2O5/ha significantly increased yield of groundnut. Savani et al., (1991) observed that application of P increased pod yield of groundnut. Tomar et al., (1990) and ElTahir (1997) reported that application of P significantly increased shelling percentage of groundnut. Addition of P significantly increased the number of plants per unit area of clitoria (Abdalla, 1999).

Application of organic manure did not significantly affect hay yield, while application of phosphorous showed significant increase in hay yield. El-Habbashaet al., (2005) showed that increasing P levels increased hay yield of groundnut. ElTahir (1997) reported that P application did not significantly increase hay yield.

Phosphorus is never readily soluble in alkaline soil but is most available in soils with a pH range centered around 6.5. The insignificant response to P in this study may be due to physical fixation by clay soil or to unfavourable alkaline pH which affects solubility of P. Lomuja, (1992) reported that P becomes insoluble under alkaline conditions and phosphorus deficiency results at pH more than 8.0, due to formation of insoluble di and tricalcium phosphate under such conditions.


5.4 Seed Chemical Composition:

In this study application of organic manure significantly affected seed oil, protein and phosphorous content, while phosphorous showed inconsistent effect on seed chemical composition. Mohamedzien, (1996) showed that CHM significantly increased protein content of groundnut. CHM was reported to increase seed protein content of chickpea (Elsalahi, 1998), fababean (Alzidany, 1995) and soybean (Salih, 2002). Lal et al., (1988) stated that seed oil and protein contents were increased significantly by application of 40kg P2O5/ha in groundnut. Elsheikh and Mohamedzein (1998) showed that P significantly increased both oil and protein content of groundnut. El-Habbashaet al., (2005) showed that increasing P levels increased oil, protein, and phosphorus contents of groundnut. Gobarahet al., (2006) showed that increasing rate of P from 30 to 60kg P2O5/fed significantly increased protein and phosphorus content, while increase in oil content did not reach the significant level by increasing the P rate. Kumar and Ras (1990) and El Tahir (1997) observed that P application had insignificant effect on oil content of groundnut. Positive effects of P and organic manures on chemical composition of groundnut seed may be due to the beneficial effect of P and organic manure on metabolic processes and growth, and/or to the role of phosphorus in synthesis of protein and oil. Burhan and Hago, (2000) and El-Shebiny, (2006) reported that phosphorus had essentail role in protein formation, photosynthesis, nucleic acids structure and fatty acids. Organic manures whether applied alone or with P increased seed P content. This could be attributed to the effect of organic manure on P availability in the soil (Robyn, 2000).


Summary and Conclusion

An experiment was carried out for one season (2007) in the Experimental Farm of Faculty of Agriculture at Shambat to investigate the response of groundnut to phosphorus and organic fertilization under irrigation.

The treatments comprised two phosphorus levels (0, 50kgP2O5/ha), two types of organic manures: farmyard manure (FYM) and chicken manure (CHM) at two rates (control (0) and10 tons/ha) and three times of application: at two and one month from sowing and at sowing.

The design was factorial split- plot design with four replications. The organic manure treatments were assigned to the main plots and phosphorus treatments to the subplots. Effect of the different treatments on nodulation, vegetative growth, reproductive growth, yield and seed chemical composition of groundnut was studied.

  1. Results showed that the treatments affected all the studied parameters, but the effect was not significant in most of them.
  2. The interaction between the treatments was also not significant in most parameters in the study.
  3. The results showed the inconsistent response by the crop to the treatments.
  4. The results indicated that lack of the response to the treatments may be due to low amounts of fertilizer applied or due in the case of P to soil conditions at the experimental site (heavy clay and alkline).
  5. It was evident that the time of applying organic fertilizer was more important than the amount of fertilizer applied.
  6. The results necessitate the need for further studies on organic manuring in order to understand the different factors influencing its effects on crops and soil.
  7. Type, amount and time of application of organic manure are important aspects and require more intensive studies.

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