Determination Of Headway And Average Travel Speed Of Vehicles (Case Study Of Post Office-Kwara State Polytechnic Permanent Site Car Park Road)
Since it is compulsory that people and goods move from one part of the country to the other or within particular defined regional area, the facilities used for this purpose need to be well planned, designed and constructed. Inadequate and unplanned traffic control constitute a lot of problems resulting in delay, congestion, immobility to uneasy access to transport etc. This project is to determine the headway and average travel speed of vehicles (Case study of post office- Kwara State Polytechnic permanent site car park road). In order to determine the time taken, distance, speed of a vehicle of the existing road network. Having considered the necessary observations from the post- office to Kwara state polytechnic permanent site car park we are able to observe that the distance is 10. 5km and the time taken varies where the lowest value of time taken from day one is sixteen (16) minutes while the highest is twenty two minutes (22) while on the second day we were able to determine the time taken from 8: 19am – 9: 30am and the total lowest value of the time taken is twenty (20) minutes while the highest is twenty two (22) minutes and the total average headway for the day one is 3.5 minutes while the total average headway for the day two practical is 4.5 minutes and the determination of the average speed of the day one practical is 11.2km per hour while the average speed for the second day practical is 11. 20km per hour and the total value for day 1 and 2 is 11. 15km per hour and also we are able to determine the day like Monday, Tuesday, Friday are the days that have much masses while Wednesday, Thursday are not much and also from the result, the Average Daily Time (ADT) of traffic volume shows that morning peak hour flow is 8: 00am to 9: 00am everyday, due to Kwara state polytechnic permanent site students and also the staff and University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH) that was moved to Oke- Oyi which was sited along the same direction, due to movement of student and workers that are going to their normal daily activities and also the afternoon peak hour is 4: 00pm to 5: 00pm when they are returning from their daily activities but the traffic flow is high in the morning than that of the afternoon peak hour flow.
Table of Contents
- Title page
- Table of content
- List of Table
- 1.1 Statement of the Problem
- 1.2 Aim of the Project
- 1.3 Objectives of the Project
- 1.3 Methodology
- 1.4 Scope of the Project
- 1.5 Justification of the Project
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 Delay Studies
- 2.3 Spot Speed Studies
- 2.4 Traffic Volume Studies
- 2.5 Traffic Signs
- 2.6 Traffic Signals
- 2.7 Factor that Contribute to Journey time
- 3.1 Methodology
- 3.2 Headway
- 3.3 Average Speed
- 3.4 Explanation on Headway
- 3.5 Delay Studies
- 3.6 Delay Studies
4.0 Data Analysis and Discussion of Result
- 4.1 Discussion on Traffic Volume
- 4.2 Traffic Volume Study
- 4.3 Average Traffic Volume
Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendation
List of Tables
- 3.1 The table below shows the Analysis of Different Travel Time of Vehicles for the Determination of Their Headways.
- 3.2 Vehicle Composition for Both Direction on Monday 1st May, 2017 at Post Office – Maraba Road.
- 3.3 Vehicle Composition for Both Direction on Monday 2nd May, 2017 at Post Office – Maraba Road.
- 3.4 Vehicle composition for both Direction on Monday 3rd May, 2017 at post office – Maraba Road.
- 3.5: Vehicle Composition for both direction on Monday 4th May, 2017 at post office – Maraba road.
- 3.6 Vehicle Composition for Both Direction on Monday 5th May, 2017 at Post Office – Maraba Road.
- 3.7 Vehicle composition for both directions on Monday 6th May, 2017 at Post Office – Maraba Road.
- 3.8 Vehicle composition for both Direction on Monday 7th May, 2017 at Post Office – Maraba Road.
The determination of headway and average travel speed on a road network cannot be over emphasized as concerns the transportation. Headway and average travel speed are among the imperative parameters to be mentioned in the consideration of traffic flow. The efficient evaluation of headway and average travel speed is important for their contribution to the effectiveness of road network functionality therefore adequate management practices are needed.
Headway is a measurement of the minimum possible distance or time between vehicles in a transit system. It is commonly measured as the distance from the tip of one vehicle to the tip of next one behind it, expressed as the time it will take for the tracing vehicle to cover that distance.
Headway is a key input in calculating most overall route capacity of any transit system e.g the route of Ilorin post office to the permanent site of Kwara state polytechnic Ilorin.
Headway spacing is selected by various safety criteria, but the basic concept remains the same – leave enough time for the vehicle to safety stop behind the vehicle in front of it.
The safety stop criteria has a non obvious solution, however, if a vehicle follow immediately behind the one in front, the vehicle in front simply cannot stop quickly enough to damage the vehicle behind.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
There are parameters that contributes traffic flows which headway and vehicle average travel speed are among – the determination and proper management of headway and average travel speed is hereby important as the improper management of road traffic flow cause lots of hindrance in transportation and also affects the populace in their day- in- day-out activities.
When the number of traffic is dense, there tends to be a traffic jam which can definitely maximize the time spent by the motorist or other road users to get to their various destination. As the number of vehicle tends to rise at a particular point on a road channel, it brings about the flow density being extremely large and this may affect the normal spacing (headway) in between the vehicles that are present on that road channel. The speed of vehicle is also affected by high volume of vehicles present at a point on a given road E.g. post office to Kwara State- Polytechnic permanent site as the driver can only make use of the space available for them.
1.2 Aim of the Project
The aim of this project is to determine the headway and average travel speed of vehicle on the Post office-Kwara State Polytechnic permanent site car park road.
1.3 Objectives of the Project
The objective of the project include the following.
- To check on the maintenance of normal headway of vehicle trading from post office to the permanent site of kwara state polytechnic Car Park.
- To consider the usual time taken for a vehicle traversing the road due to indiscriminate parking along the road side.
- To check on the average travel speed of different vehicles on the road (Post-Office to Kwara State Polytechnic Car Park).
- To consider the journey speed of vehicle trading from post office to Kwara State Polytechnic Car Park Including all delays.
The method of study can be defined as the techniques that will be used to carry out the research work on both roads. So, the various methods that will be employed to carry out this research include:
- Reconnaissance survey.
- Field Study.
- Manual and mechanical Traffic Count.
- Analysis of Data.
1.4 Scope of the Project
This project work is limited to the procedures involved in making standard policy and good comfort on our road network especially Post Office to Kwara State Polytechnic permanent site, Ilorin and putting in mind, the shortenings of improper implementation of road network policies. The project will be lucid enough to be as a guide that will allow our road maintenance agencies to know the effect of base functionality of our road network and to provide suitable correction for each problem stated.
1.5 Justification of the Project
The failure of the existing strategies used in the provision of standard maintenance of road traffic flow as left many road users in transportation difficulties. For every road which is a busy type such as post office to Kwara State Polytechnic permanent site there should be an adequate maintenance of the traffic flow so as to reduce or curb away every set backs faced by the road users.
The outcomes and associated outputs of this project work would enable our government to provide adequate measure on the superior and maintenance of our road to avoid further occurrence of road problems.
Finally this study would stimulate research in new and other research areas that are hokey to provide useful data to in form policy making planning decision and advocacy efforts on our road.
Conclusion and Recommendation
In the analysis of the result, having considered the Headway and Average time taken for vehicle to cover the distance of post office to Kwara state polytechnic permanent site road. It can be infer that the headway between different commercial vehicles traversing the road is steady due to the time interval of parking analyzed in the table. When there is high influx of people e.g students, the headway between two vehicles tends to be minimal as they move just after each other and so also the speed of travel because when cars move at interval that is not too wide, the speed would also be reduced and the traffic will be steady.
More also, it can be deduced from the data, that days like Mondays, Tuesdays and Fridays are the days that have much masses while Wednesdays and Thursdays are not much. Since the Headway is the key input in calculating most overall route capacity of any transit system and the basic concept remain the same as that of post office – Kwara poly permanent site road, leave enough time for vehicle to safely stop behind the vehicle in front of it.
The average travel speed, this indicate how fast a vehicle travels over a specific distance in certain amount of time. The speed of vehicle travelling on post office-Kwara poly permanent site road could be said to have well maintained as the analysis of the road accident has no much emphasis on speed. The causes of most accident that occurs at Yakuba- Eleko axis has mainly based on features like; indiscriminate parking, reckless driving and defective in some cars that travels along that road. Also from the result, the Average Daily Time ( ADT ) of traffic volume shows that morning peak hour flow is 8:00am to 9:00am everyday, due to Kwara state polytechnic permanent site students and also the staff and University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UTH ) that was moved to Oke- Oyi which was sited along the same direction, due to movement of student and workers that are going for their normal daily activities and also the afternoon peak hour is 4:00pm to 5:00pm when they are returning from their daily activities but the traffic flow is high in the morning than that of afternoon peak hour flow. Due o all the point analyzed above, it can be infer that the road facilities at Eleko-yangan old Jebba road, are not effective as it was demanded.
The Post Office-Kwara Poly Permanent Site road is one of the major and important road in Ilorin city as the state capital i.e a road that gives easy access to many institutional and Administrative certers such as National Open University (NOU), Kwara State Polytechnic and University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH). It is therefore behoves the state and Federal Government to come in alliance and see to every possible measures of that would bring about good functionality of this road and curb away every setbacks faced by the road user.
Base on these research findings on this road facilities which is Eleko-Yangan old Jebba road someone could recommend that these is need to provide special lane and special buses, example of Lagos state BRT lane and BRT buses should made so that the number of commercial cars and buses make used of the road which is Eleko-yangan old Jebba road will be greatly reduced and minimize the delay and congestion on this route. And also parking space should be provided, any driver who parks at the shoulder of the road should be fined and government should also create an agency whose duty is to monitor parking system and regulation should be strictly enforced.
This project is clear and lucid enough to be a guide on the road facility development. Also, it is recommended that the project topic be given to other set of students coming behind and ensure that all the missing information stated in the conclusion above be provided to ensure an effective research.
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