Development And Relevance Of Software In Civil Engineering Construction
A significant revolution with computers’ usage in civil engineering business and construction process has been presented. Computers reduce all the extensive work specifically through the introduction of programs and software. Lately, software development has effectively contributed in various civil engineering disciplines, as it provides engineers with the ability to perform variety of complex calculations, modeling, drafting, designing practice and several analysis processes for civil engineering infrastructure.
Many commercial companies that provide users with thousands of software are available today in the markets. However, the recent requirement is to select the suitable software that can perform multi engineering tasks efficiently and satisfy more specific users ‘demands. In this regard, this paper presents lists of common software that is used in civil engineering field with their contributions in civil engineering applications.
Keywords: Analysis processes, Civil engineering disciplines, Computers’ usage, Contributions, Software development.
1.1 General Introduction
Software plays a central role in almost all aspects of daily life. It can be defined as the instructions, which provide functional of the program that requires performing a specific type of data processing in a professional manner to accomplish a task, the number size and application domains of computer programs have grown dramatically. As a result, hundred billion are being spent on software development and the live hood and live of most people depends on the effectiveness of this development.
Recently, many software developer companies are available in the international markets such as: Auto desk, Bentley system, S-FRAME software Inc. Geo-slope international limited, Sollvision systems limited etc. These companies provide variety of software packages exclusively for different disciplines of civil engineering that serve design, construction and operation of the world’s infrastructure. Engineers, architects, constructors and owner-operators are practicing their work in specialized subsets in civil engineering like geotechnical, structural, hydraulic, transportation. Environmental engineering project and construction management, land surveying comprehensive engineering and architecture software solution for construction and the sustaining activities. Reference (Asmaa, G 2013).
The application of civil engineering software can be applied for many essential work like designing huge structure for example; ( facilities, highway systems, bridges highway systems, water treatment plants, energy efficient buildings est.) virtual reality, predicting the behavior of engineering structures, solving equations for optimization of resources tender bidding , earthwork estimation, cost estimation project management, structural drawing, predicting the behavior of engineering structures, solving equations for optimization of resources tender bidding, earthwork estimation, cost of estimation, predictive model making and others computer also aid in satellite surveying, data transfer, its interpretation and analysis furthermore, it helps in making maps and deciding on highways alignment. Software applications facilitate engineer’s tasks and enhance the quality of design, modeling and analyzing process for civil engineering infrastructure. In addition, software’s general features makes the work easier and faster to be performed, more accurate, time saving as well as reducing the total cost, the workload and the manpower compared the work that is done manually.
Software users always have questions about the selection of the suitable software solution to a specific case. The choice of software depends on your things, the case study which engineers have, available collected data (input), analysis method which is programmed and required solution to be achieved in this regard, this paper discusses the contribution of software applications in various civil-engineering disciplines that improve engineers work performance. This paper also reviews the commonly-used software programs in the relevant fields with their features. Reference (Heba A, 2002)
1.2 Civil Engineering Drawing
A civil engineering drawing is a graphical language used by engineers and other technical personnel associated with the engineering profession. The purpose of Civil-Engineering is to convey graphically the ideas and information necessary for the construction and analysis of Structure civil engineering drawing includes design and working drawings includes design for structures such as buildings basis of legal contract it involves drafting standard, title blocks, multi-view section, dimensional specification, angle of projections and scale used for drawings.
1.3 Importance of Software in Civil Engineering Drawing and Construction
Civil engineering involves designing and drafting on specific project such a building, road, dam and such other manmade construction. In the past, design and drafting of these drawing used to be done by hand.
However, nowadays many different software programmers provide the CAD (computer aided drawing) facility to civil engineers, designers and drought men to use CAD or AutoCAD (a CAD software program) for civil engineering design and drafting.
Chiefly, advantage in the process of implementing changes within drainage. The engineer had to redraw entire drawing by hand.
However, using CAD gives the engineer the advantages of simply making those changes in a computer program and the just rendering the drawing again. The time and effort that gets saved by using CAD within design and drafting process the huge savings tie in the production and also in the cost. Software program can also create more accurate renderings of drawing and design. These software programs allow engineers to use complex object within their drawings and techniques to render a drawing. CAD software programmers also have Varieties of rendering aids that help create very realistic and accurate rendering of the drawing which more or less create in almost actual picture of building that will be considered. This enables designers, engineers and planners to include and incorporated variety of concept within the design process and visualizes a variety of options and ideas without wasting time and saving cost in the process.
Along with these obvious visual oriented benefits CAD software also offers a variety of un-built documentation report. These are beneficial on several levels as they are based on the data uses while creating this design and pursed businesses with a variety of intelligent and informative report which prove to be extremely useful during the planning and implementation stage of the actual construction process. These one can easily see that there are a number of benefit of using CAD for civil engineering design and drafting process, saving in terms of time, costs, along with added advantages in the visualization and documentation output of the design.
Generally, by using software, design performances:
- Design: Innovate, intelligent projects from the earliest stages visualize software and analyze real world appearances, performance and cost.
- Documents: projects more accurately and efficiently.
- Deliver: projects quicker, more economically and with reduces environment impact.
Although, the years CAD software have always been evolving which results in lesser designing time and easier drafting process for the engineers. Although CAD drafting creates high quality designs accurately and faster. The engineers can analyze the project model and the changes can be incorporated in design easily, saving a lot of time and money. The functionality of the “software” can be enhanced by integrating it with other useful applications. These advantages of the CAD software were after the efficiency of draft to an amount.
1.4 Civil Engineering Construction in Relation with Its Drawing
Civil Engineering Construction involves planning and executions of the designs from transportation, safe development hydraulic, structural and Geotechnical engineers.
Drawing represent reduced shape of the structure and the owner will be able to see what is going to happen any modifications like additions and omissions can be suggested from a study drawings before actual construction of the structure is started. It provides a language with specific data to Architect engineers and workmen at the site to construct the structure accordingly. It is also essential to work out different items of construction with their quantities of estimating the total cost of construction project for this purpose, drawing of different parts and different Virus are essential so that the approval of work from the sanctioning authority can be obtained.
In the past, civil engineering drawings are usually drafts by draftsmen using expertise of hand drafting method.
Today nearly all civil engineering construction utilizes computer aided design (CAD) to create architectural drawings and more specifically AutoCAD. However, many visualizations projects being long before the final construction drawings are generated References (T.J McCarthy, AutoCAD for windows express, springer-verlag London limited, 1994).
1.5 Aim and Objectives of the Study
Our aim is to know the methods, usefulness, identifying of tools and history of construction using software through the following objectives:
- The production of Civil Engineering drawing
- Determining computer ability to collect, computer, summarize and provide information on time.
- Drawing process without all the fuss over scale and placement on drawing sheet.
- Method and process involves in construction using software
- Sub-tools used in software
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study covered the importance of Software in Civil Engineering Construction as a matter of reducing cost, fatigue and time in designating and production of drawings.
The software can be used in Civil Engineering and other related profession such as Structural Consultant Engineering urban and regional planning, surveying, geo-informatics, photogrammetric, trashing.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
Modeling with CAD systems offers a number of benefits over traditional drafting methods, design can be altered without erasing and rendering, CAD system also offer zoom features analogues to a common lens. Whereby a designer can magnify certain element of a model to facilitate inspection, Computer mode on any axis much as one could rotate, enabling the designer to gain a fuller sense of the object.
To understand software it is also useful to understand what system cannot do. Software systems have means of comprehending real-world concepts such as nature of the object being designed or for the functions that object will serve. There is a widespread view that software is not yet adequate as an aid to the designers also need a continual stream of advice and information to assist in decision making. The task of software system of the future is therefore to represent a wider variety of designs properties, in terms that are familiar to engineers and of company organization equipments that influence design. Other limitations to systems. Software is being addressed by research and development in the field expert system.
Conclusion and Recommendation
Software is an extremely powerful tool and can be adapted to specific needs in order to serve the intended purpose of any project. The principle intention of this paper is to demonstrate the huge development of software contribution that is applied by civil engineers, which aims at improving the quality of earth civilization. Many programming companies are available today and interested in providing the global market with thousands of software as well as the supporting features needed to make them user-friendly, better suited, more flexible and effective. Software performance in multiple and complex calculations has successful contributions due to their principles. The principles of the software, which always stands out as a valuable asset, are saving time, reducing the civil engineer’s workload and manpower, lowering total cost and ensuring a high level of accuracy. It can be concluded from the forgoing that civil engineering software is contributing effectively in order to facilitate many research and practical applications. As a consequence, civil engineers have become able to accomplish and achieve what they have not been able to accomplish previously in terms of quantity and quality
After understanding some of the Software, Development and Relevance of Software in Civil Engineering Construction. Engineering and other disciplines the following recommendation, are suggested.
- Software should be included in the curriculum of Civil-Engineering both at National Diploma and Higher Diploma Levels
- Civil Engineering firm should adopt the use of software to drawings and designs
- Civil Engineering firms should install software package in all their computer system for construction works.
- Civil Engineering students should have knowledge of how to use the software for the production of their drawing.
- Software design should be included in the course offered by Civil Engineering students in all stages of their study.
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