Design Of A Water Storage And Transmission System For Wastewater Reuse

Project and Seminar Materials for Civil Engineering CE

Design Of A Water Storage And Transmission System For Wastewater Reuse


This research is focused at designing of water storage facilities of size 875,000 litres (750,000 litres for underground water storage, and 125,000 Litres for elevated steel tank) of treated wastewater and its transmission system for the storage and re-use of treated wastewater. The project is aimed to structurally design water storage facilities and its transmission system from the reservoir to the overhead tank for the re-use of treated wastewater in Covenant University. The design works was divided into two major parts namely: Transmission system design, and water storage facility Design.

Transmission design was divided into two, which are the field activities, and the software activities. Magellan eXplorist 350H North America GPS (Global Positioning System) was used for the field activities, it was used to determine coordinates (Longitudinal and Latitudinal) of various location of points in the university campus, its key usage was to determine the lowest and the highest elevation points on campus, the highest elevated coordinate point was located in between the male postgraduate hall of residence and the postgraduate cafeteria, and the lowest elevated point was at the existing wetland which is directly opposite Daniel’s hall in the campus.

The software used for transmission system is WaterCAD, which was used to design the flow path network from the lowest elevation to the highest elevation point. The water storage facility design software used are Staad pro., Orion, and AutoCAD. Staad pro. Was used to analyse and design for the underground water tank, and the elevated steel water tank, while Orion software was used for concrete design and it was used to detail the underground water tank. The result gotten from all the design software were imported to AutoCAD software for editing, scaling, and proper output result.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Hydraulic structure such as underground reservoirs and overhead tanks are used to store liquid products such as water and wastewater. The force analyses (such as internal pressure) of the underground reservoirs or overhead tanks are about the same irrespective of the chemical structure (steel or concrete) of the storage unit. Wastewater reuse has been in existence for a very long time more precisely is an ancient practice, which has been taken into consideration since the beginning of human history, and being practiced in virtually all part of the world, of which suffer from drought conditions (Burgess, Meeker, Minton, O’Donohue, Devine, Cook, & Weinstein, 2015). Reuse of untreated city or town wastewater has been practiced in many countries with the aim of diverting of human waste outside of urban settlements. In a similar way, land application of domestic wastewater is an ancient and universal practice, which has gone through various stages of development. This has led to better understanding of process involve in treatment technology and the eventual development of water quality standards (Paranychianakis, Salgot, Snyder, & Angelakis, 2015).

Wastewater reuse of which is also known as water reclamation and wastewater recycling can be defined as used water that contains waste substances from homes, factories and farms and can also be defined as the use of reclaimed water for beneficial purposes, such as agricultural, landscape and field irrigation, industrial processes, toilet flushing, fire protection, and replenishing of surface water and groundwater recharge. Wastewater reuse is integral to workable water management due to the fact that it enables water to remain in the environment and be reserved for future consumption while meeting water prerequisite of the water.

US EPA, states that water is a limiting resource of which the force or pressure applied to groundwater resources should be minimized or at best maintained, instead of increased, as the number human increased and industrial development increase. Wastewater reuse and water recycling is thus an increasing importance, of which is not often use in arid regions only but also in municipal and contaminated environments, Groundwater aquifers used by over 50% of the world population are being over-drafted, as the matter of fact, it is not encouraged to use water once and dispose of it; it is important to ascertain ways to reuse water. Reuse will continue to escalate as the population of the world becomes increasingly urbanized and more condensed. Abundant quantities of freshwater can be saved by wastewater reuse and recycling, lowering costs, reducing environmental pollution and enhancing carbon footprint; thereby knowing reuse is a sustained and cost-efficient option for water supply (Burgess, et al., 2015).

Wastewater reuse can reduce water use in both rural and urban households. Most likely most home at presently, use portable drinkable water for virtually everything in the house i.e. we are literally flushing our drinking water down the toilet. Vividly domestic wastewater can be divided into two parts, which is Grey water and Black water. Grey water is wastewater of which is from non-toilet plumbing such as basins, taps, and showers. Black water is wastewater that has various wastes from the toilet. Because of the prospective contamination by grease and organism that cause diseases (pathogen).

Covenant University, Ota has the population of eight thousand, one hundred and eleven (8,111) people living on campus. About one million, ninety-two thousand, five hundred and fifty-two litres (1,092,552) of water is pumped out every day to serve the university. Eight hundred and seventy-four thousand, eighty-one (874,081) litres of wastewater is generated per day (Emenike, Tenebe, Omole, Ndambuki, Ogbiye, & Sojobi, 2015).

Winners Chapel generate eight hundred thousand litres of wastewater daily (800,000 Litres), and the university generate over seven hundred and twelve thousand litres of wastewater daily (712,000 Litres), which sum up to one million, five hundred and twelve thousand Litres of wastewater daily (1,512,000 Litres), the wastewater generated are captured at point within the university campus where the wastewater undergoes treatment before discharging them to the river. Wastewater reuse reduces the cost of fuelling to bear minimal, the cost of pumping drastically reduced if wastewater is effectively reused.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The research is focused at designing of water storage facility, and its transmission system for the storage and re-use of treated wastewater.

Conventionally, water is returned to the water bodies (e.g. rivers, lagoon) after use in form of wastewater. This wastewater reduces the quality of water present in the water body, thereby creating the need for further treatment when considered for domestic use. There is the need to use water sustainably because of the problem of scarcity, pollution of water bodies, high treatment cost and high cost of transport.

The design of large water storage facilities is employed as a repository for treated wastewater through the use of Civil Engineering aided design software.

1.3 Aim of Study

The aim of this project is to structurally design water storage facility (concrete reservoir and overhead steel tank) and the transmission system from the reservoir to the overhead tank for the re-use of treated wastewater.

1.4 Objectives of Study

The Objectives of this project are:

  1. To design underground storage facility for capturing of treated wastewater.
  2. To design elevated steel water tank for capturing treated wastewater.
  3. To design transmission system from underground concrete water tank to elevated steel water tank.

1.5 Justification for the Research

Due to the ever-growing population of human, water consumption will continually increase and the end use is wastewater. Water is a limitless resource but freshwater is not limited, which is man’s main source of consumption. There is the need to sustainably use water as a limited resource. Due to large volume of water and wastewater been used and generated respectively, it is necessary to have a water storage which can accommodate the volumes of wastewater after treatment process.

1.6 Scope of Study

The scope of study is to design Underground storage water tank that can capture Seven hundred and fifty thousand (750,000) litres of treated wastewater, and one hundred and twenty-five thousand (125,000) litres of elevated tank, and the pipe network system of the underground tank to the overhead tank in Covenant University, Ota. Structural engineering design software will be used to carry out the water storage design, while WaterCAD will be used to carry out transmission system.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

  1. The design of the hydraulic structure was limited to the soil test data given, therefore no soil test was carried out.
  2. The designed hydraulic underground structure cannot capture the total volume of treated wastewater due to many factors, therefore an overhead tank of capacity 125,000 litres.
  3. The hydraulic structure design is limited to software modelling without any prototype to simulate the model.
  4. The underground water tank cannot capture the whole treated wastewater generated at once due to its capacity. The capacity of the reservoir is 750,000 Litres of wastewater.

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

  1. 750m³ of underground water tank was designed for, which can accommodate 750,000 litres of treated wastewater, instead of designing for 1,512 m³ of underground water tank, reason been that treated waste water is a continuously reuse action in the university either for flushing of toilet, or washing of cars, it will be more economical to construct 750m³ of underground water tank for a start.
  2. In the underground water tank, the hydrostatic pressure acting internally in the reservoir, and active and passive pressure acting externally toward the wall has no impact on the shear wall.
  3. The elevated steel tank is proposed to be erected at the highest elevated point on campus so as to attain maximum force of gravity, at the point of discharge to the point of use.

5.2 Recommendation

  1. Further research work is recommended for the study of impartation of treated wastewater on elevated steel water.
  2. Six (6) numbers of elevated steel water tank of size 125m³, will be recommended for construction in other to capture the design volume of treated waste water in underground water tank (750m³).
  3. As population increases, and as demand increases it will be recommended that another 750 m³ of underground water tank, and six (6) numbers of elevated steel tank of 125m³ should be considered for construction.
  4. Further research work should be considered for the treatment level of the treated wastewater in the university, and improvement of the quality of the treated wastewater should also be considered for future researcher.

Design Of A Water Storage And Transmission System For Wastewater Reuse

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