Surface And Groundwater Quality Verification In Rivers State (A Case Study Of Amaji And Elechi)

Project and Seminar Materials for Civil Engineering CE

Surface And Groundwater Quality Verification In Rivers State (A Case Study Of Amaji And Elechi)


The topic is “water Quality”. This research work will be undertaken to investigate the microbial and physiochemical characteristics of water samples that will be collected from Amaji river. Today the need for water to be safe and clean is very important because it contributes to about 70% of human life.

This is why it is necessary to find out if the water are harboring pathogenic organisms, metallic ions and if it does, to find out the possible source of contamination and degree of pollution such as water as well as possible ways of controlling such pollutants.

The information on the methods employed will be obtained from technologists (chemistry/Biochemistry department, Federal Polytechnic Nekede), books and especially from Microbiologists, some of the method that will employed like filter membrane technique, titrimetric method, spectrophotometric and colorimetric method will be applied in the analysis of all the samples that will be collected.

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

Surface waters are subjected to pollution. The discharge on the Amaji River from waste water contains various contaminants that are very hazardous on people using the water for domestic purposes and life of aquatic animals in the river. These harmful components accumulate over time in the river. An integrated approach for the evolution of the impact of waste water effluents was used to enumerate an ecological risk assessment to Amaji river.

The effluents from industrial areas were discharge too closely into Amaji river Biological treated industrial effluents creates great amount of barely biodegradable organic pollution, organic nitrogen, ammonia, phosphorus and sometime zinc. The toxicity of effluents was mostly dependent of chemical composition.

The municipal discharge contained great amount of organic compound that was completely biodegraded and is still had a great nutrient pollution loaded. The harmful substances from the effluent were traced in the river down stream site slightly higher concentration of organic pollutants, organic nitrogen, phosphorus and zinc were detected due to discharge.

In toxicity test, samples of the river waste were toxic. Sediments at the down stream. Site accumulated from discharge organic phosphorous or zinc. So it is obvious we must reduce the quantity of nutrients in the effluent waste water. in both effluent, it will be necessary to reduce the limiting elements for growth of algae and macrophytes in the river.

Every community produces both liquid and solid waste. the liquid portion waste water is essentially the water supply of the community after it has been fouled by a variety of users from one stand point of source of generating waste water . may be defined as a combination of one liquids or water carried waste that was removed from residence, institution, commercial and industrial establishment together with such ground water, surface water, storm water as may be present.

If untreated waste water is allowed to accumulate the decomposition of the organic material content can lead to the production of large quantities of malodorous gasses. in addition, untreated waste water usually contain numerous pathogenic or diseases causing microorganism that dwell in the humans intestinal tracks or that maybe present in certain industrial waste.

waste water also contains nutrient which can stimulate the growth of aquatic plants, and it may contain toxic compounds for this reason, the immediate and nuisance free removal of waste water from its source of generation followed by treatment and disposal, is not only described but also necessary in an industrialized society.

1.1 Background of the Study

Surface water has been a source of water which is put into several uses. It can be stream, river or sea. the source of this form of water collection has been through perception , ground water movement etc. not minding the fact that surface water is been put into various important uses, it is sometimes especially in the developing countries being contaminated by the uncontrolled discharge of foul water (sewage) or other organic materials.

These sewage discharges can be categorized in the following groups.

  1. Domestic sewage: these comprise sullage is waste water from personal washing, laundry, kitchen as regards for preparation and body waste.
  2. Industrial sewage: these have many treatment methods being developed to deal with health and environment concerns associated with it.

The background of this study looks into Amaji River as a source of water for the neighboring community and is being polluted with waste water; careful assessment of the health and environmental effects becomes important in this report to know the level for which this water is polluted.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Water quality issues arises when increasing amount of waste water are discharged to water bodies that are eventually used as a water disposers. The water of Amaji river are used for domestic and industrial water supply and a repository for the resulting untreated water.

Significant questions remain about the testing and level of treatment necessary to protects human health where the commingling source result in an indirect portable use. This research work looks into the health and environmental problems encountered in using this river as a source of water supply for variously used.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

This research has been designed with the objectives of finding out exactly, the components of the discharged urine, soil origin organisms. Fecal, organic matters, (sullage) from federal medical centre (F M C), and their effect on the quality of water at Amaji river.

Also the sole objective of this project is to know exactly the health implication these sorts of degradation to the user of the river, people living around the area. And most importantly to give solution to the problems observed in the course of this study and also give reasonable answers to the research questions.

1.5 Scope Of The Study

There are several forms of surface water pollution which are caused either through discharged from waste discharging channels, sewage run- offs or even through infiltration and seepage of mineral constituents. This research work will study all this forms of contaminations with respect to the federal medical centre (F M C) and as the source of contamination.

It will also give the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water and waste water and compared them with the world health organization (WHO) standard.

1.6 Significance Of The Study

The significant of this study is to:

  1. Prepare a paper that will serve as an academic tool to help student that will handle such a related project with confidence.
  2. Help in solving the problem of waste water discharge in a river.
  3. Create an awareness of the health implication of untreated water to the public

Chapter Three

3.0 Methods And Materials

The research method used is the primary and secondary data sources.

The Primary data are samples that will be gotten from Amaji River, while secondary data’s are the result we will be getting from the tested sample.

3.1 Secondary Data

In the secondary data, samples will be collected at different intervals of the river and subjected to different tests.
The Biochemical oxygen demand test will be carried out to determine the amount of dissolved oxygen use of organic matter, and the presence of fecal organism in the water.

3.2 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)

Equipment and reagent

BOD bottles (volume=300ml)

Dilution water saturated in oxygen sample of waste water

Test Procedure

In the standard BOD test, a small sample of the waste water to be tested will be placed in BOD bottle (Vol 300ml). The bottle is then filled with dilution water saturated in Oxygen (02) and containing the nutrients required for low logical growth. To ensure that meaningful results are obtained, the sample was diluted with specially prepared dilution water so that adequate nutrients and oxygen will be available during the incubation period-before the bottle is stopped, the oxygen concentration in the bottle is measured.

After the bottle was incubated for 5 days at 200c, the dissolved oxygen concentration will be measured again. The BOD of the sample will be different in the dissolved oxygen concentration value express in mg/L divided by the decimal fraction of the sample’s used.

BOD (mg/L) = (D1-D2) – (B1-B2) F / P


  • D1 = dissolved O2 of diluted sample immediately after preparation.
  • D2 = dissolved O2 of diluted sample after 5 days incubation at 20oC.
  • B1 = dissolved oxygen of seed control before incubation.
  • B2 = dissolved oxygen of seed control after incubation
  • F = Fraction of seeded dilution water volume in sample to volume of seed dilution water in seed control.
  • P = Fraction of waste water sample volume to total combine volume.

3.3 Bacteriological Test

In Bacteriological test which is mainly meant for the dictation of coliform organisms, the method to be used in this work is the Membrane Filter Technique/Method.
the apparatus used in this is the vacuum flask filter.

Test Procedure

The sterile sample cup will be removed from the filtration assemble, and filtration assembly place upright to the flask and the apparatus placed on a clean flat surface. in order not to introduce extraneous material into the sample rise the cup once and refill the sample cup ¾ full.

The filter funnel will be then loose from the base support and carefully remove a membrane filter form its sterile packaging having placed back the transparent front cover, by holding the membrane only the edge, place its grid side uppermost centrally on the sintered bronze membrane support entirely. place the forceps in a position where the tips can not come into contact with contaminating surface. Lock the membrane in a place by pushing the filter funnel down firmly. Then pour the inside of the filter funnel (100ml or 50ml) ensuring that no other material enters the funnel. The vacuum pump is now pumping for easy passing of the sample. The filter funnel is then loose and remove, the filter is place uppermost on a pad soaked in excess luxury sulphate broth medium “in a rensable aluminum Petri-dish. Place the Petri-dish lid upper most at the bottom of the Petri-dish struck into the incubator and the lid replaced.

When the last sample of the day has been processed, wait a minimum of 60 and then switch on the incubator. Fecal coliform incubates at 44oC + 0.5oC for 12-16 hours while total coliform incubates at 37oC + 0.5oC for 12-16 hours.
After the incubation, one dish is taken at a time and the lid removes to view the surface of the membrane in oblique light.

Surface And Groundwater Quality Verification In Rivers State (A Case Study Of Amaji And Elechi)

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