Distribution Of Potable Water In Awka Industrial Estate From An Existing Service Reservoir
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This project is dedication to almighty god for his mercy and unprecedented favour throughout my study in the my study in the university and to my father (late) Mr. S.N, Okoye.
My profound gratitude goes to my supervisor, Engr. L. C. Ojukwu, who I am highly indebted to; for his effort in proof reading and guidance at all stages of this project to the final production. Special thanks goes to Engr. V.A
Glossary Of Symbols
- A – Area
- G – Acceleration due to gravity
- Q – Discharge
- T – Time
- Hs – Suction head
- Hst – Static head
- HP – Pressure head
- F – Density
- P – Power
- V – Velocity
- Z – Efficiency
- ∆ – Delta
- ∑ – Zigma
- Ǿ – Diameter
- S – Second
- H – Height
- % – Percentage
List of Drawings
- Drawing No 1 – Plots in Awka Industrial Estate
- Drawing No 2 – Distribution Network
List Of Table
- F – 1 : Hotel Estimate for water Demand form Questionnaire
- F – 2 : Paint Industry
- F – 3 : Poultry Farm
- F – 4 : Petrol Station
- F – 5 : Block industry
- F – 6 : Bread Industry
- F – 7 : Clinic
- F – 8 : Post Office, Bank and Warehouse
- F – 9 : Fire flow Duration
- F – 10 : Water Requirement from selected industries
- F – 11 : Summary Sheet from Estimated water demand for industries.
- F – 12 : Tabulated values of Heads, flow rates, and pressure Head.
- F – 13 : Network Layout
- F – 14 : Pipe Data
- F – 15 : Table of loss coefficient
Table Of Content
- Title Page
- Approval page
- Glossary of Symbols
- List of Drawings
- List of Tables
- Table of content
- 1.1 Introduction
- 1.2 Objective of study
- 1.3 Scope of study
- 1.4 Significance of study
- Literature Review
- 3.0 Research Design and Methodology
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Source of Data
- 3.2.1 Industrial Use
- 3.2.2 Commercial Use
- 3.2.3 Public Use
- 3.3 Sample Size
- 3.4 Data Presentation
- 3.4.1 Summary
- 4.0 Water Distribution
- 4.1 The Distribution Process
- 4.2 Problems of Distribution process
- 4.2.1 Easy to maintain
- 4.2.2 Economy
- 4.2.3 Potable water
- 4.2.4 Water for livestock production
- 4.2.5 Water for food crop production
- 4.2.6 Environmental impact
- 4.3 Types of Distribution System
- 4.3.1 Gravitational Flow
- 4.3.2 Direct Pumping
- 4.3.3 Pumping with storage
- 4.4 System of pipe layout
- 4.4.1 Dead end System
- 4.4.2 Dual system
- 4.4.3 Grid Iron System
- 4.5 Design and Main and Highlighting pump
- 4.5.1 Calculation of Suction Head
- 4.5.2 Calculation of Delivery Head
- 4.5.3 Design of Highlighting pump
- 4.5.4 Design of second highlighting pump
- 4.6 Design of Distribution pipes
- 4.6.1 Hardy Cross Method of Analysis
- 4.6.2 Summary of Distribution Network
- 5.1 Discussion of Result
- 5.2 Conclusion
The purpose of this project is to design a suitable water distribution network which will adequate satisfy the water demand for Awka Industrial Estate at a Minimum Cost.
From the survey questionnaire and literature, water demand for the estate is found to be 1,492,395 litres/ day.
The distribution reservoir is located at an elevation of 270m above sea level.
In this thesis materials and data have been collected from different agencies and the correct analysis of data used to get parameters for the design of the pipeline network. The method used for the design is the hardy cross method of iteration.
One of the factors which have traditionally affected sitting of industries and size of human settlements is the availability of potable water. With advances in technology, it is now possible either to pipe in water from a distance or to harness any source of water in the locality.
This research is aimed at achieving an efficient and adequate potable water distribution system for Awka Industrial Estate from a service reservoir. Relevant information and data about this research work are to be sourced from water corporation and ministry of lands, housing and urban development and other agencies within Anambra State.
Potable water has been provided in the service reservoir, where the distribution starts with fixed chlorine concentration and goes into the distribution network to maintain good microbiological stability. Additionally, it is well known that in the network the water is submitted to chemical and microbiological modification.
The objective of the distribution system is to supply water to each house, industrial plants and public places by means of a network of distribution pipes. Each industrial plant and house must be supplied with sufficient water at the desired pressure. The various components of the distribution system are pipes of various. Sizes, control valves, pumps, meters, and hydrants. The plan of the entire distribution area is to be prepared with all details of roads and physiographic features.
The location of pumps and pumping stations, the pump valves and hydrants should be indicated for accurate execution of the distributing system.
The distribution mains are restricted to run along the main street of the estate and individual plot connections are not considered in the designing of the pipeline.
1.2 Objective Of Study
An ideal distribution system network should meet up with the following requirements
- Pumping by gravity
- Easy to maintain
- The layout and the design must be economical
- To provide an adequate supply of clean potable water for human use.
- To supply sufficient water for livestock production
- To provide sufficient water to allow some supplementary food crop production.
- To cause a minimum environmental degradation as a result of the provision of water.
1.3 Scope Of The Study
Awka Industrial Estate is located South East of Awka Urban town. It is along Old Awka –Enugu Old raod when going to Enugu from Awka.
It is bounded by trigonometric stations AN10025, AN10035 and AN10045, the estate is set back 8 (eight) metres away from highway at the Northern part, Obibia and Obizi streams are at the Southern part, them Ring Road to Nibo town at the West and the boundary between Awka and Amansea at the Eastern part. The Estate covers an area of 483.02 hectares with 404 plots within which 372 are industrial plots. The topography is relatively even for a greater percentage (%) of the area. The difference in height from the highest to the lowest point is about 94 metres for a distance of 2.2 kilometer.
Presently there are few industries Existing in this estate like foam, plastic, engine oil and others.
1.4 Significance Of Study
The base of all industrial, domestic and commercial activities depends on availability of potable water. Water is highly important for promotion of healthy and good sanitary condition without water, it will be impossible to keep our homes, offices, industries and environment clean.
The socio-economic structure of an industrial Estate, town or nation is to some extent dependent on the water resources available and how it is managed. The establishment of river basin authorities is for effective use of this water in the basin between stakeholders for the benefit of all. Consequently, the importance of water is felt seriously in arid and semi regions of the world where there is little or no source of natural water supply.
Lack of water in any industry or a business venture will lead to a complete hault of the production process. For instance, in a paint or a brewing industry there will be no production if shortage of water is experienced. Lack of water in homes will lead to starvation and promotion of ill-health.
In view of this problems and limitations imposed by insufficient natural water, a scientific and Engineering approach is required to critically study, analyze, design and recommend a suitable and cheap means of providing water for domestic, industrial and commercial use to a community or industrial area.
These problems of how to draw and distribute waters from the source to the consumers is of engineering concern. The problem of fetching water undertaken by individuals with cars and water tanker supply can be greatly reduce in cost and labour, if serviceable water distribution mains are provided.
The need for adequate and well planned water distribution network programme for human continuous existence cannot be over-emphasized provision of safe and potable water, not only for drinking but, also for personal hygiene, improved quality of goods and services, increased productivity in industries should be top in priority if a single programme were to be chosen for maximum public health dividends.
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
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Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
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Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.