Distribution Of Potable Water In Awka Industrial Estate From An Existing Service Reservoir
The purpose of this project is to design a suitable water distribution network which will adequate satisfy the water demand for Awka Industrial Estate at a Minimum Cost.
From the survey questionnaire and literature, water demand for the estate is found to be 1,492,395 litres/ day.
The distribution reservoir is located at an elevation of 270m above sea level.
In this thesis materials and data have been collected from different agencies and the correct analysis of data used to get parameters for the design of the pipeline network. The method used for the design is the hardy cross method of iteration.
Glossary Of Symbols
- A – Area
- G – Acceleration due to gravity
- Q – Discharge
- T – Time
- Hs – Suction head
- Hst – Static head
- HP – Pressure head
- F – Density
- P – Power
- V – Velocity
- Z – Efficiency
- ∆ – Delta
- ∑ – Zigma
- Ǿ – Diameter
- S – Second
- H – Height
- % – Percentage
List of Drawings
- Drawing No 1 – Plots in Awka Industrial Estate
- Drawing No 2 – Distribution Network
List Of Table
- F – 1 : Hotel Estimate for water Demand form Questionnaire
- F – 2 : Paint Industry
- F – 3 : Poultry Farm
- F – 4 : Petrol Station
- F – 5 : Block industry
- F – 6 : Bread Industry
- F – 7 : Clinic
- F – 8 : Post Office, Bank and Warehouse
- F – 9 : Fire flow Duration
- F – 10 : Water Requirement from selected industries
- F – 11 : Summary Sheet from Estimated water demand for industries.
- F – 12 : Tabulated values of Heads, flow rates, and pressure Head.
- F – 13 : Network Layout
- F – 14 : Pipe Data
- F – 15 : Table of loss coefficient
Table Of Content
- Title Page
- Approval page
- Glossary of Symbols
- List of Drawings
- List of Tables
- Table of content
- 1.1 Introduction
- 1.2 Objective of study
- 1.3 Scope of study
- 1.4 Significance of study
- Literature Review
- 3.0 Research Design and Methodology
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Source of Data
- 3.2.1 Industrial Use
- 3.2.2 Commercial Use
- 3.2.3 Public Use
- 3.3 Sample Size
- 3.4 Data Presentation
- 3.4.1 Summary
- 4.0 Water Distribution
- 4.1 The Distribution Process
- 4.2 Problems of Distribution process
- 4.2.1 Easy to maintain
- 4.2.2 Economy
- 4.2.3 Potable water
- 4.2.4 Water for livestock production
- 4.2.5 Water for food crop production
- 4.2.6 Environmental impact
- 4.3 Types of Distribution System
- 4.3.1 Gravitational Flow
- 4.3.2 Direct Pumping
- 4.3.3 Pumping with storage
- 4.4 System of pipe layout
- 4.4.1 Dead end System
- 4.4.2 Dual system
- 4.4.3 Grid Iron System
- 4.5 Design and Main and Highlighting pump
- 4.5.1 Calculation of Suction Head
- 4.5.2 Calculation of Delivery Head
- 4.5.3 Design of Highlighting pump
- 4.5.4 Design of second highlighting pump
- 4.6 Design of Distribution pipes
- 4.6.1 Hardy Cross Method of Analysis
- 4.6.2 Summary of Distribution Network
- 5.1 Discussion of Result
- 5.2 Conclusion
One of the factors which have traditionally affected sitting of industries and size of human settlements is the availability of potable water. With advances in technology, it is now possible either to pipe in water from a distance or to harness any source of water in the locality.
This research is aimed at achieving an efficient and adequate potable water distribution system for Awka Industrial Estate from a service reservoir. Relevant information and data about this research work are to be sourced from water corporation and ministry of lands, housing and urban development and other agencies within Anambra State.
Potable water has been provided in the service reservoir, where the distribution starts with fixed chlorine concentration and goes into the distribution network to maintain good microbiological stability. Additionally, it is well known that in the network the water is submitted to chemical and microbiological modification.
The objective of the distribution system is to supply water to each house, industrial plants and public places by means of a network of distribution pipes. Each industrial plant and house must be supplied with sufficient water at the desired pressure. The various components of the distribution system are pipes of various. Sizes, control valves, pumps, meters, and hydrants. The plan of the entire distribution area is to be prepared with all details of roads and physiographic features.
The location of pumps and pumping stations, the pump valves and hydrants should be indicated for accurate execution of the distributing system.
The distribution mains are restricted to run along the main street of the estate and individual plot connections are not considered in the designing of the pipeline.
1.2 Objective Of Study
An ideal distribution system network should meet up with the following requirements
- Pumping by gravity
- Easy to maintain
- The layout and the design must be economical
- To provide an adequate supply of clean potable water for human use.
- To supply sufficient water for livestock production
- To provide sufficient water to allow some supplementary food crop production.
- To cause a minimum environmental degradation as a result of the provision of water.
1.3 Scope Of The Study
Awka Industrial Estate is located South East of Awka Urban town. It is along Old Awka –Enugu Old raod when going to Enugu from Awka.
It is bounded by trigonometric stations AN10025, AN10035 and AN10045, the estate is set back 8 (eight) metres away from highway at the Northern part, Obibia and Obizi streams are at the Southern part, them Ring Road to Nibo town at the West and the boundary between Awka and Amansea at the Eastern part. The Estate covers an area of 483.02 hectares with 404 plots within which 372 are industrial plots. The topography is relatively even for a greater percentage (%) of the area. The difference in height from the highest to the lowest point is about 94 metres for a distance of 2.2 kilometer.
Presently there are few industries Existing in this estate like foam, plastic, engine oil and others.
1.4 Significance Of Study
The base of all industrial, domestic and commercial activities depends on availability of potable water. Water is highly important for promotion of healthy and good sanitary condition without water, it will be impossible to keep our homes, offices, industries and environment clean.
The socio-economic structure of an industrial Estate, town or nation is to some extent dependent on the water resources available and how it is managed. The establishment of river basin authorities is for effective use of this water in the basin between stakeholders for the benefit of all. Consequently, the importance of water is felt seriously in arid and semi regions of the world where there is little or no source of natural water supply.
Lack of water in any industry or a business venture will lead to a complete hault of the production process. For instance, in a paint or a brewing industry there will be no production if shortage of water is experienced. Lack of water in homes will lead to starvation and promotion of ill-health.
In view of this problems and limitations imposed by insufficient natural water, a scientific and Engineering approach is required to critically study, analyze, design and recommend a suitable and cheap means of providing water for domestic, industrial and commercial use to a community or industrial area.
These problems of how to draw and distribute waters from the source to the consumers is of engineering concern. The problem of fetching water undertaken by individuals with cars and water tanker supply can be greatly reduce in cost and labour, if serviceable water distribution mains are provided.
The need for adequate and well planned water distribution network programme for human continuous existence cannot be over-emphasized provision of safe and potable water, not only for drinking but, also for personal hygiene, improved quality of goods and services, increased productivity in industries should be top in priority if a single programme were to be chosen for maximum public health dividends.
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