Comparison Of Water Quality From Rivers, Streams And Boreholes In Ebonyi State (A Case Study Of shiagu, Aka-Eze, Amasiri And Okposi)

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Project and Seminar Materials for Civil Engineering CE

Project and Seminar Materials for Civil Engineering CE


Dedication


This project is dedicated to my Lord and personal saviour Jesus Christ “The Author and Finisher of my life”


Acknowledgement


The writing of this research work has not been easy, therefore I must say that I am indebted to all those who contributed in one way or other in making this write- up a success.

I express my profound gratitude to my project supervisor Engr. I. K. OBIOHA for his unforgettable contribution towards the success of my research.

The Imo state water Board Quality control Department for supplying information and making it possible for me to get WHO’s and NAFDAC standard for drinking water and mr NAPO, chemistry / Biochemistry Department, Federal Polytechnic Nekede for his assistance during the practical.

My sincere thanks go to my parents Mr. /Mrs. Wilson Okonkwo for their support and understanding throughout my academic pursuit. It will appear cumbersome mentioning all names, given the number of people involved. I therefore, wish to be tolerated for this deliberate omission.


Abstract


The topic is “water Quality”. This research work was undertaken to investigate the microbial and physiochemical characteristics of water samples collected from Ishiagu, Aka-Eze, Amasiri and Okposi.

Today the need for water to be safe and clean is very important because it contributes to about 70% of human life. This is why it is necessary to find out if the water are harboring pathogenic organisms, metallic ions and if it does, to find out the possible source of contamination and degree of pollution such as water as well as possible ways of controlling such pollutants.

The information on the methods employed were obtained from technologists (chemistry/Biochemistry department, Federal Polytechnic Nekede), books and especially from

Microbiologists, some of the method employed like filter membrane technique, titrimetric method, spectrophotometric and colorimetric method were applied in the analysis of all the samples collected. From these investigations, the results obtained indicate that the streams and rivers of study are not potable for drinking and domestic uses without them undergoing adequate treatment.


List Of Tables


  • Table 2.1 World Health Organization (WHO) and National Agency for food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) standard for drinking water.
  • Table 2.2 The substances and parameters in drinking water that may give rise to complaint from consumers (1993).
  • Table 4.1 Analysis of results.

Table Of Contents


  • Title page   i
  • Certification   ii
  • Approval page  iii
  • Dedication   iv
  • Acknowledgement  v
  • Abstract  vi
  • List of tables   vii
  • Table of contents   viii

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction 1
  • 1.1 Background of the problem   1
  • 1.2 Statement of problems 3
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study  4
  • 1.4 Scope of the study  6
  • 1.5 Significance of the study 7

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Water and waste water characteristics  9
  • 2.1 Basic water chemistry   9
  • 2.2 Sources of water and their characteristics  10
  • 2.3 Physical characteristics  13
  • 2.4 Physio-chemical characteristics of water 15
  • 2.5 Microbial characteristics of water  19
  • 2.6 The WHO and NAFDAC standard table 25
  • 2.7 Portable drinking water quality 31

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Test of water sample procedure  33
  • 3.1 Determination of PH  33
  • 3.2 Conductivity measurement  33
  • 3.3 Determination of colour 34
  • 3.4 Determination of Odour   35
  • 3.5 Determination of taste  35
  • 3.6 Determination of total Dissolved solid (TDS)   36
  • 3.7 Determination of dissolved oxygen(Do) 36
  • 3.8 Determination of Alkalinity   37
  • 3.9 Determination of Acidity  38
  • 3.10 Determination of chloride ion 38
  • 3.11 Determination of magnesium and calcium ions  39
  • 3.12 Determination of microbial load  40

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Calculations  41
  • 4.1 Analysis of Results  52
  • 4.2 Findings  53

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation  58
  • 5.1 Conclusion  58
  • 5.2 Recommendation 59
  • References  61
  • Appendix  63

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Surface waters are subjected to pollution. The discharge on the Nworie River from waste water contains various contaminants that are very hazardous on people using the water for domestic purposes and life of aquatic animals in the river. These harmful components accumulate over time in the river. An integrated approach for the evolution of the impact of waste water effluents was used to enumerate an ecological risk assessment to Nworie river.

The effluents from industrial areas were discharge too closely into Nworie river Biological treated industrial effluents creates great amount of barely biodegradable organic pollution, organic nitrogen, ammonia, phosphorus and sometime zinc. The toxicity of effluents was mostly dependent of chemical composition. The municipal discharge contained great amount of organic compound that was completely biodegraded and is still had a great nutrient pollution loaded.

The harmful substances from the effluent were traced in the river down stream site slightly higher concentration of organic pollutants, organic nitrogen, phosphorus and zinc were detected due to discharge. In toxicity test, samples of the river waste were toxic. Sediments at the down stream. Site accumulated from discharge organic phosphorous or zinc. So it is obvious we must reduce the quantity of nutrients in the effluent waste water. in both effluent, it will be necessary to reduce the limiting elements for growth of algae and macrophytes in the river.

Every community produces both liquid and solid waste. the liquid portion waste water is essentially the water supply of the community after it has been fouled by a variety of users from one stand point of source of generating waste water . may be defined as a combination of one liquids or water carried waste that was removed from residence, institution, commercial and industrial establishment together with such ground water, surface water, storm water as may be present.

If untreated waste water is allowed to accumulate the decomposition of the organic material content can lead to the production of large quantities of malodorous gasses. in addition, untreated waste water usually contain numerous pathogenic or diseases causing microorganism that dwell in the humans intestinal tracks or that maybe present in certain industrial waste.

waste water also contains nutrient which can stimulate the growth of aquatic plants, and it may contain toxic compounds for this reason, the immediate and nuisance free removal of waste water from its source of generation followed by treatment and disposal, is not only described but also necessary in an industrialized society.


1.1 Background Of The Study

Surface water has been a source of water which is put into several uses. It can be stream, river or sea. the source of this form of water collection has been through perception , ground water movement etc. not minding the fact that surface water is been put into various important uses, it is sometimes especially in the developing countries being contaminated by the uncontrolled discharge of foul water (sewage) or other organic materials.

These sewage discharges can be categorized in the following groups.

(A) Domestic Sewage:

these comprise sullage is waste water from personal washing, laundry, kitchen as regards for preparation and body waste.

(B) Industrial Sewage:

these have many treatment methods being developed to deal with health and environment concerns associated with it. The background of this study looks into Nworie River as a source of water for the neighboring community and is being polluted with waste water; careful assessment of the health and environmental effects becomes important in this report to know the level for which this water is polluted.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Water quality issues arises when increasing amount of waste water are discharged to water bodies that are eventually used as a water disposers. The water of Nworie river are used for domestic and industrial water supply and a repository for the resulting untreated water. significant questions remain about the testing and level of treatment necessary to protects human health where the commingling source result in an indirect portable use. This research work looks into the health and environmental problems encountered in using this river as a source of water supply for variously used.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

This project has been designed with the objectives of finding out exactly, the components of the discharged urine, soil origin organisms. Fecal, organic matters, (sullage) from federal medical centre (F M C) and Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education (A I F C E) Owerri, and their effect on the quality of water at Nworie river

Also the sole objective of this project is to know exactly the health implication these sorts of degradation to the user of the river, people living around the area. And most importantly to give solution to the problems observed in the course of this study and also give reasonable answers to the research questions.


1.4 Study Area

Nworie River is located at the back of federal medical centre (F M C) and Alvan Ikoku Federal College of education (A I F C E) Owerri Imo State. The waste water from these areas is discharged to the receiving river through an open channel drain down to the river (Nworie river).

These waste water discharged may contain some toxic compound such as organic nitrogen, ammonia, chloride increasing the ph of the river, nitrate etc. this research works studies this area and tries to know the effect these waste water on the receiving river and also the health implication of the people using water from this river for one use or the other.


1.5 Scope Of The Study

There are several forms of surface water pollution which are caused either through discharged from waste discharging channels, sewage run- offs or even through infiltration and seepage of mineral constituents. This research work will study all this forms of contamination with respect to the federal medical centre (F M C) and as the source of contamination.

It will also give the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water and waste water and compared them with the world health organization (WHO) standard.


1.6 Significance Of The Study

The significant of this study is to:

  1. Prepare a paper that will serve as an academic tool to help student that will handle such a related project with confidence.
  2. Help in solving the problem of waste water discharge in a river.
  3. Create an awareness of the health implication of untreated water to the public

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic


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How to nail it on the head during your project defence


You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.


Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.


Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.


Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.


Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.


Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.


Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.


Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.


These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

SAMPHINA

SAMPHINA

Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of samphina.com.ng a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials. A musician as well as a developer with the interest of Nigeria students at heart. If you need a professional website, contact him via WhatsApp or phone call @ 08143831497 to get the best.

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