Comparison Of Water Quality From Rivers, Streams And Boreholes In Ebonyi State (A Case Study Of shiagu, Aka-Eze, Amasiri And Okposi)

Project and Seminar Materials for Civil Engineering CE

Comparison Of Water Quality From Rivers, Streams And Boreholes In Ebonyi State (A Case Study Of shiagu, Aka-Eze, Amasiri And Okposi)


Abstract


The topic is “water Quality”. This research work was undertaken to investigate the microbial and physiochemical characteristics of water samples collected from Ishiagu, Aka-Eze, Amasiri and Okposi.

Today the need for water to be safe and clean is very important because it contributes to about 70% of human life. This is why it is necessary to find out if the water are harboring pathogenic organisms, metallic ions and if it does, to find out the possible source of contamination and degree of pollution such as water as well as possible ways of controlling such pollutants.

The information on the methods employed were obtained from technologists (chemistry/Biochemistry department, Federal Polytechnic Nekede), books and especially from

Microbiologists, some of the method employed like filter membrane technique, titrimetric method, spectrophotometric and colorimetric method were applied in the analysis of all the samples collected. From these investigations, the results obtained indicate that the streams and rivers of study are not potable for drinking and domestic uses without them undergoing adequate treatment.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Surface waters are subjected to pollution. The discharge on the Nworie River from waste water contains various contaminants that are very hazardous on people using the water for domestic purposes and life of aquatic animals in the river. These harmful components accumulate over time in the river. An integrated approach for the evolution of the impact of waste water effluents was used to enumerate an ecological risk assessment to Nworie river.

The effluents from industrial areas were discharge too closely into Nworie river Biological treated industrial effluents creates great amount of barely biodegradable organic pollution, organic nitrogen, ammonia, phosphorus and sometime zinc. The toxicity of effluents was mostly dependent of chemical composition. The municipal discharge contained great amount of organic compound that was completely biodegraded and is still had a great nutrient pollution loaded.

The harmful substances from the effluent were traced in the river down stream site slightly higher concentration of organic pollutants, organic nitrogen, phosphorus and zinc were detected due to discharge. In toxicity test, samples of the river waste were toxic. Sediments at the down stream. Site accumulated from discharge organic phosphorous or zinc. So it is obvious we must reduce the quantity of nutrients in the effluent waste water. in both effluent, it will be necessary to reduce the limiting elements for growth of algae and macrophytes in the river.

Every community produces both liquid and solid waste. the liquid portion waste water is essentially the water supply of the community after it has been fouled by a variety of users from one stand point of source of generating waste water . may be defined as a combination of one liquids or water carried waste that was removed from residence, institution, commercial and industrial establishment together with such ground water, surface water, storm water as may be present.

If untreated waste water is allowed to accumulate the decomposition of the organic material content can lead to the production of large quantities of malodorous gasses. in addition, untreated waste water usually contain numerous pathogenic or diseases causing microorganism that dwell in the humans intestinal tracks or that maybe present in certain industrial waste.

waste water also contains nutrient which can stimulate the growth of aquatic plants, and it may contain toxic compounds for this reason, the immediate and nuisance free removal of waste water from its source of generation followed by treatment and disposal, is not only described but also necessary in an industrialized society.


1.1 Background Of The Study

Surface water has been a source of water which is put into several uses. It can be stream, river or sea. the source of this form of water collection has been through perception , ground water movement etc. not minding the fact that surface water is been put into various important uses, it is sometimes especially in the developing countries being contaminated by the uncontrolled discharge of foul water (sewage) or other organic materials.

These sewage discharges can be categorized in the following groups.

(A) Domestic Sewage:

these comprise sullage is waste water from personal washing, laundry, kitchen as regards for preparation and body waste.

(B) Industrial Sewage:

these have many treatment methods being developed to deal with health and environment concerns associated with it. The background of this study looks into Nworie River as a source of water for the neighboring community and is being polluted with waste water; careful assessment of the health and environmental effects becomes important in this report to know the level for which this water is polluted.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Water quality issues arises when increasing amount of waste water are discharged to water bodies that are eventually used as a water disposers. The water of Nworie river are used for domestic and industrial water supply and a repository for the resulting untreated water. significant questions remain about the testing and level of treatment necessary to protects human health where the commingling source result in an indirect portable use. This research work looks into the health and environmental problems encountered in using this river as a source of water supply for variously used.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

This project has been designed with the objectives of finding out exactly, the components of the discharged urine, soil origin organisms. Fecal, organic matters, (sullage) from federal medical centre (F M C) and Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education (A I F C E) Owerri, and their effect on the quality of water at Nworie river

Also the sole objective of this project is to know exactly the health implication these sorts of degradation to the user of the river, people living around the area. And most importantly to give solution to the problems observed in the course of this study and also give reasonable answers to the research questions.


1.4 Study Area

Nworie River is located at the back of federal medical centre (F M C) and Alvan Ikoku Federal College of education (A I F C E) Owerri Imo State. The waste water from these areas is discharged to the receiving river through an open channel drain down to the river (Nworie river).

These waste water discharged may contain some toxic compound such as organic nitrogen, ammonia, chloride increasing the ph of the river, nitrate etc. this research works studies this area and tries to know the effect these waste water on the receiving river and also the health implication of the people using water from this river for one use or the other.


1.5 Scope Of The Study

There are several forms of surface water pollution which are caused either through discharged from waste discharging channels, sewage run- offs or even through infiltration and seepage of mineral constituents. This research work will study all this forms of contamination with respect to the federal medical centre (F M C) and as the source of contamination.

It will also give the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water and waste water and compared them with the world health organization (WHO) standard.


1.6 Significance Of The Study

The significant of this study is to:

  1. Prepare a paper that will serve as an academic tool to help student that will handle such a related project with confidence.
  2. Help in solving the problem of waste water discharge in a river.
  3. Create an awareness of the health implication of untreated water to the public

Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Summary

Owing to the different uses in which this water is put to, it can be generally summarized that the water quality did not reach the recommendation standard for them.

Some physical observations were made in the research sites, such observations are as follows:-

  1. At federal medical centre all the waste water as a result of human use, flows directly into the septic tanks, it is only surface run-off that are discharge into the Nworie river through the channel. So most of the pollutants are of soil origin, unless on occasions when corpses are dumped on the ground surface near the open channels, as was observation during our study.
  2. The rate of weed growth in the water body is much, that the use of the water becoming so much limited and the water body is closed to extinction. This is believed to be as a result of organic and inorganic materials deposited or discharge into the river.

5.2 Conclusion

From the test result, the following useful and reliable inferences can be made.

The impact of waste water from federal medical centre is very minimal, on the quality of water “Nworie” river. This conclusion was made using the WHO standard as my frame of reference. That the degree of pollution contributed by the discharge from Alvan IKOKU Federal College of Education is so much, and must be treated before being discharge into the river.From the investigations, the reduced population of aquatic life (e.g fishes) was as a result of the wastewater from Alvan. This conclusion was reached, when it was found that the water at this part of the river contains more nitrates which combine with the food chain and poison fishes and death of these fishes constitute more deterioration of water quality.

However, the microbes from the decomposition of waste water (fecal and total coliform organisms) compete with fishes for the use of dissolved oxygen.

More so, from the investigations, there has been periods, when there were out-break of cholera diarrhea and typhoid fever epidermics, in the river area which is as a result of micro-organisms infection. The nitrate increases in the water causes the diarrhea and the reduce form of nitrate transform the oxygen carrying hemoglobin to metha-hemoglobin. It will also be concluded that this rate of infection would have more than what they are if not self-purification of the river.


5.3 Recommendation

The following recommendations were considered after having investigated on different sensitive parameters that make-up the quality of water.

  1. The students and members of staff of both Federal Medical Centre should stop, irrespective to the adverse scarcity of water should stop the use of “Nworie” water for drinking, cooking even laundry.
  2. That the river, if should serve its purpose or continue to serve the expected purpose should be dredged across the Alvan Ikoku and FMC in other to correct the problems created by waste water from above mentioned, as a result of their organic and inorganic contents, that feed or support the growth of weed.
  3. I do also wish to recommend, that waste stabilization pond should be used in treating the waste water from Alvan. This very recommendation was made based on the following.
    • That the waste water from this very point contain a very higher amount of microbial pollutions, such as the fecal and total coliform organisms.
    • The waste water has a very high BOD value which are the major parameters used in choosing a particular type of treatment process.

The stabilization pond should comprise:-

  1. The facultative pond: This does not only assist in decomposition of organic matters, but also in odour removal, as the algae used up the carbon dioxide gas.
    N/B: A preliminary treatment such as screening should be done before passing into the facultative pond.
  2. The maturation pond: Here the pathogens are effectively removed and the BOD is drastically reduced to a bearable minimum.

Comparison Of Water Quality From Rivers, Streams And Boreholes In Ebonyi State (A Case Study Of shiagu, Aka-Eze, Amasiri And Okposi)


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