The Water Drainage Problems (A Case Study Of IMT Campus 3 Enugu)
This research work on the water drainage problems (A case study of IMT campus 3 Enugu), the scope of this research work covers every activity which has to do with the drainage problems, background to the subject matter, rational for the study and the limitations of the study, the research review as, the related literature about the authors and scholars, facts and opinions. The findings of this study through the further research.Finally, base on the findings, a numbers of recommendations were made so that campus 3 IMT Enugu should ensure a good water drainage system within the campus to permit a perfect seepage, discharging, flooding of water and effluent.
Table Of Contents
- Title page
- Certification page
- Table of content
- 1.0 Introduction
- 1.1 Importance of drainage
- 1.2 Objectives of study
- 2.0 Literature review
- 2.1 Types of drainage
- 2.2 Rational formula
- 2.3 Hydrological circle
- 2.4 Forms of waste water
- 2.5 Sources of water
- 3.0 Location of IMT campus 3 Enugu
- 3.1 Sources of waste water in campus3
- 3.2 Existing drainage systems
- 3.3 Best hydraulic design
- 4.0 Discussion
- 4.1 Problems of water drainage and environmental impacts
- 4.2 Solution to the problems
- 4.3 Designing and constructional solution
- 5.0 Recommendations
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Bibliography
Some aspects of Civil Engineering is devoted to the planning and construction of facilities to drain the high ways or streets and carry run-offs (Olayiwola,.2006). Removal of surface water from the road or street is known as surface drainage; drainage as distinct from plumbing is a system which collects waste products from baths. Wash – basins, water closets and sinks together with rain and discharges into public sewers, septic tanks, soak-aways or cesspools (Abaje, & Giwa, 2008).
The construction of drain is therefore principally concerned of the Manson. It is accomplished by constructing the road so that it has a crown and by sloping the shoulders and adjacent areas so as to control the flow of water either towards existing natural drainage, such as open ditches, or into a storm drainage system of catch basin and underground pipes. If a storm drainage system is used as it would be with city streets, the design Engineer must give consideration to the total area drainage unto the street, the maximum rate of run-off expected, the duration of the design storm, the amount of ponding allowable at each catchments area and the proposed spacing of catch basin along the street. From this information the desired capacity of the individual catch basin and the size of the underground piping network are calculated (Askew, 1999)
In designing facilities to carry run-offs from pavements, the Engineers must determine the area to be drained, the maximum probable precipitation over the drainage basin, the highest expected run-off rate, and then using this information must calculate the required capacity of the drainage structure.
Generally, designs are made adequate to accommodate not only the largest flow ever recorded for that may be expected under the most adverse conditions for a given number of years (Kwasi, 2011).
Factors considered in calculating the expected flow through a culvert opening include the size, length and shape of the entrance and down stream end of the conduit, the maximum allowable height of water at the entrance, and the water level at the outlet.
There is a trend to use designs that permit drainage structure yard. Such procedures permit better control of the work (Brooks, 2003). For example, with recast concrete pipe section, it is often possible to avoid building small box culverts in the field. Circular culverts of large diameter are now also constructed in the same way.
1.1 Importance Of Water Drainage
Water drainage as an elemental part of Civil Engineering Construction plays an importance role which makes it very significant when it comes to the act of practicing maintenance culture (Abam, 2006).
To this end in every construction process, drainage should be given due consideration. In residential buildings, water drainage system is very importance so as to get rid of waste water and storm water from the building and thereby preventing the building from excessive dampness and by so doing providing good maintenance for the building (Henderson, 2004).
Aside the fact that drainage system in residential building prevents excessive dampness, it also prevents excessive flooding.
Another area in construction where drainage system can highly be appreciated is road and embankment construction. In road construction, water drainage are primarily designed to prevent excessive flooding of the paved surface thereby preventing wearing away of the surface and also make it more accessible during and after storm.
In the light of all these significant roles played by water drainage system, necessity has made it mandatory for any existing structure or proposed structure to have a water drainage system.
Resolving a water drainage system involves a lot of activities especially where the water drainage is to control excessive flooding or where it is to be designed for water logged area. The designing water drainage system there is need to anticipate the position of future structure erections so as not to hinder the aesthetic nature of future construction process (Edet, 2004).
Another importance fact is that for good effective water drainage system to be developed, there is need to construct a filter along the drainage channels because of the retention capacity of the soil within the campus area. The soil consists mostly later tic clay which has the ability to retain water for a long period of time. As this will be detrimental to the life span of the water drainage channel to be constructed, it is that masonry lining for the water drainage channels be constructed also.
1.2 Objective Of The Study
The objectives of the study work shall cover all the vital aspect of the drainage problems system. The first stage of this project work shall include the reconnaissance survey of the area covered by the campus, nothing the land scope and modal points ways, the effects of flood and erosion more prevalent, the catchments area and tributaries of the storms water that constitute the major part of the erosion and flood because it is quite noticeable that during the raining seasons that most of the road leading to campus and within the campus becomes in-accessible for motorists and part of the building, lecture rooms are highly flooded.
The next is to found out which type of the drainage system exists and the orientation, direction of the drainage channel.
Another objective where the study is going to lover is the type of hydraulic drainage design, the study shall also highlight the serviceability and cost effectiveness of the method adopted that is to say whether the design is made of press-stressed concrete or in-site concrete.
On the reasonable part of it, this study shall highlight more on the solution to this water drainage problems
Based on the method and approach used in the water drainage problems at campus 3 IMT Enugu, in this project work, the followings are recommended.
- Ordinary Portland cement (O.P.C) with little heat of hydration with good proportion of water/cement ratio during mixing is highly recommend as this tends to reduce the cracks and flows on the reinforced concrete structure.
- Standard concrete mix should be used within the areas with adequate quality control on workability with no segregation when purring it as this will guarantee a water tight structure, high resistance to wearing and scouring.
- The limit state of design under load and serviceability as well as the inspection chamber should always be adopted because of its simplicity and safety
Conclusively, the project work has covered most of the fundamental principles on which the water drainage problems systems at campus 3 IMT Enugu are based. Most of the information used for the water drainage problems within various campus location are purely technical and are therefore believe to work effectively on the application.
The critical analysis of this project work shall simply show that the water drainage problems within campus 3 which is the subject in quote should be strictly adhere to all principles and strategies of water drainage system in this project.
Though some of the data, values and figures used in this project were based on the assumption empirical values and even some of them were chosen just by the rule of thumb, but it will be categorically stated here that most of this facts and figures are used in day to day principle and should be applied of water drainage problems within campus 3 IMT Enugu with little or no modification.
The Water Drainage Problems (A Case Study Of IMT Campus 3 Enugu)
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