Using Critical, Creative And Caring Thinking In Developing Nigerian Youths

Project and Seminar Material for Education

Using Critical, Creative And Caring Thinking In Developing Nigerian Youths


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Generally, all the societies aim to educate individuals who think. They meet societal needs regarding both their own self – control and responsibilities. From the past to present, educators have tried to explain the concept ‘thought’ by means of ‘mind’ and ‘sense’ via informal or formal curricula. Splitter pointed out an assumption that teaching to learn better means thinking better as an ideal (Splitter, 1990). In that case, teaching ‘thought on thinking’ an advanced thinking type is an educational ideal in terms of own learning of the individual and societal necessities. Therefore, higher order thinking skills can be seen as an ideal method for what a thinking type is. Based on historical and conceptual analysis of higher order thinking skills like critical thinking, problem solving, decision making, and creative thinking, it’s roles on education, and significance in curricula, and efficiency have been discussed (Streib, 1991).

As it will be understood, these skills represent abilities greatly based on cognitive fundamentals. That is, we employ logical rules, criteria, standards, reasons, and methods suitable to our thoughts in critical thinking. We also discover novel ways to express ourselves, and the environment; we try to reveal beyond unseen innovations before employing creative thinking (Lipman, 2010). Furthermore, we use hypothesis, credible and reliable sources, scientific research methods, assumptions, possible best appropriate solutions in problem solving. However, the affective dimension of these skills has been undermined in education. Sharp pointed out that emotions need to be incorporated into the inquiry community based these skills. While we employ them in using the right to choose, and making a decision, these choices, and decisions have an impact on our judgments. Therefore, the role of emotions indeed, stands for our thoughts which help to reach our judgments.

In this respect, it has been emphasized that individuals need to think with their emotions, that is, thinking caringly while they think critically and creatively. Thusly, a higher order thinking occurred without caring is devoid of the element of values. The number of study on caring thinking is extremely limited. A part of them is review; some are on document analysis. For example, Fard, Nasrabadi & Heidari scrutinized the stories in Masnavi according to Lipman’s views of philosophical thought. They searched the statue of critical, creative, and caring thinking skills in them. Caring thinking skills are encountered as well as critical and creative thinking. In all the three stories, normative thinking is identified. Appreciative and emphatic thinking are absent in all the stories. The authors argued that the stories include normative thinking, and that have a crucial impact on strengthening students’ caring thinking (Fard, 2009).

Similarly, in a study of Shaari & Hamzah (2018) on document analysis, they compared Lipman’s thinking, and Islamic cognitive processes models in terms of cognitive principles, the dimensions of caring thinking, thinking logic, the structure of human being, and roles. Appreciative thinking is associated with thankfulness (syukr); affective thinking explains the ability to and control emotions, and temper as stated in love (mahabbah), and patience (sabr) in Islamic perspective. Active thinking includes action decisions taken to act as related to hope (raja), and fear (khawf) concepts. According to them, Islam encourages normative thinking since it set forth reflection/self-regulation, and repentance (tawbah). Emphatic thinking corresponds to “poor” process in counterpart model (faqr). The thinking logic of Lipman model focuses on just ‘human development for human’ while MohdDaudHamzah and Abdul KadirArifin’ model deals with more scale discourse. As for the structure of human being, Lipman model emphasizes both mental, and emotional balance, other hand, the model of Islamic perspective suggest that human character is more holistic. Caring thinking in Islam comprises the external and internal characteristics of self-transformation, and renovation. Dombayci (2011) suggested that the content and methods about how the environmental ethics can be taught through caring thinking. He stated also that classroom community of inquiry can affect the development of caring thinking. Dombayci, set forth three books to be used in contexts where caring thinking can be stimulated. These books titled ‘The Giving Tree, The Lorax and The Little House’ contain the examples of environment ethics. He argues that the environment ethics can be taught by means of focus questions, and processes incentive caring thinking. By him, the instructional process will contribute to understand the principles of sustainable living via caring thinking. It can be possible to build a sustainable society, show respect, and care for the community of life, improve the quality of human life, preserve vitality, and variety of the Earth, change personal attitude, and practices, be careful toward community own environments, and create global value based partnerships via caring thinking. Sharp focused greatly on the development of emotions in caring thinking.

If someone wants to make students good judgments, he or she must educate their emotions. Because, caring thinking encourages thinking, and emotions. Meanwhile, caring thinking aims to reinforce causal awareness, dialog, understanding, and inquiry as well as it promotes to students think the reasonableness of emotions in given context. Therefore, she emphasizes the education of emotions via classroom philosophy of inquiry. Transforming the traditional classrooms into inquiry community helps not only students think more; but also the development in emotional maturity. The community strengthens the development of critical, creative, and caring thinking. A classroom community of inquiry should provide students with the following opportunities, as well as critical, and creative thinking: (1) identifying own emotions, (2) helping students reveal the underlying belief of emotions, (3) helping them the way to understand, and identify their emotions, (4) helping them get rid of the emotions that they could make no sense for themselves (Sharp, 2000). Having done an empirical study of teaching caring thinking, Lee & Chung, aims to promote children’ caring thinking through philosophical community of inquiry. A 12 weeks’ inquiry research were conducted to understand how caring thinking can be revealed in this community, and all the processes were recorded. 5 dimensions, and 38 characteristics of caring thinking were observed in the community of inquiry. With increase in the number of such activities, the amount of concepts associated with caring thinking ascended. As caring thinking changed, the direction of discussion flew the teacher-student to student-student interaction. It helped to improve caring thinking skills.

Caring thinking has been taught in ‘Philosophy for Children’ as well as critical and creative thinking in order to acquire students’ philosophical attitude and higher order thinking skills in 46 countries. Similarly, in Turkey, The Ministry of National Education prepared ‘the thinking skills’ curriculum which aims to teach students to think accurately for 6-8 graders. The focus of this curriculum is ground on the teaching critical, creative, and caring thinking skills based on ‘Philosophy for Children’ program. With a general expression, it aims to cultivate the individuals who think on own thought, recognize the ways of their own thinking, show the respect for other thoughts, use an accurate and caring language in interaction with the people, and have an accumulation of knowledge and culture of discussion.

However, caring thinking as a higher order thinking skill has been still not included in interdisciplinary curricula just as critical and creative thinking in the context of Turkey. Nonetheless, this situation is an issue of another study. Since the caring thinking skills have been addressed at first in this curriculum, the audience of this inventory is middle school students. The data were obtained from 7th grade (14 years old in average) students.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Beyond the definition, and dimensional characteristics of caring thinking that Lipman (2011) conceptualized, there is little information, and explanations about what the connections between caring thinking and affective structures are. It is obscure which he/ she employs affective structures while an individual thinks caringly. Caring thinking relies on affective components like curiosity, love, scary, trust, hate, values, beliefs, preferences, concern, attitudes, and motivation. In this context, the issue of another is to determine how caring thinking is associated with the characteristics expressed above. It has been thought that it will help to teach them efficiently, and in proper in affective behavior education. Krathwohl, Bloom &Masia developed affective domain taxonomy which helps to teach students values, emotions, beliefs, attitudes etc. and it has systematic and hierarchical multistage framework consisting sequentially receiving, responding, valuing, organization, and characterization.

Nigerian system of education is in shambles because of inappropriate approach towards solving educational problems. Valuable democratic principles are not practiced in our educational system. People no longer live with the spirit of brotherhood. Youths in Nigeria wants to ascertain their individuality through deviating from the social norms, engaging in examination malpractice, robbery, violence, kidnapping, wearing indecent clothes and cultism. Many people want to become noticed, nobody wants to listen and care for his brothers’ ideas and existence. The point of inquiry is ‘if everybody is talking who critically analyzes, evaluates and understands his neighbor?
In this study, we ground on these processes designing caring thinking skills inventory. By courtesy of the inventory, we can measure the degree to affective behaviors and dispositions the individuals have displayed against real world problems as well as caring thinking. Furthermore, it is seen that many scales, interviews, tests, or inventories are present when we have searched the literature on the data collection tools measuring higher order thinking skills. For example, The California Critical Thinking Skills Test, The California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory, Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Critical Thinking Interview, and The Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test on critical thinking were developed by many theorists, which has universal prominent usage.
Hence, this study is conducted in using critical creative and caring thinking in developing Nigerian youths.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine using critical creative and caring thinking in developing Nigerian youths.

Specific objectives include;

  1. To describe the method of using critical thinking in developing Nigerian youths.
  2. To examine the strategies in using creative thinking in developing Nigerian youths.
  3. To find out the ways of using caring thinking in developing Nigerian youths.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the method of using critical thinking in developing Nigerian youths?
  2. What are the strategies in using creative thinking in developing Nigerian youths?
  3. What are the ways of using caring thinking in developing Nigerian youths?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Hypothesis I
  • H0: There is no significant method of using critical thinking in developing Nigerian youths
  • H1: There is a significant method of using critical thinking in developing Nigerian youths
Hypothesis II
  • H0: There is no significant strategies in using creative thinking in developing Nigerian youths.
  • H1: There are significant strategies in using creative thinking in developing Nigerian youths.
Hypothesis III
  • H0: There is no significant ways of using caring thinking in developing Nigerian youths
  • H1: There are significant ways of using caring thinking in developing Nigerian youths

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study. The recommendations will enhance development of Nigerian youths.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is on the using critical, creative and caring thinking in developing Nigerian youths.

The study is carried out in the Lagos metropolis only. The study will make use of both primary and secondary data. Questionnaires will be distributed and used to find out the correlation between critical, creative and caring thinking and Nigerian Youths.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

The demanding schedule of respondents at work made it very difficult getting the respondents to participate in the survey. As a result, retrieving copies of questionnaire in timely fashion is very challenging. Also, the researcher is a student and therefore has limited time as well as resources in covering extensive literature available in conducting this research. Information provided by the researcher may not hold true for all institutions but is restricted to the selected organization used as a study in this research especially in the locality where this study is being conducted.

Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

Finally, the researcher is restricted only to the evidence provided by the participants in the research and therefore cannot determine the reliability and accuracy of the information provided.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Critical Thinking:

Critical thinking is the ability to make informed decisions by evaluating several different sources of information objectively. As such, critical thinkers possess many other essential skills, including analysis, creativity, problem-solving and empathy.

Creative Thinking:

Creative thinking refers to using abilities and soft skills to come up with new solutions to problems. Creative thinking skills are techniques used to look at the issue from different and creative angles, using the right tools to assess it and develop a plan

Caring Thinking:

Caringly means to think ethically, affectively, normatively, appreciatively and to actively participate in society with a concern for the common good

Youths:

The period between childhood and maturity.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary of Findings

The purpose of this study was to examine the using critical, creative and caring thinking in developing Nigerian youths. Hypotheses were formulated (generated) to guide the researcher.

Hypothesis I
  • H0: There is no significant method of using critical thinking in developing Nigerian youths
  • H1: There is a significant method of using critical thinking in developing Nigerian youths
Hypothesis II
  • H0: There is no significant strategies in using creative thinking in developing Nigerian youths.
  • H1: There are significant strategies in using creative thinking in developing Nigerian youths.
Hypothesis III
  • H0: There is no significant ways of using caring thinking in developing Nigerian youths
  • H1: There are significant ways of using caring thinking in developing Nigerian youths

The objectives of the study were to;

  1. To describe the method of using critical thinking in developing Nigerian youths.
  2. To examine the strategies in using creative thinking in developing Nigerian youths.
  3. To find out the ways of using caring thinking in developing Nigerian youths.

5.2 Conclusion

The importance of education to any nation’s growth and development cannot be hyped; it is the bedrock of any meaningful development in any country. However, education is yet to assume this primary role in Nigeria. Reason being that education in Nigeria is devoid of critical and moral thinking which are essential for it to fulfill its roles. Chunk of problems in Nigeria are problems related to unemployment and moral decadence. The current system of education prepares recipients to be job seekers as such gives credence to academic qualification and its attendant evil at the expense of effectual rationality and moral development on the part of recipients. Education with critical thinking enhances selfrealization and strengthens the mind of the recipients with the ability and capacity to create ideas and innovation that are of positive impact and entrepreneurial-oriented thereby abating the menace of unemployment. Similarly, education with moral contents awakes moral consciousness and instill moral values in recipients. As such abating moral decadence in the country.

Obviously, education is both a critical and moral enterprise and should be taken as such for there to be national development in Nigeria. The inculcation of critical and moral thinking in education will lead to productivity, being responsible and patriotic on the part of recipients which invariably lead to national development. As such we advocate that students should be given a well-balanced and integrated education comprising of critical thinking and moral education from tender age..


5.3 Recommendations

Part of the problem has much to do with poor youth mobilization strategies by the government. The condition of the youth in Nigeria given their numerical strength, dynamism, resourcefulness and energy is not amenable to the promotion of good governance as a necessary condition for the effective management of public resources for development engineering. We have in this article postulated several policy strategies on how the youth who constitute about 70% of Nigeria’s population can be mobilized for good governance and development.


Get Complete Project Material

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Using Critical, Creative And Caring Thinking In Developing Nigerian Youths

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.