Knowledge, Awareness And Impact Of Diabetes Among Senior Secondary School Students Of Ambassadors College Ile Ife, Osun State

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Knowledge, Awareness And Impact Of Diabetes Among Senior Secondary School Students Of Ambassadors College Ile Ife, Osun State


Abstract


This study was carried out on the knowledge, awareness and impact of diabetes among senior secondary school students of Ambassadors College Ile Ife, Osun State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of senior secondary school students of Ambassadors College Ile Ife, Osun State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 113 respondents and 85 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The result of the findings reveals that The students does not have an adequate knowledge of the causes and types of diabetes.The study also revealed that the students has a good knowledge of the symptoms of diabetes which are excessive urination, excessive thirst, excessive hunger, and loss of weight. Furthermore, the students has a good knowledge of the risk factors of diabetes which include; obesity, taking too much alcohol, and unhealthy diet. Therefore, it is recommended that to improve students knowledge and awareness, it is necessary to enhance the education of teachers and health professionals regarding the pathology, etiology, risk factors, prevention, management and complications of diabetes. And a greater focus is needed on the responsibility of health professionals in educating patients, families and the community about how a healthy lifestyle can reduce the risk of developing DM and the complications of those living with this chronic disease.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic, progressive, systemic disease characterized by dysfunction in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins as a result of insulin deficiency with resultant high level of glucose in the blood(Leon, Alan, and Mutnick, 2010). Diabetes mellitus also disrupts the function and structure of blood vessels and nerves. Insulin is the hormone that controls the metabolism of glucose, fat and proteins. This health problem is clinically classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) into type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes (GDM), and other specific types known as secondary DM(WHO, 1985). A classical group of individuals categorized as prediabetes are characterized with a condition defined as blood sugar level higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as type 2 DM. These individuals are at greater risk of developing type 2 DM. Study suggested that the increasing occurrence of this condition in younger age group may be linked to larger number of high risk ethnic groups, obesity epidemic, and other lifestyle factors(Graves, 2010)

DM is a global public health challenge with an extreme effect on the quality of life(Hyelm, 2003) and its prevalence is increasing at an alarming rate. In 2015 International Diabetes Federation estimated that 415 million people have diabetes mellitus in the world out of which 14 million are in African region(IDF, 2013).Meanwhile 90% of these diabetes mellitus cases are type 2 DM. It is projected that by 2040 this estimated figure will more than double. In Nigeria, the prevalence rate is between 2% – 7%(Wild S, Roglic, and Green 2004). The global increase in diabetes mellitus is associated with many factors including ageing population, unhealthy diets, and sedentary lifestyle that heightens the individual’s propensity towards obesity. In the industrialized countries the disease is common among the elderly in contrast to developing countries where it largely affects adults between 35-64years of age which is a significant segment of the productive age range. In some countries diabetes mellitus also frequently occur in youths(WHO, 2004). In addition to reduced productivity and declining economic growth, the disease leads to high economic burden in terms of health care expenditure(Whiting, 2011). Classical symptoms of DM include: excessive drinking of water, excessive passage of urine, excessive eating and loss of weight. There is growing evidence that preventing and/or delaying the onset of diabetes is a viable option by adopting healthier diet, increased exercise and modest weight reduction,to prevent persons with impaired glucose tolerance from progressing to outright DM(Chiasson, 2007). Other factors implicated in DM include inherited genetic factor which is common in people with family history of DM; obesity; and excessive consumption of alcohol(Braunwald, 2016). Clinically, complications of DM affect mainly the eyes, kidneys, cardiovascular, and neurological systems. Diabetes mellitus is believed to be a very common and extremely devastating chronic disease that has afflicted mankind(Hall, 2014). The disease is a cause of growing public health concern in under developed countries as it has been for a long time in most developed countries(Braunwald, 2009). Diabetes mellitus silently kills unaware victims. Meanwhile many victims become aware they have the disease only when complications are manifested. Unfortunately there is a poor awareness about the extent of the problem among the public, as well as awareness of the available intervention for preventing DM and managing its complications is poor(Park, 2011).

Knowledge of DM can prevent the imminent chronic co-morbidities of DM which impact significantly on the quality of life of the individual. Information can help people assess their risk of developing diabetes thus encourage them to seek proper treatment and enable them to adopt behaviours that can prevent development of DM. Knowledge forms a basis for the adoption of good health-related attitudes and perceptions, and academic institutions and colleges are some of the best places to implement programmes which will increase knowledge and awareness about lifestyle- related diseases and preventive measures. Literature search yielded limited studies that assessed knowledge of diabetes mellitus among University students. The few studies that assessed knowledge of undergraduates in some Asian countries, South west Nigeria showed poor knowledge of DM among the students. Meanwhile, there have not been any study on this topic which addresses the knowledge of secondary school students. Hence, this study tends to evaluate the knowledge, awareness and impact of diabetes among senior secondary school students of Ambassadors College Ile Ife, Osun State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic, progressive systemic disease characterized by dysfunction in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and protein resulting from absolute or relative insulin deficiency. Symptoms of diabetes mellitus or high serum glucose level (hyperglycemia) include polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and weight loss.

Uncontrolled or improper management of DM leads to serious complications including blindness, renal failure and cardiovascular problems. These often occur in individuals ignorant of the disease. This study therefore aimed to assess the knowledge, awareness and impact of diabetes among senior secondary school students of Ambassadors College Ile Ife, Osun State.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the knowledge, awareness and impact of diabetes among senior secondary school students of Ambassadors College Ile Ife, Osun State. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Ascertain students knowledge of the causes of diabetes.
  2. Ascertain students knowledge of the types of diabetes.
  3. Ascertain students knowledge of the symptoms of diabetes.
  4. Ascertain students knowledge of the risk factors of diabetes.
  5. Ascertain students knowledge of the impact/complications of diabetes.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the students knowledge of the causes of diabetes?
  2. What is the students knowledge of the types of diabetes?
  3. What is the students knowledge of the symptoms of diabetes?
  4. What is the students knowledge of the risk factors of diabetes?
  5. What is the students knowledge of the impact/complications of diabetes?

1.5 Significance of the Study

Diabetes is a major risk factor for heart failure, renal failure, blindness, and stroke. The control of blood pressure is important in the management of Diabetes. Hence, knowing the risk associated with diabetes, it becomes necessary to educate the young ones on the causes, symptoms and effects of diabetes. This will help to control the prevalence of the illness.

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to knowledge, awareness and impact of diabetes among senior secondary school students of Ambassadors College Ile Ife, Osun State.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine the knowledge, awareness and impact of diabetes among senior secondary school students of Ambassadors College Ile Ife, Osun State. However, the study will further ascertain students knowledge of the causes of diabetes, ascertain students knowledge of the types of diabetes, ascertain students knowledge of the symptoms of diabetes, ascertain students knowledge of the risk factors of diabetes, and ascertain students knowledge of the impact/complications of diabetes. Therefore, the respondents for this study will be obtained from senior secondary school students of Ambassadors College Ile Ife, Osun State.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Student:

A student is primarily a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution and who is under learning with goals of acquiring knowledge, developing professions and achieving employment in a desired field.

Knowledge:

This is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts, skills, or objects contributing to ones understanding.

Diabetes:

This is also known as diabetes mellitus. It is a chronic, metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose (or blood sugar), which leads over time to serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was on the knowledge, awareness and impact of diabetes among senior secondary school students of Ambassadors College Ile Ife, Osun State.The study is was specifically carried out to ascertain students knowledge of the causes of diabetes, ascertain students knowledge of the types of diabetes, ascertain students knowledge of the symptoms of diabetes, ascertain students knowledge of the risk factors of diabetes, and ascertain students knowledge of the impact/complications of diabetes.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 85 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were senior secondary school students of Ambassadors College Ile Ife, Osun State.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The students does not have an adequate knowledge of the causes of diabetes.
  2. The students has a poor knowledge of the types of diabetes.
  3. The students has a good knowledge of the symptoms of diabetes which are excessive urination, excessive thirst, excessive hunger, and loss of weight.
  4. The students has a good knowledge of the risk factors of diabetes which include; obesity, taking too much alcohol, and unhealthy diet.
  5. The students does not have adequate knowledge of the impact/complications of diabetes. However they know that sexual dysfunction, heart disease, kidney problem are all cased by diabetes.

5.2 Recommendations

With respect to the findings and the aim of this study, the researchers therefore recommend that;

  1. To improve students knowledge and awareness, it is necessary to enhance the education of teachers and health professionals regarding the pathology, etiology, risk factors, prevention, management and complications of diabetes.
  2. A greater focus is needed on the responsibility of health professionals in educating patients, families and the community about how a healthy lifestyle can reduce the risk of developing DM and the complications of those living with this chronic disease.
  3. The Nigeria Health Service should step up its health programs in educating the young students on diabetes.

Knowledge, Awareness And Impact Of Diabetes Among Senior Secondary School Students Of Ambassadors College Ile Ife, Osun State


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Knowledge, Awareness And Impact Of Diabetes Among Senior Secondary School Students Of Ambassadors College Ile Ife, Osun State


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Frequently Asked Questions


How much knowledge of diabetes do students have?

The main score obtained by the students was 63.2% of the maximum total score. For “General knowledge about diabetes” section’s scores were 71.0%, “Knowledge of risk factors of diabetes” 63%, “Knowledge of symptoms and complications” 55.8%, “Knowledge about treatment and management” 62.7%, and “Knowledge of monitoring diabetes” 72.3%.

Why is it important to study diabetes mellitus?

Knowledge of diabetes mellitus can assist in early detection of the disease and reduce the incidence of complications. This can be achieved by improving the knowledge of the general population of the disease at early stage of life.

How can we reduce the risk of developing diabetes in adolescents?

The awareness of adolescent about the disease can be of a great help to reduce the risk of developing diabetes in future. 2. Methodology A cross-sectional survey was introduced to the students of secondary public and private schools in Kuwait.

What is the general knowledge of diabetes mellitus in Kuwait?

Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem in Kuwait. This study aimed to evaluate the awareness and the knowledge of diabetes in adolescent about the disease which, will be of a great help to reduce the risk of developing diabetes and its complications. A cross-sectional survey was done to evaluate the general knowledge of diabetes. 

How to help students with diabetes in school?

Effective Diabetes Management in School 1 Federal Laws Related to Helping Students with Diabetes. Section 504 prohibits recipients of federal financial assistance from discriminating against people on the basis of disability and outlines a process for … 2 The School Health Team. … 3 Health Care and Education Plans. …

What are the problems faced by students with diabetes?

Classroom Problems and Solutions – Diabetes. Missed school days are a risk. Several studies suggest that children with diabetes miss about 8 more days of school per year than their healthy classmates. Another recent study suggests a bigger problem by showing that students with diabetes miss almost 10% of scheduled school days.

How many students with diabetes miss school each year?

Another recent study suggests a bigger problem by showing that students with diabetes miss almost 10% of scheduled school days. Interestingly, attendance problems may also spillover over to brothers and sisters. Health care experts speculate that siblings sometimes stay home while parents work, acting as frontline disease managers.

What do you know about diabetes?

Health And care- Diabetes Knowledge Quiz Diabetes is a disease that is a result of high levels of sugar in a person’s blood. This disease can affect every body part and may cause kidney damage, amputation, and even death if not properly managed.

How does diabetes research help people with diabetes?

After that, researchers use this data to shape their unique drug formulas and to help increase the effectiveness of diabetes treatment. Diabetes clinical research will help change the future of the disease. At Orlando Clinical Research Center, our diabetes research serves to help create a better future for those impacted by diabetes.

Why is diabetic education important?

Diabetes education is important but it must be transferred to action or self-care activities to fully benefit the patient. Self-care activities refer to behaviors such as following a diet plan, avoiding high fat foods, increased exercise, self-glucose monitoring, and foot care.

Why is blood glucose monitoring so important?

Blood glucose monitoring is the cornerstone of diabetes management and self monitoring of blood glucose levels by patients has significantly altered diabetes care.

What are the benefits of clinical trials for diabetes?

Clinical trials offer researchers an important chance to compare and contrast blood glucose levels in patients, track metabolism, as well as monitor subsequent organ functionality related to the medications. After that, researchers use this data to shape their unique drug formulas and to help increase the effectiveness of diabetes treatment.

What is the treatment for diabetes in adolescents?

The important factor in treatment of diabetes is to keep the blood sugar level normal at all times. There are basically two types of diabetes that will affect an adolescent. It is type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

How can diabetes be prevented?

Diabetes prevention: 5 tips for taking control. 1 1. Lose extra weight. Losing weight reduces the risk of diabetes. People in one large study reduced their risk of developing diabetes by almost 60% … 2 2. Be more physically active. 3 3. Eat healthy plant foods. 4 4. Eat healthy fats. 5 5. Skip fad diets and make healthier choices.

How can I prevent my child from developing type 2 diabetes?

Your child may also be more likely to become obese and develop type 2 diabetes later in life. Making healthy choices helps the whole family and may protect your child from becoming obese or developing diabetes. Being physically active together is a great way to lower your own and your child’s chance of developing type 2 diabetes.

Why are adolescents more prone to develop diabetes?

Adolescents, who are obese and had type 2 diabetes in the family history, are at a greater risk of developing diabetes. Diabetes is a disease where the human body is incapable of producing or utilizing insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the body in order to get energy by converting starches, sugar and other items.

Is there a high prevalence of diabetes in Kuwait?

Compared to other parts of the world, Kuwait has a higher prevalence of diabetes. 2, 3, 4, 5 In 2010 a study was done and showed that 20% of Kuwaiti population are diabetic.

Why is it important to study diabetes mellitus?

Knowledge of diabetes mellitus can assist in early detection of the disease and reduce the incidence of complications. This can be achieved by improving the knowledge of the general population of the disease at early stage of life.

How much knowledge of diabetes do students have?

The main score obtained by the students was 63.2% of the maximum total score. For “General knowledge about diabetes” section’s scores were 71.0%, “Knowledge of risk factors of diabetes” 63%, “Knowledge of symptoms and complications” 55.8%, “Knowledge about treatment and management” 62.7%, and “Knowledge of monitoring diabetes” 72.3%.

What is the global prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Diabetes mellitus (Type 1 and Type 2) is one of the most commonly encountered diseases by the healthcare professionals. 1 Worldwide, it was estimated that the prevalence rate among adults was 4% in 1995 and this is expected to increase to 5.4% by 2025. 

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