Effects Of School-Based Violence On The Academic Performance Of Students

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Effects Of School-Based Violence On The Academic Performance Of Students


This long-essay discussed the topical issue on the effects of school-based violence on the academic achievements of students. It focused the phenomenon from the national and international perspectives. The theoretical frame work to the problem was provided. The typologies and different forms of school-based violence were identified and succinctly discussed. They include; corporal punishment, sexual violence, bullying, cultism, fighting, arson, neglect and discrimination.

The adolescent stage, the home, the school the community and the society at large were highlighted as the major causes of school-based violence. The aftermath and devastating effects of school-based violence which could result into physical injury, life time disability, psychological problems and even death were also discussed. Recommendations on how to keep our school environments safe and protected from violence through the collective and conscious efforts of the government, the school, the home and religious groups and individuals were provided.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

School violence is widely heard to have become a serious problem in recent decades. Juvenile offenders and victims are on the increase. The topic of school violence is one that affects all in the society. Asides from interfering with the learning process, the long range effects of school violence affect us all. Statistically, children who engage in violent acts are more likely to become adult criminals. Many children who display violent behaviour at school are exposed to violence or abused outside the school environment and may be in need of help. The consequences and effects of violence can be devastating and far reaching. Physical injuries can range from bruises, scrapes, burns to brain damage, permanent disabilities and death. The school as a micro society is an agent of socialization. And for socialization to take place there must be peace and harmony. Schools can be free from violence, thus, paving way for good academic performance. A school comprises of human beings organized and interrelated with common purpose to educate the children brought under their care.(Ajuzie, 2005). The school resembles a society in its characteristics and nature of operation and may rightly called a micro society. On account of it functions in the society, the school becomes increasingly an essential subsystem of the latter. It is responsible for the transmission of the culture of the society from one generation to the other, and for assisting the individuals in the society to acquire the necessary skill abilities and competencies for the development of the society. The school is an agent of socialization of the social cultural and technological transformation of the society and for the general enlightenment of the public. Talcott (1951) and Merton (1966) hold the view that deviant behaviour is most likely to occur when norms that governs conducts in any societal setting manifest elements of contradiction. A school environment is a mini society. It is an environment in which people of diverse socio-economic background and orientation come together for the purpose of acquiring knowledge and social skills. (Iyekolo, 2012).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Violence behaviours appear replete in our secondary schools. According to Shekarey Ladani & Rostami (2013), aggressive behaviours are common in schools. In the same vein, Aluede (2011) stated that violence in schools was an issue that had become more prominent in the last few years, as news articles about violent deeds within the school setting are now on the increase. Aggression among secondary school students is an issue of concern among stakeholders in education essentially because a school is an institution designed for teaching and learning. Unarguably, teaching and learning can only successfully take place in a conducive environment devoid of intimidation, harassment, insecurity and fear. It in view of this that the researcher intends to investigate the effect of aggression and violence on academic performance of secondary school students

1.3 Objective of the Study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To investigate the role of violence on student poor academic performance
  2. To ascertain the effect of violence on student academic performance
  3. To ascertain the relationship between school violence and academic performance of student

1.4 Research Hypotheses

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

  1. H0: violence does not play any role on student poor academic performance
    H1: violence does play a role on student poor academic performance
  2. H02: there is no relationship between school violence and academic performance of student
    H2: there is relationship between school violence and academic performance of student

1.5 Significance of the Study

It is believed that at the completion of the study; the findings will of importance to parents and guidance as the study seek to elaborate on the dangers of aggressive behavior and violence, and it impact on the academic achievement of the student, the study will also be of importance to the teachers and management of secondary schools, as the study will help them formulate rules and regulations that will abolish or minimized the rate of aggressive behavior and violence among secondary school student, the study will also be of importance to researchers who intends to embark on similar study as the study will serve as a reference point, the study will also be of great importance to academia student and the general public as the study will contribute to the pool of existing literature.

1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers effect of school based violence on the academic performance of student. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Organizational Privacy:

Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities

1.9 Definition of Terms


Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as “the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury or death.

Academic Performance

Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.

1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain effect of school based violence on the academic performance of student.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of school based violence on the academic performance of student

5.3 Summary

This study was on effect of school based violence on the academic performance of student. Three objectives were raised which included: To investigate the role of violence on student poor academic performance, to ascertain the effect of violence on student academic performance, to ascertain the relationship between school violence and academic performance of student. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary schools in Uyo, Akwa Ibom state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up principals, vice principals administrative, senior staff and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies

5.3 Conclusion

This study has analyzed the effect of school based violence on the academic performance of student. In particular, we have studied the effects of the Second Intifada on the individual test scores at the school-leaving exam (Tawjin General Examination) for the whole population of Palestinian students enrolled in the Arts and the scientific curriculum in the high-schools in the West Bank during the period 2000-2006. Our results showed that the conflict reduces in significant way the probability to pass the exam and the probability to be admitted to the university. We also found that the magnitude of the effect of the conflict on academic achievement varies with the ability level of the student and the type of violent event to which the student is exposed to. Next, we have discussed two transmission mechanisms that may explain why the conflict negatively affects individual academic achievement. As for the first, we have provided suggestive evidence that the conflict negatively affects the quality of the school learning environment. Next, we have showed that the school-level characteristics we used to proxy for the quality of the learning environment are in turn negatively correlated with the student result at the final exam. As for the second mechanism, we have argued that the exposure to conflict-related violence reduces the student performance at the final exam by negatively affecting her psychological well-being.

5.4 Recommendation

Efforts to increase awareness of bullying in schools and reduce its effects on student academic performance should carefully consider and be informed by the specific dynamics related to bullying in a given context. The effects of bullying vary by grade, subject, and country and interact with other factors differently depending on context. For example, in South Africa female students who are bullied perform better than bullied male students, whereas male students who are bullied perform better in Nigeria.

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