Performance Appraisal System In The Nigerian Education System And Its Effectiveness On Teachers Performance

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Performance Appraisal System In The Nigerian Education System And Its Effectiveness On Teachers Performance

Chapter One


1.1 Background Of The Study

In the area of performance management, performance appraisal is a frequently debated topic. The significance of performance appraisal systems comes in part from the present business climate, which is characterized by the requirement to accomplish organizational objectives while also remaining competitive in highly competitive markets via excellent employee performance (Chen and Eldridge, 2012). Various studies indicate that companies have little influence over their workers’ behavior in this setting (Attorney, 2007). Organizations, on the other hand, have influence over how workers carry out their duties. Furthermore, research on performance appraisal indicates that a large percentage of workers want to do a good job as part of their own objectives and as a symbol of commitment to the company (Wright & Cheung, 2007). The capacity to give workers with the appropriate working environment, it is said, is the key to ensuring that they perform effectively. Fair treatment, support, effective communication, and cooperation are all characteristics of such an atmosphere. These are the characteristics that a successful performance appraisal system produces, according to Maley (2013). While concentrating on performance appraisal as a motivating tool, research suggests that performance appraisal systems may be utilized to boost motivation (Chen & Eldridge, 2010; Appelbaum et al., 2011). However, since the connection between performance evaluation and employee motivation has been examined in a conventional or broad way, the association is frequently ambiguous. Traditional performance evaluation has been chastised for rewarding win-lose outcomes rather than win-win outcomes, in which the system encourages helpful and cooperative behavior (Rowland & Hall, 2012).

Nigeria’s educational system follows the (1)-6-3-3-4 formula: one year of pre-primary education, six years of primary school, three years of junior secondary education, three years of senior secondary education, and a minimum of four years of higher education. Before Nigeria adopted the concept in 1989, it had been successfully implemented in China, Germany, and Ghana. However, it was never completely implemented in Nigeria. Despite the fact that successive administrations have theoretically supported the policy’s goals, none have been able to put it into practice. Nigeria’s educational system is beset by infrastructure deterioration, negligence, resource waste, and deplorable working conditions; teachers are underpaid. The aforementioned factors boil down to a teacher’s ability to function effectively in the face of a discouraging working environment. Brownyn(2001). The process of arriving at a judgment on an individual teacher’s performance against the backdrop of his work environment and future possibilities for the school system is known as teacher performance assessment. It is a comprehensive evaluation of employees that usually lasts a year or more. C. A. Ajie(2006). The appraisal’s primary emphasis is on job assessment and incentive for instructors who have performed well in the course of their responsibilities. These incentives may take the shape of money, promotion, or the presentation of an award for achievement, among other things. However, it is unclear if the Nigerian ministry of education has implemented an evaluation system to assess the efficiency of teachers’ work and to reward those who have faithfully performed their responsibilities. All information about a teacher’s work performance is included in the performance evaluation. It is generally recognized that good teacher self-evaluation is critical to educational system development. Teachers, on the other hand, have an innate need to reflect on their work, assess it, and seek methods to improve it. However, if the Nigerian educational system does not implement an appraisal and motivation system. There will be nothing to inspire the teacher, therefore their performance will be ineffective.

1.2 Statement Of Research Problem

A teacher is a person or an individual who impact knowledge into others. We have teachers in the primary, secondary and tertiary institutions in Nigeria.

An appraisal system is a mechanism used to motivate workers, however, In todays educational system it is not clear if there is an appraisal system in place to motivates teachers who have dutifully discharged their duties and teachers who have not. Either in monetary , promotion, job security, sacking, giving of query etc. However, appraisal system will be effective in checking the performance of teachers who have performed well and teachers who have done otherwise. A good appraisal system should be able to discriminate between effective and ineffective teachers performance, to measure teacher quality and aid in developing highly skilled teacher workforce. However it is not certain if the educational system in Nigeria motivates its teachers or if appraisal is effective on teachers performance. Hence it is against this backdrop the study will examine performance appraisal system in the Nigeria education system and it effectiveness on teachers performance

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The primary objective of the study is as follows

  1. To find out if there is an appraisal system put in place to motivate teachers
  2. To find out techniques utilized for performance appraisal system carried out to encourage teachers.
  3. How frequently the competency assessment techniques of teachers are utilized.

1.4 Research Hypothesis

  1. H01: there is no appraisal system put in place to motivate teachers
    H1: there is an appraisal system put in place to motivate teachers
  2. H02: there are no techniques utilized for performance appraisal system carried out to encourage teachers.
    H1: there are techniques utilized for performance appraisal system carried out to encourage teachers.
  3. H03: Performance appraisal does not have effect on teachers performance.
    H1: Performance appraisal has effect on teachers performance.

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The significance of this study cannot be underestimated as:

  1. This study will examine An Investigation Of Child Friendly School Environment And Social Relationship: Its Effect On Academic Achievement Of Public Primary School Children.
  2. The findings of this research work will undoubtedly provide the much needed information to government organizations, ministry of education and academia.

1.6 Scope Of The Study

This study examines performance appraisal system in the Nigerian education system and its effectiveness on teachers performance. Hence secondary schools in Owerri municipal, Imo state will be used as case study.

1.7 Limitations Of The Study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

Just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data

Financial constraint , was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires

Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher

1.8 Operational Definition Of Terms

Performance Appraisal System:

A systematic process, in which the personality and performance of an employee is assessed by the supervisor or manager, against predefined standards


Successful in producing a desired or intended result.


An act of presenting a play, concert, or other form of entertainment.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Is performance appraisal an effective motivation tool?

The study‘s main objectives pertained to establishing the moderating role of performance appraisal as a motivation tool as well as potential challenges. The study findings show the presence of significant positive outcomes when the organisation uses performance appraisal as a motivation tool.

What is the performance appraisal system in an organization?

The performance appraisal system in an organization can vary from an internal undocumented process, to a documented management by objectives system which has been integrated with the corporate planning process, and requires comprehensive support systems. Performance Management: Concepts, Skills, and Exercises.

Are goals embedded in performance appraisal?

Goal settings are embedded in performance appraisal to give direction to organization if effectively designed and practiced. The study investigated performance appraisal methods and employee performance of selected firms in Anambra State of Nigeria.

Does management by objectives appraisal method relate to performance?

The specific objectives of the study were to ascertain the extent management by objectives appraisal method, 360 degree performance appraisal method and goal setting performance appraisal method relate to employee performance. 

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