Performance Appraisal System In The Nigerian Education System And Its Effectiveness On Teachers Performance

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Performance Appraisal System In The Nigerian Education System And Its Effectiveness On Teachers Performance


Abstract


The reason behind the establishment of educational sector in Nigeria, as often observed by government and others in the business of schools is to coordinate and enhance the development and utilization of manpower in Nigeria. To achieve these objectives, Human Resource Management Practices are critical. The schools must attract, develop and maintain an energetic workforce to facilitate their goals and strategies through HRM practices that have impact on organization performance and productivity. Among the HRM practices adopted by virtually every organization, which secondary schools in Imo state is not an exception to, is Performance Appraisal of their staff. However, the impact that Performance Appraisal is likely to have on staff productivity as to the best knowledge of the researcher, has not been researched in the past. It is against this background that the study was carried out to generally investigate the “performance appraisal system in the Nigerian education system and its effectiveness on teachers performance. Research questions and Hypothesis were used to guide the investigation and data collected was affected using questionnaire research instrument.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In the area of performance management, performance appraisal is a frequently debated topic. The significance of performance appraisal systems comes in part from the present business climate, which is characterized by the requirement to accomplish organizational objectives while also remaining competitive in highly competitive markets via excellent employee performance (Chen and Eldridge, 2012). Various studies indicate that companies have little influence over their workers’ behavior in this setting (Attorney, 2007). Organizations, on the other hand, have influence over how workers carry out their duties. Furthermore, research on performance appraisal indicates that a large percentage of workers want to do a good job as part of their own objectives and as a symbol of commitment to the company (Wright & Cheung, 2007). The capacity to give workers with the appropriate working environment, it is said, is the key to ensuring that they perform effectively. Fair treatment, support, effective communication, and cooperation are all characteristics of such an atmosphere. These are the characteristics that a successful performance appraisal system produces, according to Maley (2013). While concentrating on performance appraisal as a motivating tool, research suggests that performance appraisal systems may be utilized to boost motivation (Chen & Eldridge, 2010; Appelbaum et al., 2011). However, since the connection between performance evaluation and employee motivation has been examined in a conventional or broad way, the association is frequently ambiguous. Traditional performance evaluation has been chastised for rewarding win-lose outcomes rather than win-win outcomes, in which the system encourages helpful and cooperative behavior (Rowland & Hall, 2012).

Nigeria’s educational system follows the (1)-6-3-3-4 formula: one year of pre-primary education, six years of primary school, three years of junior secondary education, three years of senior secondary education, and a minimum of four years of higher education. Before Nigeria adopted the concept in 1989, it had been successfully implemented in China, Germany, and Ghana. However, it was never completely implemented in Nigeria. Despite the fact that successive administrations have theoretically supported the policy’s goals, none have been able to put it into practice. Nigeria’s educational system is beset by infrastructure deterioration, negligence, resource waste, and deplorable working conditions; teachers are underpaid. The aforementioned factors boil down to a teacher’s ability to function effectively in the face of a discouraging working environment. Brownyn(2001). The process of arriving at a judgment on an individual teacher’s performance against the backdrop of his work environment and future possibilities for the school system is known as teacher performance assessment. It is a comprehensive evaluation of employees that usually lasts a year or more. C. A. Ajie(2006). The appraisal’s primary emphasis is on job assessment and incentive for instructors who have performed well in the course of their responsibilities. These incentives may take the shape of money, promotion, or the presentation of an award for achievement, among other things. However, it is unclear if the Nigerian ministry of education has implemented an evaluation system to assess the efficiency of teachers’ work and to reward those who have faithfully performed their responsibilities. All information about a teacher’s work performance is included in the performance evaluation. It is generally recognized that good teacher self-evaluation is critical to educational system development. Teachers, on the other hand, have an innate need to reflect on their work, assess it, and seek methods to improve it. However, if the Nigerian educational system does not implement an appraisal and motivation system. There will be nothing to inspire the teacher, therefore their performance will be ineffective.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

A teacher is a person or an individual who impact knowledge into others. We have teachers in the primary, secondary and tertiary institutions in Nigeria.

An appraisal system is a mechanism used to motivate workers, however, In todays educational system it is not clear if there is an appraisal system in place to motivates teachers who have dutifully discharged their duties and teachers who have not. Either in monetary , promotion, job security, sacking, giving of query etc. However, appraisal system will be effective in checking the performance of teachers who have performed well and teachers who have done otherwise.

A good appraisal system should be able to discriminate between effective and ineffective teachers performance, to measure teacher quality and aid in developing highly skilled teacher workforce. However it is not certain if the educational system in Nigeria motivates its teachers or if appraisal is effective on teachers performance. Hence it is against this backdrop the study will examine performance appraisal system in the Nigeria education system and it effectiveness on teachers performance


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objective of the study is as follows

  1. To find out if there is an appraisal system put in place to motivate teachers
  2. To find out techniques utilized for performance appraisal system carried out to encourage teachers.
  3. How frequently the competency assessment techniques of teachers are utilized.

1.4 Research Question

The study will provide answers to the following research questions

  1. Is there an appraisal system put in place to motivate teachers ?
  2. What are techniques utilized for performance appraisal system carried out to encourage teachers ?
  3. How frequently the competency assessment techniques of teachers are utilized ?

1.5 Research hypothesis

  1. H01: There is no appraisal system put in place to motivate teachers
    H1: There is an appraisal system put in place to motivate teachers
  2. H02: There are no techniques utilized for performance appraisal system carried out to encourage teachers.
    H1: There are techniques utilized for performance appraisal system carried out to encourage teachers.
  3. H03: Performance appraisal does not have effect on teachers performance.
    H1: Performance appraisal has effect on teachers performance.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The significance of this study cannot be underestimated as:

  1. This study will examine An Investigation Of Child Friendly School Environment And Social Relationship: Its Effect On Academic Achievement Of Public Primary School Children.
  2. The findings of this research work will undoubtedly provide the much needed information to government organizations, ministry of education and academia.

1.7 Scope of the Study

This study examines performance appraisal system in the Nigerian education system and its effectiveness on teachers performance. Hence secondary schools in Owerri municipal, Imo state will be used as case study.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

  • Just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data
  • Financial constraint, was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires
  • Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher

1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

Performance Appraisal System:

A systematic process, in which the personality and performance of an employee is assessed by the supervisor or manager, against predefined standards

Effective:

Successful in producing a desired or intended result.

Performance:

An act of presenting a play, concert, or other form of entertainment.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

The reason behind the establishment of educational sector in Nigeria, as often observed by government and others in the business of schools is to coordinate and enhance the development and utilization of manpower in Nigeria. To achieve these objectives, Human Resource Management Practices are critical. The schools must attract, develop and maintain an energetic workforce to facilitate their goals and strategies through HRM practices that have impact on organization performance and productivity.

Among the HRM practices adopted by virtually every organization, which secondary schools in Imo state is not an exception to, is Performance Appraisal of their staff. However, the impact that Performance Appraisal is likely to have on staff productivity as to the best knowledge of the researcher, has not been researched in the past. It is against this background that the study was carried out to generally investigate the “performance appraisal system in the nigerian education system and its effectiveness on teachers performance. Research questions and Hypothesis were used to guide the investigation and data collected was affected using questionnaire research instrument.

The findings revealed that virtually all the staff in secondary schools in Owerri municipal area of Imo state are aware of performance appraisal and it is conducted on them frequently which answer the question “How frequently is performance appraisal conducted in your school”?

The study also finds that more than half of the respondents are appraised by either superior assessments, (i.e. senior colleague assessment), Group/committee assessment (i.e. committee or export assessment), which confirms findings by Amah (2006), that Group/Committee assessment are procedures mostly use in tertiary institutions like – Colleges and Universities. It also revealed that personal assessment (i.e. filling of forms by self) are used in measuring academic staff performance.

The research question which seeks answers to the level of academic staff productivity revealed that teaching productivity of academic staff is “high”. However, both teaching and administrative productivity of academic staff is higher than that of the research productivity. Furthermore, the research hypothesis which seeks to verify the relationship that exists between performance appraisal and performance of staff was tested. It was found that there is a significant relationship between performance appraisal and productivity (i.e. there is positive relationship).


5.2 Conclusion

Arising from the foregoing findings, the study concludes that secondary schools in imo state appraised their academic staff performance frequently either by superior assessment, Group/committee assessment and personal assessment.

The level of productivity of academic staff as it relates to teaching and administration is very high. The research productivity of the academic staff is, however moderate.

The study discovered that there is positive relationship between performance appraisal of academic staff and their productivity. In the same vein, performance appraisal has significant impact on the productivity of the academic staff.


5.3 Recommendations

Owing from the research findings and conclusion there from, the following recommendations are made:

  1. Effort should be intensified by secondary schools in Imo state in appraising the performance of their academic staff as doing so enhances staff productivity.
  2. The secondary schools in Imo state should periodically conduct performance appraisal on their academic staff to sustain their level of productivity. On the contrary, if performance appraisal is not conducted on staff regularly is likely to affect their productivity negatively.
  3. Government should encourage research among the academic staff of secondary schools in Imo state by creating avenue for researchers to have access to research funds.
  4. Research centers should be established in secondary schools in Imo state for the advancement of research, and hence societal development.
  5. Secondary schools in Imo state should not only appraise the performance of their academic staff but should also let them understand the purposed/benefits of it (i.e. promotion, demotion, motivation, incentives, training and development needs etc).

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