The Impact Of Mothers Career On Students Academic Performance

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The Impact Of Mothers Career On Students Academic Performance


Abstract


The study focused on the influence of mothers’ career on academic performance specifically of students in secondary school in Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. Three objectives were drawn: determine the influence of mothers’ career on the academic performance of students in secondary schools; determine how mothers’ career influence academic performance of students in secondary schools in rural and urban areas; and, determine the extent to which the socioeconomic status of employed mothers influence the academic performance of their children. Three research questions were raised and three hypotheses were also tested at the 0.05 level of significance. The survey research method was employed in which six hundred and seventy-three (673) respondents were purposively selected women working in Hospitals, Banks, Secondary schools, and primary schools, in the six Area Councils of Abuja. The questionnaire designed by the researcher and subjected to the processes of validity and reliability served as instrument for data collection. The collected data were analysed using mean, frequency and percentages on demographic status. The test of hypotheses was done using the t-test statistical technique and the Pearson Product Moment correlation technique, using the computerized SPSS Package. The findings revealed that, Majority ( over 60.0%) of the respondents are personally in charge of their children’s home work; the academic performance of their children was above average; respondents occasionally supervise their children’s school work/home work; Majority (89.0) of the respondents were located in urban areas; More students of mothers from urban areas (79.0%) than students of mothers from rural areas (40.0%) had school results that indicated their position in class was between the top 4th to 10th position; On the whole, 74.0% of the respondents’ students had 4th to 10th position in their class examination. Finally, the findings revealed that, the income per month of majority (65.0%) of the respondents was N 30,000 to N 60,000; Most of them purchased all recommended textbooks, exercise books and writing materials for their students all the time; 74.0% of the respondents give balanced diet lunch pack to their students to take to school all the time; 83.0% of the respondents indicated that their children’s school fees were paid on schedule all the time; and, 98.0% of the respondents indicated that whenever their students are ill, they receive prompt medical attention all the time. All the three null hypotheses tested were rejected at 0.05 level of significance. The study therefore recommended that the government to organize a campaign that will educate mothers to take up gainful employment.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The man is the head of the family and the sole provider of nourishment in the typical African cultural milieu. On the other side, the woman (or mother) is supposed to take care of the home and the children. She is not expected to take up paid work that would divert her attention away from her responsibilities as a housewife (Davis-Kean, 2005). She is, nevertheless, expected to provide informal education to the child and then prepare him for official school. The widespread belief (in the Researcher’s opinion) is that working women will find it difficult to fulfill their job of providing early childhood education, which will have an impact on their child’s academic achievement once they enter school.

In terms of child development, moms must choose between time spent parenting and money while determining whether or not to work. Parenting resources, such as money and time, are thought to have a favorable impact on a child’s cognitive and academic development. As a result, estimating the impact of parental employment on children’s academic success is important (Mahmudul 1992).

Several factors influence academic performance. Most studies show of how a mother’s socioeconomic standing influences the type of home her children live in, the social amenities they have, their mobility, and even the types of food they eat, and, as a result, their academic achievement in school (Olusanya, Eyisi, Ogunyide, & Egbichulam ,1990).

According to Kriesberg (1990), middle-class families are more supportive and rewarding of academic performance than lower-class families. Indeed, according to Capper (1996), a child’s success in an examination can have an impact on the entire family because that performance can limit or increase the child’s future work opportunities. The influence of parental status on academic performance was also noted by (Musgrave 1998). Personal factors such as success, motivation, and self-concept, he noted, are powerful predictors of academic performance.

Women’ job has an impact on their children’s academic achievement, especially when it is noted that mothers play a key role in their children’s education from conception to formal education. According to Akogun (1998), there is emerging evidence that when malnutrition begins early in life, it causes more severe brain impairment and may lead to a life-long loss in intellectual capacities. Furthermore, a mother who has continually lived on poor nourishment is unlikely to produce intellectually capable children, which may result in poor scholastic accomplishment.

Mothers’ employment (whether on a shift basis, part-time job, or full-time employment) has a significant impact on how successful or unsuccessful their children are in school. Mustapha (2008) confirms this, stating that child training is a neglected subject in most families, and that mothers are no longer dedicated to the upkeep of their children. He claims that when mothers work, they spend the entire day at their jobs, especially if they hold executive positions, and have little or no time for their children and families. This disregard for family responsibilities may result in students who are illiterate and whose moral and intellectual performance is lacking.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In a family, a woman makes many different contributions that affect everyone’s happiness. They are typically allocated to be the primary carers for newborns and children in practically all communities around the world (UNDP, 1995). Breast feeding, preparing food and drinks, carrying water and collecting fuel, and seeking preventative and curative medical treatment are all important activities for a child’s healthy development. In both households and enterprises, women play an important role in supplementing family income. In underdeveloped countries such as Nigeria, women’s engagement is critical in some situations for a family’s survival. However, because of the time constraints that women confront, their responsibilities as caretakers and family income producers may conflict, with potentially serious consequences for children’s welfare. Working parents may rely on other family members to care for their children, but the quality of care offered by these replacements, particularly if they are older children, may be inadequate (Mahmudul 1992).

According to Uche, (1991), the majority of moms are ‘working mothers,’ earning money to augment the income of their husbands. There are also cases where a woman is a single mother or parent who is responsible for the education of her children through all levels of schooling. Her social standing, as measured by her financial level, will decide how well the students are nourished. It is important to highlight that how well students are fed has an impact on their academic achievement.

What are the broad implications of these employed women on their children’s academic performance? Is it possible for their paid occupations or social position to have a favorable impact on their children’s academic achievement?


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine the influence of mothers’ career on the academic performance of students in secondary school.

The specific objectives are to:

  1. Determine the influence of mothers’ career on the academic performance of students in secondary schools in the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja;
  2. Determine how mothers’ employment influence academic
    performance of students in secondary schools in rural and urban areas of the Federal Capital Territory;
  3. Determine the extent to which the socio-economic status of employed mothers influence the academic performance of their children.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will guide this study:

  1. What is the effect of mothers’ career on the supervision of home work of students in secondary schools in Federal Capital Territory of Abuja?
  2. What is the effect of mothers’ careers on academic
    performance of Students in secondary schools in rural and urban areas of the Federal Capital Territory?
  3. How has the socio-economic factors of employed mothers influence the academic performance of their children?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses are formulated for testing:

  • HO 1: There is no significant effect of mothers’ career on the Supervision of homework of students in secondary schools in Federal Capital Territory of Abuja.
  • HO 2: There is no significant difference on how mothers’ career influence academic performance of students in rural and urban areas.
  • HO 3: There is no significant difference between the socio-economic status of employed mothers and the academic  performance of their children.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this research would provide information which could be used by Home Economics curriculum planners in reviewing Child Development and Home Management curriculum on influence of mothers’ career on the academic performance of the children.

Mothers will benefit a great deal from the findings of this study as it will reveal the academic influence of employed mothers on their children, which may be instrumental in creating awareness on the need for mothers to take up paid employment to supplement their husbands’ salaries.

The study would serve as valuable information for lecture materials and topical issues for seminars and conferences.
It will also provide current information on the influence of mothers’ career and academic performance of students in secondary schools in Federal Capital Territory of Abuja which will help these women adjust their schedules, improve on the academic pursuits of their students by providing all avenues required towards helping their students perform well in school. In addition, this study will increase the knowledge of Nigerian employed mothers, individuals, students, teachers, and anybody that may find this study useful through the school programmes, seminars, and conferences. Consequently, it will reduce delinquency among students and bring about a better society when mothers are more committed to their homes, thus leading to better performance of their students in school.


1.7 Delimitation of the Study

This study focused on the influence of mothers’ career and academic performance of students in secondary schools in Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. The area selected is adequate because all categories of employed mothers are on ground in the Federal Capital Territory. Also, the reason for choice of employed mothers is because the mothers would be in the best position to answer questions pertaining to the academic performance of their students, other than men (father) who may not be available to do so. This study will be delimited to all working mothers living in the six area councils in Federal Capital Territory of Abuja.


1.8 Assumption of the Study

The study assumed the following:

  1. That mothers’ career has impact on academic performance of students.
  2. There is influence of socio-economic status of employed mothers on the academic performance of their students.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

The study focused on the influence of mothers’ career on the academic performance of students of secondary school age in Federal Capital

Territory of Abuja; its objectives are, to determine:

  1. The effect of mothers’ career on the supervision of home work of students in secondary schools in Federal Capital Territory of Abuja;
  2. How mothers’ career influence academic performance of students in secondary schools in rural and urban areas of the Federal Capital Territory;
  3. The extent to which the socio-economic status of employed mothers influence the academic performance of their children.

The review of literature highlighted various issues of mothers’ career and students’ academic performance. The theoretical framework of the study was hinged on the social biological theory which holds the view that biological differences are responsible for the differences in both the behaviour of man and woman and the roles they play in society. It was shown that the body of work assigned to mothers caring for child, home and husband fits together in a non-contradictory manner and that a woman’s intense exclusive devotion to mothering is good for her students. It was also shown in many instances that mothers’ career has influence on their students’ academic performance.
The survey research method was employed in which 673 respondents consisting of purposively selected women working in Hospitals, Banks,

Secondary schools, and secondary schools, in the six Area Councils of Abuja, served as subjects. The questionnaire designed by the researcher and subjected to the processes of validity and reliability served as instrument for data collection. The collected data were then analysed using mean, frequency and percentages on demographic factors. The test of null hypotheses was done using the t-test statistical technique and the Pearson Product Moment correlation technique, using the computerized SPSS Package. The findings revealed that:

  1. Majority (74.0%) of the respondents occasionally supervised their students’ school work/home work; 61.0% indicated that they were personally in charge of students’ home work.
  2. Eighty nine percent (89.0%) of the respondents were located in urban areas; More studentsof mothers from urban areas (79.0%) than students of mothers from rural areas (40.0%) had school results that indicated their position in class was between the top 4th to 10th position; On the whole, 74.0% of the respondents’ students had 4th to 10th position in their class examination; and,
  3. Ninety eight percent (98.0%) of the respondents indicated that whenever their students were ill, they received prompt medical attention all the time; 83.0% of the respondents indicated that their students’ school fees were paid on schedule all the time; 74.0% of the respondents indicated that they gave balanced diet lunch pack to their students to take to school all the time; The income per month of majority (65.0%) of the respondents was N 30,000 to N 60,000; 65.0% of the respondents purchased all recommended textbooks, exercise books and writing materials for their students all the time.

5.2 Conclusion

On the basis of the findings of this study, the following conclusions were drawn:

Majority of employed mothers supervised their students’ school work/home work; eighty nine percent (89.0%) of employed mothers are located in urban areas, and more children of mothers from urban areas (79.0%) than children of mothers from rural areas (40.0%) have school results that indicated their position in class was between the top 4th to 10th position;

Over ninety percent of employed mothers’ children receive prompt medical attention all the time, had their students’ school fees paid on schedule, had balanced diet lunch pack to take to school all the time, and, had all recommended textbooks, exercise books and writing materials purchased.


5.3 Recommendations

The study recommended the following:-

  1. Government should put up programmes that will encourage mothers to take up paid employment as they can still supervise their students’ school work/home work to achieve academic performance of above average for their students.
  2. The Federal Capital Territory Minister should organise programmes that support the working mothers in rural areas that will make them compete favourably with their counterparts in the urban areas.
  3. The Minister of the Federal Capital Territory should give priority to working mothers in terms of job opportunities considering the fact that they support their families by providing prompt medical attention whenever their students are ill, paid their students’ school fees on schedule all the time, and purchased all recommended textbooks, exercise books and writing materials for their students all the time.

5.4 Implications of the Study

  1. Home Economics teachers by virtue of the study are now acquainted with the influence of mothers’ career on the academic performance of students in secondary schools.
  2. The society at large would find the study very valuable as it reveals the influence of mothers’ career on the academic performance of students of secondary school age in Federal Capital Territory of Abuja; which will consequently encourage more mothers to take up paid employments. The implication of this is that the performance of secondary school students whose mothers have joined the rank of working mothers will improve drastically.
  3. The study served as guide book/manual for Home Economics teachers on the socio-economic status of employed mothers influence on the academic performance of students in secondary schools.
  4. The study could serve as reference document to curriculum planners formulating Home Economics topics on the influence of mothers’ career on academic performance of students in secondary schools.
  5. Home Economic teachers could make reference to the socioeconomic status of working mothers on their children’s academic achievement in secondary schools.

5.5 Suggestions for Further Research Work

The following are suggested as areas for further research work:

  1. There is the need to investigate the proportion of working mothers who are single mothers and the influence of their status on the academic performance of their children;
  2. A study can be carried out to find the role of house-helps in the academic performance ofchildren of employed mothers;
  3. A research can be conducted on how the socio-economic status of husbands of employed mothers influence the academic performance of their children in secondary schools.

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