The Effect Of Strike On The Academic Performance Of The Nigerian Student
1.1 Background of the Study
University is recognized as the citadel of knowledge, the intellectual fountain, and the most suited environment for the incubation of tomorrow’s leaders all over the world (Ike, 2001). One major knowledge is fulfilled by a university. It is a supplier of information and value (Ike, 2001). Its capacity or inability to meet this criterion determines whether it succeeds or fails. Universitum Magna Carta, “The university is an autonomous institution at the core of communities that are geographically and historically diverse; it generates, investigates, appraises, and transmits culture via research, and it is a multidisciplinary business.” According to (Nwankwo, 2004), this explains why merit has been a watchword in the university system – a system in which a student must first be declared worthy in character and learning before being allowed into the Honours Degree Hall. Universities have a larger role in national development in Africa than in other parts of the world (Ralph, 2003). Their research functions explain why the Federal Government of Nigeria, which recognizes the university as a fulcrum for national development, established a commission headed by Gray (1992) to examine higher education in Nigeria, with a focus on Nigerian institutions. The panel was given a set of mandates, one of which was
- To re-examine universities’ developmental responsibilities in underdeveloped nations like Nigeria.
- Determine the country’s intermediate and upper level personnel supply and demand, as well as provide advise on under/overpopulation and under/overutilization (Jay, 1995).
- Examine the academic staffing availability and quality in institutions.
- Researches the nature, sources, and criteria of funding in higher education institutions (particularly universities) in order to improve the situation and provide a constant stream of finances for the institutions’ optimal functioning.
- Examine the overall working conditions of higher education employees, including salary, pensions, and retirement benefits, public and private sector housing, and, in particular, the brain phenomenon.
- Examine the criteria for appointing administrators, such as Vice-Chancellors, Provosts, Rectors, Registrars, and other Principal Officers, as well as the terms of their appointments and the process for renewing them (Ana, 2001).
The commission held special sessions with a number of renowned individuals and educators, benefiting much from their expertise and experience of Nigeria’s educational system. Finally, the committee defined higher education as the sort of education provided by higher educational institutions, particularly universities, in order to generate high-level and middle-level workers who are not specialized by professional organizations. Teaching, research, and public service are among the goals and objectives, according to the commission. According to the commission, Nigerian institutions have set a benchmark that is equivalent to the best in the world. The commission, on the other hand, expressed displeasure with the fact that the following physical conditions continue to be associated with Nigerian universities:
- Dilapidated workshop equipment at most higher education institutions.
- Facilities such as libraries, lecture halls, labs, and work farms are insufficient.
The commission was also shocked to learn that universities have not achieved much in terms of the goals and objectives for which they were established, owing to constant disruptions in the academic flow chart caused by strikes, industrial unrest, student hooliganism, political instability, and other factors.
The commission concluded, among other things, that:
- University education, as the apex of the higher education system, should play a leadership role in the nation by giving individuals with particular qualifications and motivation;
- University education is not a way of earning a livelihood. It should also provide the person with the intellectual and physical abilities he needs to be an imaginative, creative, and self-reliant member of society to the best of his ability.
- Because of its central position in the economy, the university should constantly support and facilitate industrial harmony, as well as providing a suitable environment for learning and achieving other aims and objectives.
The government, for its part, approved these suggestions and stated:
- That the university conduct periodic assessments of its programs and activities to ensure that they are meeting national priority goals as set from time to time.
- There should be regular interaction between tertiary institutions, employers of their products, and the National Manpower Board in order to develop closer academic/industrial relationships and ensure that the programs of tertiary institutions are relevant to the needs of industry and the national economy.
- To promote industrial harmony in higher education by enacting legislation that protects the rights of diverse interest groups within the university system, particularly organized labor unions and their employers.
However, this is a broad overview of the events surrounding Nigeria’s university system (Nwankwo, 2004).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In Nigeria, the educational system has seen more industrial unrest and governmental attacks than any other social institution in the previous thirty years. According to Nwankwo (2000), Nigerian educational institutions have been subjected to a slew of negative political influence and what appear to be premeditated measures to bury them in the river of irrelevance. He went on to say that people in power saw universities as a burden, as institutions to be abused and abandoned. Our universities, he claimed, have become aberrations of themselves as a result of this Ures (closing procedure), non-payment development. Cultism, underfunding by the government, erosion of academic independence, general insecurity, outdated infrastructure, and non-payment of university staff wages are some of the manifestations. This is because of its strategic position in the nation’s hierarchy of objectives, as well as its perceived function as a veritable development machine, according to Onuoha (2008). In a personal contribution These are all signs that the Nigerian university system is in disarray. On the 27th of June, 2009, ASUU went on strike in protest at the Federal Government of Nigeria’s failure to implement an agreement reached with the union. ASUU president, Prof. Ukachukwu Awuzie, accused the Minister of Education of not presenting the genuine facts about the government’s handling of the issues that led to the strike during a news conference on the 30th of August in Calabar. He expressed sorrow that the minister stated in his response to the strike that the federal government and the union (ASUU) had reached no agreement and that the government needed to reassess the agreement due to the global economic catastrophe. He further stated that the minister said that the government was not fully apprised throughout the discussions and that ASUU’s strike action would further degrade education quality, which the union claimed it was striving to enhance. According to Awuzie (2008), the minister’s words are “especially vexing and sad,” because the federal government is to blame for the strike, which has placed the university system into yet another tangle. He said that, contrary to the minister’s allegation, the federal government and the union had achieved an agreement (ASUU). They gathered at the NUC on May 12, 2009, at the request of the government, to sign the agreement between the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) and ASUU. The union is on strike, he added, “to encourage government to be serious by signing the previously established accord.” According to him, the alleged N78 billion represents a gap in the amount required to support employee emoluments as a result of different agreements signed by the government with all federal tertiary institutions in the nation. As a result, he added, the minister’s allegation that N78 billion was required to support the FGN/ASUU deal was false. “It was a claim made to politicize matters, mislead, and defraud the Nigerian people.” Isn’t it a pity that our government considers N78 billion to be too much to invest over a period of time to overhaul our educational system? Despite this, the government wastes millions of naira on frills,” he added. He went on to say that, despite the fact that education is one of the topics on the government’s agenda, the allocation to education in the 2009 budget revealed the government’s lack of commitment to Nigerians’ education. “ASUU feels that with an average of N120 billion received from oil every day, government should be able to support education adequately,” the ASUU president continued. If it believes this is unachievable, the funds should be sufficient to ensure that a greater number of our citizens have access to education. We will not be able to achieve our goal of becoming a developed economy by 2020 if the majority of our citizens remain ignorant, as is the situation today.” He promised, however, that the strike will be called off as soon as the federal government signs the accord made with the professors. The ASUU strike concluded at 8:10 p.m. on October 22nd, 2009. To develop strategies to improve such deteriorating relationships in order to take the education sector ahead, as well as to determine the causes of the deterioration in labor-management relations. Strikes have far-reaching consequences because they disrupt a country’s economic, educational, social, and political life (Richard, 2008). The strike’s most evident effect on students is the lengthening of the academic session, low intelligence quotient, commonality, and so on. Of course, these are the outcomes that strikers are hoping for in the first place. It should be underlined that regardless of whether the strike succeeds or fails, these losses have already been incurred. The government, as the coordinator of the state’s many operations, has specific goals in industrial relations. In industrial relations, for example, the state’s goals include maximizing of social benefits and reduction of social costs. The final result is that the nation’s economic growth and development are maximized. The strike is preventing some of these goals from being met. Strike action causes law and order issues, needing heightened attention on the side of the state. Furthermore, even after issues are resolved, strikes and resentment persist, jeopardizing social interactions (Fred, 2003). Employers suffer significant losses, not only as a result of production halts, sales reductions, and market losses, but also as a result of large expenditures (Leo, 2002).
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The overall goal of this research is to look into the impacts of strike action in Nigerian institutions, with the following particular goals: –
- To identify the primary causes of strikes in Nigerian institutions.
- To investigate the extent to which the government intervenes in strike-related issues at Nigerian institutions.
- To investigate the hidden impact of strike activities on the student year on campus.
- To learn about the government’s efforts for resolving strike-related concerns in Nigeria’s university system.
1.4 Research Questions
The goal has been stated, and the following research questions have been formulated:
- What are the primary causes of strikes in Nigerian institutions?
- How can the extent to which the government intervenes in strike-related issues at Nigerian institutions be known?
- What are the hidden impact of strike activities on the student year on campus?
- How can the government’s efforts for resolving strike-related concerns in Nigeria’s university system be known?
1.5 Significance of the Study
A study of labor relations would be useful not just to the government, employers, and employees, but also to society as a whole. Integrated national planning and labor concerns are intertwined. It contributes to the development of workforce and the harmonization of labor relations, both of which support rapid economic growth. Furthermore, a calm industrial environment is essential to realize the lofty goals for which colleges were formed. The findings are noteworthy in a variety of ways, including:
- The research has contributed to the corpus of knowledge previously accessible by introducing the notion of management in industrial disputes/strike action, therefore adding to the current literature.
- Following the identification of a flaw in the collective bargaining process, it will encourage and assist additional collective bargaining researchers.
- The study is crucial for university administrators, who are now in a position to use management by consultation in all labor-related matters.
- The report is important to the state and federal governments, who will recognize that the university system’s incapacity to implement shared decisions has been a cause of contention.
- The study would also benefit labor unions, who would learn that, while their demands are necessary in light of economic realities, they must consider the state’s limited resources and management’s position before going on strike in a democratic setting. Industrial relations, on the other hand, is a different matter.
The freedom of those who advocate democracy ensures a favorable environment for the expression of emotions. However, such rights should not be exploited or restricted in the name of self-interested witch hunts. We must demand what is right as long as it complies with labor regulations, and what is right must be carried out as long as state resources are available.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The research border is the study’s scope. The purpose of this study is to see how strike activities and boycotts effect students’ academic performance in Nigerian tertiary institutions. The management of industrial conflicts is emphasized, with the goal of determining the origins, dimensions, and socioeconomic consequences of strike activities in our organizations. The research would be restricted to universities in Kaduna State. Kaduna State University and Green Field University, both in Kaduna State, would be the focus of the research.
1.7 Definition of Terms
When there is an organized labor dispute, wage workers refuse to do business with or patronize a commercial organization.
Any person who is not a manager who works for someone else in a company for a set salary.
A three-party interaction comprising the employer, employees or their representatives, and a government body with the goal of establishing employment norms and regulations.
This refers to the person or people that own the business. It might be a business owner, an organization, a partnership, a single proprietorship, a private or public limited corporation, the government, or something else entirely.
When a group of employees organizes a work stoppage that affects the overall condition of the job, this is known as a strike.
Striking employees use this tactic to prevent others from taking their positions in the workplace and to persuade those coworkers who haven’t joined the strike to do so.
When an employer closes a business for the purpose of enforcing a demand on employees by putting them out of work, th
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Frequently Asked Questions
What are the effects of strikes on students’ academic performance?
The action (strike) usually poses a lot of 1 fnegative effects on the student’s academic performance. This is because the period that should have been used to teach the students is spent at home all in the name of strike.
How does teacher-students relationship change during strike action?
Poor teacher-students relationship during strike action and lack of effective communication between teacher and students affect the academic performance of students. It was suggested among other things that teachers should ensure that a cordial relationship exists between them and their students.
What is strike in education sector?
In the education sector, strike can be compared to students’ examination malpractice, corruption and other social vices in the society. According to Hornby (2001), strike is a period of time when an organized group of employees (teachers) stops working because of a disagreement over payment or certain conditions.
What is happening to secondary school education in Nigeria?
Secondary school education in Nigeria has thus suffered tremendous setbacks as a result of strike actions.