The Study On Number Of Children Being Immunized Against Measles

Project and Seminar Material for Mathematics and Statistics

Project and Seminar Material for Mathematics and Statistics


This study was conducted to know the years that have the highest and least number of children immunization against measles in Kogi State between the period of 2004-2009 using percentage, multiple bar-chart and time series analysis (least square and moving average) The sample of the study consist of six years immunization programme in the state. The data collected was secondary and will represent in table chart, percentage and analyze by semi-average, least square and moving average methods.

Table of Content

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background and problem statement
  • 1.2 Operationalization of natural programme on immunization (NPI) activities in Kogi State
  • 1.3 Aims and objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Significance of study
  • 1.5 Scope and limitation of study
  • 1.7 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Time series
  • 2.2 Component of time series
  • 2.3 Analysis of time series
  • 2.4 Techniques for extracting the trend

Chapter Three

Data Collection and Presentation

  • 3.1 Study area (Kogi State)
  • 3.2 Sampling and sampling procedure
  • 3.3 Problem encountered while collecting the data
  • 3.4 Presentation of data

Chapter Four

4.0 Data Analysis

  • 4.1 Methods of analysis (Semi moving average )
  • 4.2 Computation of data, the least square method
  • 4.3 Moving average method

Chapter Five

Summary Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.0 Summary
  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • Bibliography

Chapter One:


1.1 Background and Problem Statement

In order to attain the health for all, it is very important that an attempt has to be made to address diseases burdens and other health problems that significantly contribute to the poor health status of Nigeria. Base on this, there is need to mount urgent and appropriate health interventions capable of achieving this prime goal. The main goal of the policy is to develop and promote immunization programmes geared toward reduction of childhood morbidity and mortality through adequate immunization coverage of all at-risk population.

In view of this, we have to provide the guideline and framework for proper implementation of an immunization schedule for the target and at-risk population.

To established a comprehensive guidelines to assure compliance with the plans to detect, control or eliminate the occurrence of vaccine preventable diseases (VPDS).

National programme on immunization (NPI) has the primary mandate to protect children and adult alike, as the case may be against vaccine presentation diseases (VPD).

Namely; Diphtheria, Pertusis (Whooping Cough) Poliomyelitis, Tuberculosis, Teltanus, hepatitis Measles, Yellow Fever and Cerebrospinal Meningitis.

National programme on immunization (NPI) is a policy of the Federal Government of Nigeria to provide immunization services and potent vaccine free to all population at-risk of vaccine preventable diseases.

1.2 Operationalization of Natural Programme on Immunization (NPI) Activities in Kogi State

Two broad strategies are adopted in immunization activities. These are as follow.

  1. Routine immunization
  2. Supplemental immunization
Routine Immunization Services:

These are both public and private offered at the health facility level and at the outreaches.

Supplemental Immunization Activities:

Are rendered as a cateh-up strategy to boost coverage of a particular citizen. These are C.S.M. Campaign, Measles Campaign, Polio eradication campaign NID, SNIDs, LIDs < Maltiple citizen administration campaign.

To achieve high and adequate reduction or elimination of the (VPD), the required operational requirement include.

  1. Active Disease Surveillance System: This compress of active case search incident and occurrence of diseases.
  2. Cold Chain: This is a life wife of immunization activities cold chain system is maintained from the state to LGA to health facility to the recipient. The cold chain equipment status is as attach pleases.
  3. Social Mobilization: We have NPI social mobilization committee, at state level, and in each of the 21 LGAs.
    The member of the committee plan and implement various mobilization activities and airing of jingles and announcement on the radio and television, town announcement, Radio and television, town announcement holding meetings with religious and traditional leaders.
Innovation at the State Level
  1. The appointment of NPI desk officers for each LGA is very important. The officers are from the state NPI office. They will be responsible for the training and supervision of routine immunization services. The desk officers will aids in data collection and data analysis at the LGA level.
  2. Focal officers will be appointed at ward level routine immunization from each LGA. The arrangements are in place to train the officer to increase, their performance on the filed.
  3. Immunization activities will be adapts. This scheme encourages individual or corporation to assist the TI activities in their ward or settlement of residence.

The items such as fuel motorcycle and fridges or it could be in cash, will be required inform of assistance.

Funding for NPI Programme

The following agencies partner to render assistance for implementation of NPI activities in various forms, namely: WHO, UNICEF, USAID, PTF, EU. Prime, Rotary international and NGOs. Their funding are mostly through NPI Headquarter Abuja.

  1. High political commitment at state level and some LGA too
  2. Commitment of UN Agency personnel
  3. Maintenance and availability of cold chain equipment at state and few LGAs
  4. Two vehicles donated to the state by NPI and other partners.
Major Constraints
  1. Lack of monthly imprest for NPI activities at the state and LGA level, for collection & distribution.
  2. Inadequate cold chain equipment-fridges, fressers
  3. Due to poor usage and maintenance NPI vehicles are broken down.
  4. Lack of stand by generator set for cold room
  5. Inability of some LGAs to collect and store vaccine for RI

1.3 Aims and Objective of the Study

  1. To determine the percentage of children immunize in Kogi State.
  2. To compare the number of children immunized in the Kogi State using multiple bar charts
  3. To determine the trend on the level of immunization against measles in Kogi State.

1.4 Significance of Study

This research will aids in policy making and increase knowledge on routine immunization in Kogi State. It will also be useful in evaluating the performance of existing population policies and programme aim at promoting immunization programme.

1.5 Scope and Limitation of Study

This research work is limited to the out break of communicable disease (Measles) in Kogi State, considering the 21 Local Areas, due to conveniences and financial constraints on the part of the researcher.

This constraints and limitation should be look into as the data will be use for the generalization about the general populace.

1.7 Definition of Terms


Is the act of introducing a particular antigen into the body to fight against a specific disease e.g. Bacteria and Measles.


Is a very infectious diseases, illness cause by a virus (paramyxo virus).


Are antigen use for prevention of specific communicable diseases.

Routine Immunization:

These are given to children at health centres from birth and at various age till they are nine months old, to prevent them from the eight childhood VPDs. Every child has the right to be immunized completely before the age of one year.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.0 Summary

From the data recorded for this research work and analysis so far, it is then observed that the percentage coverage and the comparison using multiple bar-chart changes from one year to another. This study on the immunization against measles in 21 local government area of kogi state has been used to explain and analyze the nature or pattern of immunization in the state.

The observed data collected from the year 2004-2009 have been use to fit a trend and to project for the year 2010 expected or estimated number of Childs immunization against measles using time series analysis.

5.1 Conclusion

It is very important to know the percentage of the year that has the highest or least number of children immunization within thisb period under study.

From multiple bar-chart 2005 has the highest and 2007 has the least, also from the percentage point of view, 2005 has the highest highest and 2007 has the lowest percentage number of children immunization against measles in the state.

From the least square method it implies that a unit increase in X will lead to increase in Y. i.e. when X is 25, 26, 27 and 28 to forecast or predict 2010 in the first, second, third and forth quarters yield the following results Q1 = 9.4, Q2 = 9.5, Q3 = 9.7 and Q4 = 9.8 increments.

It is obvious that immunization plays an important role in the lives of young children and even mothers during their pregnancy period or antenatal care.

5.2 Recommendation

Since the aim of immunization programme is to reduce the rate of children death, to achieve this, problems faced by the programmed has to be look into such as:

  1. Inadequate Fund: Most fund generated in NPI come from UNICEF and federal Government only.
  2. Poor Infrastructural Facilities: There is no good storage for vaccine and other equipment.
  3. Transportation: There are no enough vehicle for NPI to carryout their duty effectively.

This has to be great problem since there no local government area where immunization is not needed.

To achieve the above aims, it is therefore recommend that both the federal and state government should increase their contribution to the programme.

Launching can be organized at both level to raise fund for NPI. Necessary assistance should be given to NPI by the local, state and federal government to gear up the immunization programme.

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