Statistical Analysis On Reported Births (A Case Study Of Federal Medical Center Owerri (2004 – 2007)

Project and Seminar Material for Mathematics and Statistics

Project and Seminar Material for Mathematics and Statistics


Abstract


This research work is all about birth, how they vary among sexes and their significant differences among the year. In this study, the data collected were analyzed using sex ratio and the averages of the data were gotten per column.

This analysis was used to compare the births in each month, and to determine the sex ratios at the period under review. Therefore from the analysis of data, it was observed that there is increase in female births, and the sexes varies in their sex ratios at the percentage of 64.6% among the years under study.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Aims and objectives of study
  • 1.4 Significance of study
  • 1.5 Definition of terms
  • 1.6 Limitation of study

Chapter Two

  • 2.1 Literature Review

Chapter Three

  • Research Methodology
  • 3.1 Data collection
  • 3.2 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Analysis of Result
  • 4.1 Data analysis
  • 4.2 Interpretation of result

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Conclusion
  • 5.1 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Introduction

The issue of birth is a global phenomenon because infant births and deaths represent the major health problem in developing countries of the world. Increase in births is however, widely accepted as one of the most useful measures of determining the health status of a community, state or country. It is one of the most important aspects of planning a good economy in our country.

This is why the national policy on health laid much emphasis on primary health care delivery. Many physicians have undertaken researchers on causes of increase in population and made possible suggestions on how to differentiate the pattern of mortality rate between sexes by their sex ratios. Sex ratio therefore, is the number of male per 100 females in a population. A sex ratio of 100 means equality of males and females, a sex ratio above 100 means that, there are more females than males, when it is less than 100 indicates that there are more males than females and the varies widely among countries of the world at birth.

In a study conducted by Okorafor and Ogum (1977), an attempt was made to establish preliminary figures regarding the level of the sex ratio at birth in the former Anambra and the Imo state of Nigeria using the available data at that period, which included the number of children born each year by sex, division of origin, and type of institution in which the birth occurred, as recorded by the statistics unit of the Ministry of health, Imo State; covering the year 1971 through 1974 Data extracted from the vital registration records at the ministry of the Local government and social development, Imo State, and the data extracts from all hospital and maternity home concerning the number of births which occurred in them during the period 1973-1975. The study did not reach any definite conclusion regarding the level of sex ratio at births in the two states rather, the analysis pointed to the following conclusions.

  1. Sex ratio based on registered births tends to be sex selective in favor of males and have to be unusually high.
  2. Sex ratio based on the partial returns made by the various health institutions to the ministry of health and
  3. The overall sex ratio of 106.2 obtained from hospitals and Maternity home in Imo state for the period of 1973-1975 tends to suggest that the sex ratio in this area many not be as low as the figure of 103 which the ECA recommended.

But, techniques of evaluations of basic demographic data was expressed about the sex ratio at birth, as the validity of the low sex ratio estimated on the basis of enumeration of infants and child population which will be questioned, but perhaps a through study of the problem would worth while be confirmed or contracted.


1.2 Statement Of Problem

There has been this belief over the years that there is increase in female births than that of males. Hence, the focus of this study is to find out whether childbirth increases among females than males in the years under study. (2004 – 2007).


1.3 Aims And Objectives Of Study

The aims and objectives of the study include:

  1. To compare the births among the years
  2. To determine the sex ratios at the period under review.
  3. To compare the sex ratios with the theoretical values.
  4. To make appropriate recommendations based on analysis.

1.4 Significant Of Study

The significance of the research work includes:

  1. It will provide a practical approach of health insurance programme planners over thee nature, pattern and rates of births within Imo State.
  2. It will educate people on how sex radios vary between the sexes.
  3. It will also assist the government in planning efficient medical programme in the Country.

1.5 Definition Of Terms

Birth Rate:

This is the number of birth to children given by a woman in a given year.

Demography:

This is the study of statistics of human population, their structures and distribution by age, set, marital status and dynamic aspect (births, deaths and migration) of an area or a country.

Rate:

This is referred to as the frequency of demographic events in a population in a specified time period.

Population:

This is referred to a group of objectives, animate or inanimate of the same characteristics that are subjected to study.

Fertility:

This is referred to the actual reproductive performance of a population.

Migration:

This is the movement of people from one area to another.

Immigration:

This is referred to dominators in a particular area. Increases population rates.

Neonate:

This is referred to a new born baby in its first 28 days.

Registration:

This is the record keeping of events that took place immediately after occurrence. For instance, the registration of babies after birth.

Sex Ratio:

This is referee to the number of males per 100 females in a population.

Data:

This is referred to the facts or information used in deciding or discussing of issues and observations to be obtained in experimental variables to be considered.


1.6 Limitation Of The Study

A large area of study would have comparably allowed for an in dept study and analysis of this research, but factors such a time and finance could not be defected. There is lack of adequate records keeping by the hospital which made the retrieval of information very difficult, unidentified records of births outside the hospital made the reports of births inaccurate.


Chapter Five


5.1 Conclusion

The following conclusions are drawn based on the analysis of data on births, how they vary among sexes in the years under study.

From the analysis of data, it was observed that there is increase in births every year, and the sexes varies widely in their ratios among the years. From the general interpretation it was observed that about 31 months out of 48 months has more than 100 births from 2004-2007. From the analysis, the sexes varies in their sex ratios at the percentage of 64.6% among the years under review.


5.2 Recommendation

From the findings and information of this research study, the following recommendations should be made:

  1. Government should launch an aggressive campaign on the need to register both births and deaths of infant that occur outside the hospital especially in the rural areas, as it uplift the demographic standard of the country.
  2. They should build and facilitate more hospitals and health centers especially in the rural areas where there are less facilitated health centers, in order to avoid inaccurate records of births registration.
  3. Government should introduce free medical treatment for pregnant women, to reduce the deaths of infants and unborn babies.
  4. There should be policy promotion, but greater support and resources will be needed to better addresses of early child bearings.

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