Critical Analysis Of The Performance Of National Economic Empowerment And Development Strategy Needs On The Nigerian Economy

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Critical Analysis Of The Performance Of National Economic Empowerment And Development Strategy Needs On The Nigerian Economy


This research work, “Critical analysis of the performance of the National Economics Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) on the Nigeria Economy, (A Case Study of Enugu State)” seeks to look at the major causes of Nigerians Economic Misfortunes and his is greatly attributable to the poor industrial capacity utilization, massive unemployment and underemployment, high late of inflation, high poverty rate, poor wealth distribution, Mono-cultural economy (oil) high rate of corruption, etc.

The main objectives of this research are to find out if NEEDS has made any impact on the Enugu State and to analyses such impacts. To achieve the above stated objectives, a systematic research methodology was adopted. Good research questions were used on the sample such as the government, the private sectors, and the public and donor communities. From the data gathered here, it was discovered that in as much as the government has been playing its economic development role fairly well by adopting several failed economic reform programmes in the past, the economic debacle of Nigeria persists and this case for NEEDs.

In this research work the simple size is 40 and the sampling techniques is random sample used as probability proportionate i.e. 50 and methods of data collecting is questionnaire, Interview etc. Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made amongst others, (i) The level of awareness of NEEDs is too low that over 70% of the country’s populations one yet in the dark about it. (ii) The institution responsible for the implementation of NEEDs should be headed by well-qualified citizens of Nigeria with remarkable integrity.

Chapter One


This chapter is talking all about (NEEDs). National Economics Empowerment and Development Strategy. NEEDS is Nigerian’s plan for prosperity. It is a way of letting the international communities know where Nigeria stands in the region and in the world and how it wishes to be supported.

NEEDS is the people’s plan. It is up to regular Nigerians as well as government to see that it is implemented.

1.1 Background of Study

Nigeria is a large nation with a population or about 120 million people made up of three main ethnic groups: Hausa, Yoruba and Ibo, plus many other minor tribes. Nigeria gained her independence in 1960 and become a republic in 1963. Since then, the country has been involved in development policies as a deliberate and calculated method for mobilizing her resources with the hope of improving the material well-being of her citizenry. It is worthy of note that since the attainment of political independence in 1960, five national development plans (1962-1968, 1970-74, 1974-80, 1981-85 and 1968-2010) where launched at different period but without resounding success (Saleman 1998:3).

This situation can be attributed to lack of the main ingredients required for the success not these developmental, efforts, which included political stability social, Economic, Educational and Industrial advancement are lacking in the Nigerian context.

Nigeria has a large deposit of oil, gas and solid Minerals and skilled workforce. Apart from these, Nigeria has not been able to effectively control its endowment to develop the economy sufficiently to improve the welfare of his people. With a computed population growth rate of 2.8% and a GDP growth rate of about 2.5% per capital income growth was negative for the greater part of the 1990s. Nigerians urbanization is one of the highest in the world, leading to loss of strong labour force for Agriculture. In addition the rate of job creation has been far less than the rate of growth of the urban labour force. This connected with an education system that is not attended to the population of the proper manpower required to support well growth has led to high levels of unemployment and underemployment. In Nigeria, oil currently is about 75% of government speedy growth of the industrial sector led to investment in some projects which turned out to be “white elephants”.

According to Akpabash, 2004, Nigeria contributes about 30% of Gross Domestic Profit but employs only about 3% of the available labour force. The two reasons for this development is not far fetch firstly, the ability to design such project was lacking. Secondly, the soft loans required diminish of oil prices in the early century.

These provide the background for the new started economy improvement agenda, the Nation Economics Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS). During the regime of obasanjo’s, it has also taken other the measures such as the establishment of an independent corrupt practices commission (ICPC) the Economic and financial crime commission (EFCC) and due to process office to screen contracts sooner to execution.

1.2 Statement of Problem

The National Economics Employment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) came into takeover from the former structural adjustment programmes (SAP) which as introduce according to Babangida’s administration in 1986 which emphasizes. The National Economics Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) Intend to correct the negative impacts of the SAP on the country economic growth, which has led to an unprecedented social dislocation. The Mono-cultural economy practiced by Nigeria that is oil, has depressed other beneficial and elastic sector, sector, as economy now depends on oil as its major engine of growth and source of government revenue. According to Umar, 2005 summarized the problems of Nigeria economy.

  1. Galloping inflation that rate is freely.
  2. Embarrassing the need rate.
  3. Poor wealth distribution.
  4. Gigantic unemployment and underemployment.
  5. Poor industrial capacity utilization etc.

On this note the researchers intend to critically investigate the performance of National Economics Empowerment and Development Economy.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main goals in this research work are to ascertain if National Economics Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) has made any impact on the Nigerian economy, and to analysis such impacts.

The major objectives are:

  1. To ascertain the condition of the Nigerian economy before the invention of National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS).
  2. To examine the possible implementation challenges that National Economics Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) may encounter.
  3. To estimate the performance of NEEDS so far.
  4. To critically analyse the features of National Economics Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS)
  5. To make meaningful recommendation

1.4 Significance of the Study

  1. This project work is carried out in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Nigerian Certificate in Education.
  2. This work will be great help to future researchers who will carryout their own investigations in the subject area.
  3. This work will help Nigerians in understanding the working of the economy and how to better it.
  4. This work will be helpful in restoring public confidence on NEEDS and support people to it through opinion pools, suggestions and contribution by accepting the NEEDS as a genuine remedy to the current in conducive and in clement Economic conditions.

1.5 Research Questions

  1. How do you compute the role of the Nigerian government in developing the nation’s economy?
  2. How do you assess the performance of the Nigerian economy before the invention of NEEDS?
  3. Can NEEDS really salvage the Nigerian Economy?
  4. Are there possible implementation problem(s) that?
  5. Is it true that the several reform optional adopted in the past by the government were ineffective?

1.6 Scope of the Study

The region of this project is Enugu. The research is to determine if NEEDs can be used as a measure to revitalize the falling economy of Nigeria.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

A study of this nature cannot be carried out without difficulties in the process. An important constraint is the time constraint. This research work was carried out simultaneously with other class work and examination and the research were compiled with a very short period of one year.

Another constraint is finance, a research of this nature involves traveling to various states nationwide so as to search for adequate data (raw materials). NEEDs is a new programme and as such have not text books and a few articles written on it.

NEEDS being new in Nigeria has not gained popularity and consequently offered only a few people as respondents to the questionnaires distributed.

Lastly, difficulty in securing relevant data for the study.

1.8 Definition of Terms

To master NEEDS properly, it is pertinent that we understand the words used informing the “National Economics Empowerment and Development Strategy”.

According to Ude and shaibu (2003) defines-

EconomIc Growth

As the increase in the quantity of goods and services produced in a country over a year.

Economic Development

Is all about the maturity of the quality and quantity of goods services produced in a country over a year.

In additional by the above definition “goods are products of the private sector or the public sector. Private sector is the industries under government control while public sector is the industries under government that are tangible, services represents control that are tangible, services represent the products of the private or public sector that are intangible or invisible. E.g. Banking, Insurance, warehousing etc.


According to Chibueze 1996, defined Empowerment involves equipping one with the authority in ones society. Empowerment is synonymous with capacity or enablement.


The Longman (1995) defined a strategy as “Well planned series of action for achieving an aim, especially success against an opponent.

An consolidated of the above headings reveals that NEEDS can be defines as a well-planned series of actions for achieving a maturity of the quantity of goods and services produced in Nigeria by Nigerians.

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

In this study, our focus was to carryout a critical analysis of the performance of national economic empowerment and development strategy needs on the nigerian economy. The study specifically was aimed at ascertaining if national economic empowerment and development strategy (needs)has improved the nigerian economy.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 196 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are active workers in the Enugu State.

The proposition raised in the curse of the work was that NEEDS, seem not to be adequate enough as a poverty reduction programme for Nigeria as it worsen poverty incidence instead of ameliorating them. This confirmed the fact that poverty appeared to be increasing after the implementation of NEEDS because it is another World Bank programme in Nigeria.

First, it was argued that NEEDS articulate neo-liberal ideology which is based on free markets price ownership, free trade, export led growth, drastic reduction in government social spending among others. This form of ideology, it was contested do not augur well in Nigeria since it left wealth on few hands while the masses continued to reel under the heavy yoke of abject poverty. Another reason is that the architects of the programme are in one way or the other affiliated with the World Bank.

It was contested that private sector driven economy might not be in the best interest of the economy. We maintained that Nigerian state must retain the capacity to allocate resources preferentially according to an overall plan of development that answers to national priority. Also argued was the lack of political will on the part of governmentto carry out the goals which NEEDS target since the government focuses on lopsided implementation of annual budgets.

In conclusion, NEEDS can be likened to a new wine in an old wineskin or the proverbial resurrection of the phoenix from its ashes.

5.2 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
If Nigeria is to achieve any significant measure of success in her proclaimed effort to combat poverty, the following should be carried out;

  1. Anti-poverty programmes should be enshrined in the law and their execution made mandatory for every administration. This implies that the programmes shall transcend the whims and caprices of individual administration. The programmes should be sustainable and thoughtfully articulated rather than episodic and stop- gap as seems to be the current vogue.
  2. Strict legal and spiritual oath of office should be encouraged. Automatic death sentence for any embezzlement of public fund in order to improve sanity.
  3. The targets of the programmes, the poor themselves should be active participants in the formulation and execution of anti-poverty programmes meant to benefit them. The notion that officialdom can think and act for the poor is fundamentally wrong and an insult on the afflicted. A man living in affluence can hardly understand the real problems of the poor.
  4. A development strategy to generate employment in both rural and urban areas is also of great essence. New Jobs directed at the poor not at the middle or upper- class would go a long way to check poverty.
  5. Effort should be made to address the problem of neo-capitalist formation of the Nigeria state which is the bane of development.

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