Statistical Analysis Of The Factors Affecting The Performance Of State Secondary School Students In Mathematics (A Case Study Of Secondary Schools In Owerri)

Project and Seminar Material for Mathematics and Statistics

Project and Seminar Material for Mathematics and Statistics


This project was motivated by the fact that few or no research work has been done in the statistical analysis of student poor performances in English Language. The researcher having observed the rate of failure of state secondary school students in English Language was motivated into investigating the causes of this shrubby performance.

Owerri was chosen as a case of study for the purpose of this study it is hoped that the result of this project will throw light on the weakness interest in our educational system. This will be of great help to the school authorities principals and government in tackling those problems.

State secondary schools in Owerri were stratified and proportional allocation was used in collecting information from each system (school) this work consists of five chapters. The method of analysis were applied the chi-square test and ratio test. The work ended with some recommendations based on the finding and conclusions

List Of Tables

  • 3.1 Stratification of schools with the students Population.
  • 3.1.2 Showing allocation of questionnaires and valid returns for pilot survey.
  • 3.1.3 Showing computation of the variance for each stratum for estimating the samples
  • 3.1.4 Allocation of questionnaires to each strata and percentage response for the students
  • 3.1.5 Allocation of questionnaires to teachers
  • 4.1.1 Table showing computation of x 2 statistics (RXC) contingency
  • 4.1.2 Contingency table of the schools opinions on the coverage of English Language syllabus
  • 4.1.3 Contingency table of the level of interest of student in English Language
  • 4.1.4 Table showing ratio of teachers who specialized in English Language
  • 4.1.5 Table showing computation of ratio of students to teachers in English Language

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • List of tables
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Need of the study
  • 1.3 Aims and o objectives
  • 1.4 Scope of the survey
  • 1.5 Significant of the study-
  • 1.6 Limitations-

Chapter Two

  • 2.1 Literature review

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 research methodology
  • 3.1 Sources of data
  • 3.2 Sample frame-
  • 3.3 Pilot survey
  • 3.4 Determination of sample size
  • 3.5 Sampling technique
  • 3.6 Reason for stratification
  • 3.7 Problems encountered dung data collection

Chapter Four

  • 4.1 Assumptions and conditions for chi-square test
  • 4.2 To test whether students and teachers opinion on the courage of syllabus is dependent on school
  • 4.3 To determine whether students opinion on the students level of interest on the subject is dependent in class
  • 4.4 To find out the ration of students and teachers on mathematics

Chapter Five

  • 5.1 Discussion and findings
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • Bibliography
  • Appendixes
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One

1.1 Introduction

English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain by Germanic invaders and/or settlers from various parts of what is now northwest Germany and the Netherlands. Initially, Old English was a diverse group of dialects, reflecting the varied origins of the Anglo-saxon kingdoms of Britain. One of these dialects. late West Saxon, eventually came to dominate. The English language underwent extensive change in the Middle Ages.

Written Old English of AD 1000 is similar in vocabulary and grammar to other old Germanic languages such as Old High German and Old Norse. And completely unintelligible to modern speakers, while the modern language is already largely recognizable in written middle English of AD 1400. the transformation was caused by two further waves of invasion: the first by speakers of the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic language family, who conquered and colonized parts of Britain in the 18th century in the 8th and 9th centuries. The second by the Normans in the 11th century, who spoke old Norman and ultimately developed an English variety of this called Anglo-Norman.

A large proportion of the modern English vocabulary comes directly from Anglo-Norman. Close contact with the Scandinavians resulted in a significant grammatical simplification and lexical enrichment of the Anglo-Frisian core of English. However, these changes had not reached South West England by the 9th century AD, where Old English was developed into a full-fledged literary language. The Norman invasion occurred in 1066, and when literary English rose anew in the 13th century, it was based on the speech of London, much closer to the center of Scandinavian settlement.

Technical and cultural vocabulary was largely derived from Old Normans, with particularly heavy influence in the church, the courts, and government. With the coming of the Renaissance, as with most other developing European languages such as German and Dutch, Latin and Ancient Greek supplanted Norman and French as the main source of new words. Thus, English developed into every much a “borrowing” language with an enormously disparate vocabulary.

The languages of Germanic peoples gave rise to the English language (the Angles, Saxons, Frisii, Jutes and possibly the Franks, who traded, fought with and lived alongside the latin-speak peoples of the Roman Empire in the centuries –long process of the Germanic peoples expansion into Western Europe during the Migration Period). Latin loan words such as wine, cup, and bishop entered the vocabulary of these Germanic peoples before their arrival in Britain and the subsequent formation of England.

Tacitus Germanic, written around 100 AD, is a primary source of information for the culture of the Germanic peoples (The ancestors of the English) in ancient times, Germanies were in contact with Roman civilization and its economy, including residing within the Roman borders in large numbers in the province of Germania and other serving in the Roman military, while many more retained political independence outside of Roman territories. Germanic troops served in Britainnia under Roman command. Except for the Frisians, Germanic settlement in Britain, according to Bede, occurred largely after the arrival of mercenaries in the 5th century. Most Angles , Saxons and jutes arrived in the 6th century as Germanic pagans, independent of Roman control.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle relates that around the year 449 Vorrigern, King of the Britons, invited the “Angle Kin” (Angles allegedly led by the Germanic brothers Hengist and Horsa) to help repel invading Picts. In return, the Anglo-saxons received lands in the southeast of Britain. In response “came men of Ald Seaxum of Angulum of lotum” (Saxons Angles and Jutes). The Chronicle refers to waves of settlers who eventually paganism, who ultimately stem from the religion of the proto-Indo-Europeans.

The Dictionary of the English Language was the full featured English dictionary, Samuel Johnson published the authoritative work in 1755. to a high degree, the dictionary standardize both English spelling and word usage. Meanwhile, grammar texts by lowth, Murray, Priestly, and others attempted to prescribe standard usage even further.

Early modern English and Late Modern English vary essentially in vocabulary. Late Modern English has many more words, arising from the Industrial Revolution and the technology that created a need for new words as well as international development of the language.

The British empire at its height covered one quarter of the Earth’s surface, and the English language adopted foreign words from many countries. British English and American English, the two major varieties of the language, are spoken by 400 million persons. Received Pronunciation of British English is the prestige variety, while General American English is more influential. The total number of English speakers worldwide may exceed one billion.

Ejiogu (1986) it brings to bear on the fear, being expressed today as regards the poor performances in English being experienced in our secondary education today even higher institution of learning are out free from this dilemma

For some years now, most state secondary school students perform badly and quite below expectation in English Language. This work therefore intends to investigate the reasons behind this unhealthy performance and give possible recommendations on how to solve the problem.

1.2 Need For The Study

In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of candidates offering mathematics in West African school certificate Examination (WASCE) with high number of failure. The subject is compulsory for all the study and also the key to further ones education in major areas of discipline, more so, the scientific and technological breakthrough which is spends billions of Naira to bring to reality is centered on the subject (English Language)

Having realized the important and subsequent contribution of English in the areas of communication, science, social and economics enhancement, technology, and education, agriculture efficiency in management and bilateral relation with other countries, the need to encourage the study and development at all levels remains a fact that cannot be resisted

English Language have become a terror to many students, this is not only challenging but also a treat to our educational institutions and future of our society. It because world while to question the reasons behind the poor performance of students in these care subjects for a healthy improvement and meaningful contribution to the progress of the state secondary school and the society at large, this study seek to invest gate into the factors that give rise to this shabby performance, analyses them and make recommendation based on the following findings.

1.3 Aims And Objectives

The aims and objectives of this study include the following

  1. To find out whether students and teachers opinions on the coverage of syllabus is dependent on school]2. To determine whether students opinion on the student level of interest on the subject is dependent on class
  2. To find out the ratio of student to teachers on the course (English) (i.e. those who specialize in English).
  3. To recommend solutions to the problems.

1.4 Scope Of The Survey

The frame for this survey consists of only state secondary school in Owerri having JSS and SSS classes. The list was obtained from the statistics unit of the state education commission of imo state, Owerri. The scope for this study covers total population of 13600 JSS and SSS students, 128 English Language teachers and 10 principal.

1.5 Significant Of The Study

In recent years, there have been an increase in the number of candidate offering mathematics in both junior and senior secondary school examination (JSS/SSCE) with high number of failure with this study, it will be possible to find the contributing factors to this failure. This is because the first step of finding the solution to a problem is determining the source of the problem it self

If the problems is from the nature of the syllabus this can be restructured to suit the school’s curricula. If the problem starts from the junior secondary level, it then means that it is poor academic foundations that bring about the final failure for some years, the teachers have been bearing the blame as the sole offended in this case as a result of neglect of responsibility.

This study will determine if and otherwise to what extent this assertion is true. If it is true, it then means that the standard of teaching in the schools have to be improved. If on the other hands, the teachers are dissatisfied because of poor tending environment and disincentive work it then means that the government has to try to improve the working conditions of the teachers

1.6 Limitations

Government secondary schools in Owerri have been chosen to study in this research work but to reduce cost 10 out of the 39 of them will be chosen randomly to study wabehov of the schools in Owerri owned by government.

Primary data’s will be collected from the students, teachers and the principals of those ten (10) secondary school and secondary data from the ministry of education Owerri to enable me study this work perfectly those reductions will be made due to cost and time constant.

Chapter Five

5.1 Discussion/Finding

The study had intensified problems inherent in the teaching of English Language among which invade
The elaborate scope of the syllabus, 57% of both student and teachers indicate that English Language, is not covered fairly. The reason being that the elaborate scope of the syllabus is difficult to appreciate and is scarcely covered because of the period under which it was to be taught and studied. The syllabus of the subject prefer an obvious emphasis on covering as many grounds as possible but the continuous interruptions in the normal school programs usually experienced in the school, programmes creates and advise effect on the teaching of these subjects. These interruptions of the researchers observation is often caused by the government and school management authority.
This loss in a number of teaching hours results to a situation where the teaching is done in hasty manners by teaching in an attempt to cover the syllabus before the end of the term. The adverse consequences of this manners of teaching is the inability of teachers to impact the desired level of knowledge to the student, this had no doubt being the failure of students in mathematics.

The scarcity of qualified staff to handle these subject is another major finding of this research work, of the total number of teachers in Owerri, only few of them specialize in English Language, the study reveals that all school with the exception of Emmanuel collage Owerri, BAN development secondary school and Egbe community apprehensive secondary school the lack of teachers who can efficiently handle the subject. In most cases teachers without definable teaching subject specialization like graduate of sciences like chemistry physics and engineering were asked to teach mathematics.

The effect of SAP currently being experienced in the country has compounded the already existing problems of book scarcity. Students are poor and their teachers lack the resources to buy many text book required for teaching the subject.

The study revealed that the poor performance of students in English Language is associated with the teaching attitude adopted by the teachers. However, this poor teaching method is not unlikely to be associated with the poor incentives given to teachers and also the irregular and sometimes non payment of teachers salaries fro a long period of time.

Students were asked to list easy and difficult topic in mathematics, from the list it was not easy to draw a sharp democrat ion between the easy and difficult topics. What appears to be easy for one student constitute a difficult one to another.

At my rate, most students indicated that topics like surd, geometric rations, probability bearing quadratic equations appears to be difficult.

5.2 Conclusion

The study had shown that student and teachers opinions on the coverage of syllabus is dependent of class but is however, influenced by the school of enrollment most schools do not cover this syllabus.

The study revealed that the number of qualified teachers who takes or teach English Language is grossly inadequate.

That students and teachers opinion on the students level of interest in English Language is rather influenced by the class they belong.

5.3 Recommendation

With regard to the findings and conclusion of this study I make the following recommendations.

  1. That the government should recruit more qualified English Language teachers to enhance students performance in these subjects.
  2. Government should supply the schools with required test books.
  3. Regular assignment should be give to students to make them work in groups while solving the problem.
  4. In service training, seminars and symposia should be converted for teachers in order to b acquainted with current ideas to impact to the students.
  5. Teachers salaries should be paid regularly and o n time. Teachers will be willing to pay greater attention and give more concentration to their jobs if regularly paid their salaries.
  6. Teachers should try as much as possible to cover the syllabus so that students may have an overall knowledge of the subjects. This they can do by recognizing extra textures.
  7. In addition, government should fund the schools adequately. This will help the schools provide the required teaching arils and basic facilities necessary for teaching aids and basic facilities necessary for teaching the subject.

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