Statistical Analysis Of The Causes And Effects Of Examination Malpractice In The Tertiary Institution (A Case Study Of IMT, Enugu)

Project and Seminar Material for Mathematics and Statistics

Statistical Analysis Of The Causes And Effects Of Examination Malpractice In The Tertiary Institution (A Case Study Of IMT, Enugu)

Table Of Contents

  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

  • Introduction
  • 1.1 Statement of problem
  • 1.2 Examination malpractice
  • 1.3 Aims and objectives
  • 1.4 Statement of hypothesis
  • 1.5 Scope of the study
  • 1.6 Significance of the study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study
  • 1.8 Terminology associated with exams malpractice

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature Review

Chapter Three

  • Methodology
  • 3.1 The target population
  • 3.2 Statistical sample design
  • 3.3 Determination of sample size
  • 3.4 Method of data collection
  • 3.5 Problems encounter during data collection
  • 3.6 Sex distribution of respondents
  • 3.7 Age distribution of respondents
  • 3.8 Distribution by sex and academic level
  • 3.9 Method of data analysis
  • 3.10 The chi-square (x2) test
  • 3.11 Assumption on the use of x2 test
  • 3.12 Formular distribution for spiegel (1992)
  • 3.13 Calculation of expected frequency
  • 3.14 The contingency co-efficient
  • 3.15 Testing the significance of the continuance co-efficient
  • 3.16 Student opinion on the causes of examination malpractice in institute of management technology
  • 3.17 Contribution of the method of teaching in the school to students’ lact of interest
  • 3.18 Student on the common form of examination malpractice in the institute of management
  • 3.19 Distribution of student opinion on school that is most often involved in exam malpractice.

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Presentation and analysis of statistical data
  • 4.1 Using pie chart
  • 4.2 Using multiple bar chart

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Summary of findings recommendation and conclusion
  • 5.1 Summary of finding
  • 5.2 Recommendation and conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix i
  • Appendix ii
  • Appendix iii
  • Appendix iv

Chapter One


1.1 Statement of Problem

That we are living in a changing world is a popular statement which needs little explanation especially when the knowledge of today can be the fully of tomorrow or when a human being of today can oil to exist on the day that follows when such natural phenomena occur, one does not bother as to ask why these happen out when they are accompanied by abnormal happenings on become worried and asks why which he seldom finds and such is examination malpractice.

Examination malpractices in our tertiary institution have become a social molady which have adversely affected the have and have notes, the hardworking and society in general such corrupt practices have succeeded in tarnishing the past government and management of such institution employed different strategies to move up the shameful situation from our tertiary institution, but unfortunately all their efforts were uneventful or uncertainly.

1.2 Background of Study

Some of the examination rules which one should not violate are.

  1. Avoiding conversation while examination is in progress
  2. Coming into the hall with you identity card
  3. Submitting answer script after proper endured before going out of the hall
  4. Refrain oneself from copying or writing for another obedience to the invigilator.
  5. Not coming to the hall with expected answer written as pieces of paper.

As regards to these rules, one who violate them is likely to face the consequences for it by the committee. The punishment depends on the magnitude of the offence. Some of the offence after being looked into by the committee one is asked to withdraw from the institution or stay back. These culprit would not be caught without the proper vigilance of the invigilator or supervisor. Therefore, having seen from above I can now say malpractice is legal action taken by a person in a position of trust. This means when applied to examination situation that any contrary action performed by someone against certain examination regulation can be termed examination malpractice.

Statistics has shown the examination malpractice became a very common they in early eighteen and as a result, the instant had to set up a coming that will have to be looking into these malpractice cases. This committee was inaugurated in 1982/83 and was called “Examination Malpractice Committee”.

This committee spells out the appropriate punishment for any culprits involve.

According to the institution (IMT) academe and examination regulations prepared in June 1992, some of the regulation which candidates are required to comply with are.

  1. All students shall arrive at the designated examination hall thirty minutes before the scheduled time.
  2. No student shall enter the hall unless they are asked to do so by the co-ordinator
  3. A student must enter examination hall with current original school fees receipt current identity card, pencil etc
  4. Calculator if required but not a programmable type
  5. Ruler and any other material table etc that may be permitted by the chief invigilator.
  6. If a candidate report to the examination without his/her I.D card, he/she should report to the chief – co-ordinators with a recent passport photograph endorsed by the it on If it is discovered that the person who wrote the examination is not the owner of the identity card, it became a case of impersonation.
  7. No candidate shall have other material in his/her possession, even a private letter, while he/she is inside the examination hall.
  8. No caps, head ties and sun-glasses shall be allowed and student writing the same paper shall not sit side by side.
  9. No candidate is allowed to enter the examination hall sixty 960) minutes after the examination hall is prohibited.
  10. Students are not allowed to tear any paper from either the question paper or answer script for any purpose including rough work. All rough works must be done at the back of his/her answer scripts and then be cancelled. No rough work is permitted on the question paper on the desk at his or palm or anything else other than the answer scrip.
  11. No student wishing to draw the attention of invigilators to any particular issue shall do only by raising his/her hand.
  12. No alteration or cancellation is allowed on the registration number and blank spaces must be ruled across by students.
  13. All students in the examination hall entitled to sign the attendance shall I.D cards to the invigilator who will then sign your answer script indication that you are presence in the examination day.
  14. Student shall ensure that they enter the question attempted in the appropriate columns on the front cover of the script.
  15. Student must rule across all blank spaces of the examination answer booklets used during the examination i.e. either by cheating, copying, using material etc other than the one specified.

1.3 Aims and Objectives

The aims and objectives of this study are

  1. To find out whether examination malpractice depend on sex, school, academic level.
  2. To determine whether examination malpractice committee has helped to reduce examination malpractice in IMT.
  3. To know the commonest examination practice in IMT
  4. To determine the school/faculty that indulges most in examination malpractice in IMT and suggest why.
  5. To suggest its effect on the standard of education for example on IMT and to suggest ways of minimizing them.
  6. To find out whether lecturers has contributed to the examination.

1.4 Statement of Hypothesis

  1. H0: There is no significant different between exam misconduct and exam conduct.
    H1: There is significant different between exam misconduct and exam conduct.
  2. H0: There is no significant different between examination and malpractice.
    H1: There is significant between examination and.

1.5 Scope of the Study

There are about thirty six (36) states in Nigeria including the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, however, the study was limited to Enugu State. Enugu had been the capital of eastern region, and the economic operation that take place in other states of the federation is also carried out within the same socio – economic environment as a result, it was considered a fairly representative sample.

In other words as a result of the topic it serves that to some circumstances, 1 limited it to a particular school called IMT and limited to both female and male regular undergraduate.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Examination malpractice can be seen as a short cut to academic glory and it can be seen as a good benefit to those whoever be involve in it.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

The subject, exam malpractice will be very vast in study if it is to be discussed alone. As regards this work is limited on the statistics analysis of the causes and effects of exams malpractice in the tertiary institution.

In this work, it is expended to answer certain question as regard the topic at state. Some of the questions ought to be answered are:

Likely question

  1. What is examination malpractice?
  2. What leads to exam malpractice?
  3. What are the consequences of exam malpractice?
  4. How can the issue of stake be eliminated from our tertiary instillation

1.8 Terminology Associated with Exam Malpractice in IMT


A process of putting question forward in order to test knowledge or get information.


Impersonation is when somebody pretends to be or act the part of somebody else.

In this case of study, this simply means when a student that is convinced to be more intelligent enters into the examination hall to assist somebody that seems to be less privilege and regulation, governing examination.

Exam Conduct

Manner and ways exam are being scheduled and carried out effectively. It is usually carried out at a given period according to the school calendar.

Malpractice Committee

These are set of people or group of people that are selected from various department which statistics is inclusive to into cases of people who view the case or different people. This is as a result of new development from the accused that is not convincing enough to the management.

Exams Misconduct

This is going against the rules governing an examination ie either by cheating, copying, using material other than the one specified.


Is another, which the candidate that is connects to exam malpractice adopts in drawing attention of his/her colleague to answer his/her demand base on the question on the exam paper which he know nothing or little about.
It happens that when this whistling occurs, the partner of the bearer is always alerted to supply any required material to satisfy the others need through any possible channel that is open him/her.

Body Language or Sign Language

This is a special act of examination malpractice which candidates commonly adopt during examination test. This system of coding and decoding information through sign language and is widely spread out among students of exam malpractice in the examination hall believe that it is difficult understand what is happening in the examination premises.

Some of those signs could be raising up a finger tip of various types to indicate problems or translate reply information.


Photocopying another candidates answer.


Elogation of one’s neck in order to copy another work.


A displayed answer to a question on a rough note or piece of paper, which have the contents of answering or relates ideas on any unknown examination question.

Ghost Candidate

It implies to a structure who appears to represent another with take identities with the claims of being the one partaking in examination on its own interest.


The most popular and most common cheating strategy is the possession of another person’s unauthorized material by somebody that relieve it or some body else is known as microchip otherwise known as “fast guy no be thief”.


It is the act of using reminder.

Direct Entry or Counterfeit Formula

It involves multiple registration, a situation where the student make dual registration, using a bongus number for the other.

Mass Collusion

This is another method adopted by students cheat by the entire class members and in this case a question of born again no deep.


The use of physical might in which student snatch question paper from invigilator.

Short Put

The throwing of written answers to choice candidate in the hall.

Chapter Five

Summary of Findings Recommendation and Conclusion

5.1 Summary of Findings

Based on the analysis of the survey, the following findings were made:

  1. A large proportion of the students agreed that lack of seriousness on the part of students agreed that lack of seriousness on the part of students to their students before examination is responsible for examination malpractice.
  2. Students are of the view that the method of teaching course contribute to examination malpractice.
  3. Students stated that copying on pieces of paper is the commonest form of examination malpractice
  4. Students from the school of business studies are mostly the culprits of examination misconduct.
  5. On ways to curb examination malpractice must of the students suggested that the school authority should make provision for adequate security in the examination halls.
  6. On the contribution of the examination malpractice committee towards curbing of examination malpractice in the school, most, student agreed that the committee has not helped to reduce the rate of examination malpractice.
  7. Students are of the view that he female students get more involved in examination malpractice than male students.

In conclusion, the greatest challenge which this project addresses the attention of all sundry to, is that of safe guarding one’s integrity. This is because the validity of certificate awarded by the institution/school depends, a great deal on surmounting this challenge.

I therefore, call on staff both academic and non academic and the students to attach the greatest importance to this. Any measure devised for meeting this challenge will be highly appreciated.

Moreover, on rare cases do lectures go outside the scope of the course, so that any one who has been punctual to classes, attentive to the lecturers as well as diligent in his studies stands a very good chance of passing his examination. I trust that the institute of management and technology Enugu will work hard to eliminate this disease from the school.

5.2 Recommendation And Conclusion

Based on the finding of this survey, I hope that the following recommendation would help to reduce the incidence of examination malpractice in the institute of management and technology, Enugu.

I suggest that the school examination committee should strengthen the penalties awarded to culprits. The management should try and see that lecturer hours are well special out and enough revision period (say two weeks) given in order that student will get themselves well equipped for examination management should also call on lectures to make the teaching of the courses easy to students.

Security men should be posted to the examination halls to apprehend those students who are not serious with their studies but only depend on “Expo” to pass their examinations. Furthermore since the rice in examination malpractice, these days can be attributed to moral decadence in the society.

It can be agreed that examination malpractice has its base on some societal ill like election malpractices, corruption and fraud. I therefore, call for a change in our social values and the inculcation of the fear of God in the youths. This will go a long way in reviving decency and honesty. Also, students should be taught to develop their talents and rely on their own abilities.

In conclusion the management owes an obligation to mankind to protect the integrity of the certificates it issues to those who pass through it. Otherwise the educational system as we know it would crumble.

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