A Statistical Analysis Of Revenue Allocation In Imo State From 1999-2005 (A Case Study Of Ministry Of Finance)

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Project and Seminar Material for Mathematics and Statistics

Project and Seminar Material for Mathematics and Statistics


Dedication


I dedicated this project work to almighty God for his strength, direction, love, provision and protection over me. my special dedication also goes to my parents sir and lady Pepple G. and my loving sister Patience, Ibifuro and my brothers Nelson, Joseph and Solomon for their prayers, moral and financial support towards my academic and also to those who loves knowledge.


Acknowledgment


I am grateful to Almighty God for his love, Guidance, provision, strength, protection and inspiration to read this course throughout the period of my ND in this great institution.

My gratitude sincerely goes to all who immensely helped me in one way or the other in bringing this work to fulfillment. People like Agbu Nkemka, Joyce, Akaegbochi Chidozie and Uchechi Amonu. And most especially my project supervisor Uzoma P. U. who through his advice and suggestion helped in making this work a success. More thanks also goes to my (HOD), Mr. Ajaraogu J.C. for his immense help in my department.

My special acknowledgment goes to my loving, caring and wonderful parents mr/mrs. Pepple G. and my elder sister miss patience Pepple, also my younger one Ibifuro, Solomon and my wonderful cousins, Ephraim, Owen, Kyrain, Fortune and Lucy for their prayers and financial support towards my ND academic sections. My thanks goes to my uncle Mr. Dick Pepple and my brother Mr. Joseph Charles for their financial commitment.

Finally, my thanks also goes to all the ND final year student of maths/statistics department who assisted in updating this project, may God locate them to their favour market amen. I will not forget to remember my loving and wonderful friends frank Omaliko, Uche Duru, Samson and other numerous friends of mine who contributed one way or the other. I wish to thank my loving and wonderful roommate Nonso, Uche Amonu and Uzoma Amonu, may God Almighty bless you all and grant you the heart desires in Jesus name, amen.

Pepple Sylvanus
2007/0114/STA 


Abstract


The importance of revenue allocation from the federal government is necessary to help the state government meet their financial obligations. The research survey on statistical; analysis of revenue allocation to states in Nigeria from (1999-2005) with Imo state as a case study was carried out in order to determine the rate of revenue allocation and expenditure in Imo state. Data was collected at central bank of Nigeria Owerri Imo state.

Method of analysis used is simple correlation analysis to ascertain whether there is a significant increase in the trend of revenue allocation to the state and its local government areas, as well as to investigate whether there is a linear relationship between the revenue allocated to the state and its 27 local government area.

From the observation made:

  • There is a weak relationship between revenue allocated to the state and its local government area in Imo state.
  • The state ministry of finance should convince the federal government to ensure that revenue allocated to the state and its local government is equal.

The researcher made the following recommendations:

  • The principle of federal presence should not also be used in allocating revenue to states because the state without federal presence will eventually suffer when the allocation is made leaving them behind.
  • The principle of equity should be applied in allocating revenue to the states and its local government areas.

Table Of Contents


  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Statement of problem and definition
  • 1.2 Aim and objectives of study
  • 1.3 Significance of study
  • 1.4 The research question/statement of hypothesis

Chapter Two:

  • 2.0 review of pertinent literature
  • 2.1 The principles of vertical and horizontal allocation of revenue
  • 2.2 The derivative principle of revenue allocation
  • 2.3 The principle of need of revenue allocation
  • 2.4 managing fiscal federalism

Chapter Three:

  • 3.0 Methodology
  • 3.1 Data collection and limitation
  • 3.2 Scope of study
  • 3.3 Method of analysis
  • 3.3.1 Simple correlation analysis
  • 3.3.2 Linear equation method

Chapter Four:

  • 4.0 Analysis of result
  • 4.1 Data analysis
  • 4.2 Interpretation of results
  • 4.3 Application of results

Chapter Five:

  • 5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations-
  • 5.1 conclusions
  • 5.2 recommendations
  • Bibliography

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

In a federation, responsibilities are shared between the component parts of the federation, so also are tax strength which are the source of revenue to carryout these responsibilities, but unfortunately there is always a divergence between the criteria for sharing these constitutional responsibilities and which is used to share the tax powers.

The essence of revenue allocation therefore is to attempt to correct this unbalance between the expenditure obligation and the revenue services. In view of these, revenue allocation therefore refers to the criteria, process and method o f sharing federation’s financial resources among the various tier of government in the federation in such a peaceful way that guarantees development, progress and enhances unity.

The case of Nigeria involves sharing the federal revenue and other resources, firstly among the three tiers of government in a vertical allocation which deals with the sharing of the revenue among the three level of government, where it determines what share goes to the federal government, state government and local government and then among the units of a particular tier in a horizontal allocation, where it involves how to share the allocation to each level of government to its members. For instance how to share the allocation for state to the states in the federation.

The critical issues involved in revenue sharing in Nigeria include, to determine how much independent source of revenue should be given to a tier of government to enable it execute its responsibility and to determine how the federation accounts should be shared, the distribution of federation finance is not restricted to direct allocation to government, there is also special funds for specific projects or programs. The majors issues involved in horizontal allocation include the criteria for sharing.

The principles and criteria for these allocation are determined by the National Assembly for vertical allocation between various layers of government and horizontal allocation among the state government on their own behalf and on behalf of the local government and the state house of assembly (for horizontal distribution among local government within the state) or any other similar bodies vested with such responsibility, such principle when established become the basis for revenue allocation. Though these could vary from one nation to another.


1.1 Statement Of Problem

The issue of revenue allocation in Nigeria and its expenditure has generated a lot of arguments, due to the fact that the principle of equity advocates that centrally collected resources should be shared equally among the states while the derivation principle does not take account of the peculiar features of each state, its existing stock of assets and existing facilities of each state.

It enhances rather than reduce the pace of uneven development in the country where states which contribute highly to the central fund will continue to have great access to allocated funds and will continue to develop while other states will continue to lag behind. This however possesses great challenges to the corporate existence of the federation and analyst are not left out in these challenges to examine the process or procedure of allocating revenue to the states in the country (Nigeria).

To this end, the problem of this research work becomes to ascertain the trend of revenue allocation and its expenditure to states as well as to determine the degree of relationship between revenue allocated to the state and its local government and if there is fluctuation on these revenue allocation.

Generally the main task of this research work is to gather information of sufficient quality and quantity to provide basis for making sound inference for decision making.


1.2 Aims And Objective Of The Study

Since the purpose of revenue allocation is to correct the divergence between the constitutional obligation of the different tiers of government and their other revenue sources.
The statistical analysis on revenue allocation Imo state is aimed at achieving the following objectives.

  1. To investigate the trend of revenue allocation and its expenditure in Imo state from 1999 – 2005 using regression analysis.
  2. To ascertain whether there is any significant relationship between revenue allocated to the state and its expenditure in the state. Using simple correlation co-efficient.
  3. To determine if there is quarterly variation on revenue allocation to the state and its expenditure.
  4. To make necessary recommendation based on findings made and suggest ways to the federal government towards improving on the revenue allocated to the states.

1.3 The Significance Of The Study

Considering the fact that the principle of equality in revenue allocation in Nigeria, demands that all state are treated as equals because each is required to perform certain minimum functions, since no state is deemed superior to the other.

This research work will be of great significance in the following ways.

  1. To ascertain true relationship existing between revenue allocated to the state and its expenditure, so that the state will have true relationship obtained through sound statistical analysis not depending on mere guess work
  2. Also since the study seeks to estimate the trend of revenue allocated to the state from 1999 – 2005. It will enable the state to know whether there is decline or increase in the allocation in order to advocate for more allocation.
  3. The survey will as well assist the decision makers in the state and the ministry of finance of Imo state to realize the importance of keeping data up-to-date and the need of employing well trained statisticians which will as well reduce unemployment rate in the state.

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic


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How to nail it on the head during your project defence


You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.


Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.


Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.


Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.


Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.


Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.


Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.


Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.


These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.


The structure of a good project work


Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are


1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.


4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.


5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


References:

This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

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SAMPHINA ACADEMY

Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy (samphina.com.ng) a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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