Physico Chemical And Organoleptic Properties Of Flour And Fufu Processed From Cassava Varieties

Project and Seminar Material for Food Science and Technology (FST)

Physico Chemical And Organoleptic Properties Of Flour And Fufu Processed From Cassava Varieties


Pre- and postharvest factors such as genetic factors, environmental conditions during the growth of the plant and the method of starch isolation have been found to have a profound effect on the properties of root and tuber starches. The physicochemical, organoleptic and pasting properties as well as granule morphology of starches from different new cassava varieties and currently released cassava varieties in Nigeria (TMS 30572, 4(2) 1425, TME 1 and 82/00058) from experimental farm of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria, were investigated. Moisture content of the starches (dried) ranged between 3.59 and 11.53%, ash content was 0.03-0.49%, protein content 0.23–0.70%, sugar content 0.51–3.46% and starch content 60.34–86.79%. Amylose and dry matter contents were 15.24–30.20% and 88.47– 96.41% respectively. The water absorption capacity ranged from 86.83 to 127.54%, while solubility and swelling power (at 85oC) were 1.03–2.10% and 9.04–16.90% respectively. Starch damage ranged between 0.39 and 2.10%, dispersibility was 81.5–89.5% and least gelation concentration 2.00–4.67%. The pH of the starches ranged from 4.06 to 9.22. The starches had peak viscosity between 261.17 and 593.17 RVU, peak time ranged from 3.36 to 4.25 minutes and pasting temperature ranged between 63.75 and 65.65oC. Set back viscosity ranged from 19.04 to 79.92 RVU and breakdown viscosity from 141.21 to 328.96 RVU. The final viscosity of the starches ranged between 141.21 and 244.84 RVU. The granule size as viewed under microscope ranged from 12.5 to 23.83 µm with round shapes. There were significant varietal differences in all the physicochemical properties of the starches except the amylose content. Significant varietal differences (p < 0.05) were also recorded in all the functional and pasting properties of the starches except the least gelation concentration. There were no significant varietal differences (p > 0.05) in the granule size of the starches. The study revealed that the significant varietal differences in the properties of the starches from the different CMD resistant varieties imply that the starches have potentials for a wide end use.


Table Of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background Of The Study
  • 1.2 The Future Of Cassava In Nigeria
  • 1.3 Statement Of Problem
  • 1.4 Aims And Objectives

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 The Cassava Root: Traditional Processing And Utilization
  • 2.2 Composition Of Cassava Roots
  • 2.3 Importance Of Processing Cassava Roots
  • 2.4 Traditional Uses Of Cassava
  • 2.5 High Quality Cassava Flour
  • 2.6 Composition Of Starch

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials And Methods

  • 3.1 Materials
  • 3.2 Starch Production
  • 3.3 Determination Of Chemical Properties
  • 3.4 Determination Of Starch Damage
  • 3.5 Determination Of Starch Functional Characteristics
  • 3.6 Pasting Properties
  • 3.7 Determination Of Colour
  • 3.8 Starch Microscopy
  • 3.9 Statistical Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion

  • References

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major crop in the tropics and over half a billion of the world’s population depends on it (Cock, 1985). In 1996, it was estimated by FAO that 70 million tons of cassava were grown in Africa and it continues to be a staple food of energy for millions of people. Cassava roots are good and inexpensive source of carbohydrate (Berry, 1993). It is popular with farmers in Africa because it is amenable to mixed cropping and food systems. It can stay in the ground for long periods, attracts high market demands and prices, and it is able to replace other food crops (IITA, 1999).

Cassava is a highly perishable, starchy root crop, which starts to deteriorate within two to three days after harvest if not processed. Processing is undertaken primarily to detoxify the cassava product to improve its palatability and to convert it into a storable form. Cassava products of major dietary importance in Ghana are gari, fufu, agbelima (cassava dough), kokonte and traditional starch production (Tetebo, 1991). However, most of the introduced varieties have been abandoned because of poor cooking qualities and high cyanogenic potential (Nweke et al., 1999). Thus rather than abandon them it is important to screen most of the introduced cassava varieties for expanded uses.

Fufu is a dough – like consistency prepared from predominantly starchy material by pounding the boiled material or by cooking a non-gelatinized powder or paste icold o hot water (krama and maz 1972). This is usually eaten with soup or (ownueme, 1978) Ngoddy and Ihekoronye 1985). Fufu is important in Nigerian food utilization patterns. It is regarded as “perfect” food all over.

Africa (Desikacha, 1975) is thus regarded real in companion to other dishes like garri. Fufu could be made from yam, retted cassava flour, yam flour by pounding boiled tuber or stirring the flour into boiling water (Ihekoeronge and Ngoddy 1985). Another type of fufu (tuwu) is also made from maize, millet or sorghum flour only or mixed with the starch material example cassava flour which will serve as binding agent.

Cassava constitutes very important high energy food crops because of the starchy content. It is often coveted into other products (Okechukwu et al, 1990) some of the conversion involve moisture uptake steeping or moisture loss drying. Many households and industrial products that can be made from cassava include meal, chips, flour, pellets and starch is produced in large factories where the sequence of operation can be summarized as follows.
Washing of the roots, peeling, grating, extracting the starch setting / washing the starch, refining the starch are generally based on filtration and centrifugation. In recent years a considerable mechanize means of manufacturing garri, fufu, lafun etc. the roots are peeled, greed, pressed, sieved, roasted and sieve without the involvement of manual operation or different ways of preparing it and other products (IITA, 1994, FURO, 1976).

Cassava is a tropical root crop that serves as a food security and income-generating crop for many millions of people in the developing world 20. Cassava root has a high resistance to plant diseases and high tolerance to extreme stress conditions such as period of drought and poor soils. Cassava is processed into products such as gari, lafun, fufu, pupuru and starch 13. Of recent, Cassava Mosaic Virus Disease was reported to be a major threat to the cassava industry in sub-Saharan region like Nigeria 6. To forestall this problem, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) is developing 43 CMD resistant cassava varieties 6. For wider acceptability of these varieties by farmers and industrialists, there is the need to characterize the quality of domestic and industrial products from these varieties.

Starch is a major component of cassava root, hence, the composition as well as the physicochemical properties of starches contained therein is a major determinant of its end uses. Starch is mainly used as food, but is also readily converted chemically, physically and biologically into many useful products 21. To date, starch is used to produce such diverse products as food, paper, textiles, adhesives, beverages, confectioneries and building materials. Starch is a polysaccharide, a chain of many glucose molecules. Increasingly, starch is also used as a renewable raw material, as a source of energy after conversion to ethanol and for many different industrial applications 17. The use of cassava starch is primarily determined by its physicochemical properties. A number of studies on the distinctive properties of cassava starch had been undertaken in previous studies 15, 18.

1.2 The Future Of Cassava In Nigeria

In Nigeria, other countries of the world’s future, modified starches that are specially formulated for individual application will continue to find new uses. Whenever you cassava. In your product, you will be assisting the diversifying the economy and improving the livelihood of millions of poor farmers and rural processors. Nigeria the would largest producer of cassava has to take urgent step to develop the utilization of cassava and to sustainable commercialize the crop.

In the industries listed below are cassava bye – products which the industries use in the production.


Cassava starch is used in the stages of textile processing, sizing the yarn stiffen and protect it during weaving, improving colour consistency during, printing, and making the fabric durable and shining at finishing.

Paper Industries:

Modified starch from cassava is used in wet stage of paper making to flocculate the pulp. In order to improve the rate and the reducing the pulp loss. Native and modified cassava ink consumption to improve print quality.


Glue made from cassava starch is a key material in plywood manufacturing. the quality of plywood depends having on the glue that is used.


Native and modified starches are used as bounders, filers and disintegrating agents for tablet production.


Glucose and fructose made from cassava starch are used as substrates for sucrose in jams and canned fruits cassava based sweeteners are preferred formulators for their improved processing characteristics and product enhancing properties.

Biodegradable Products:

Cassava starch can be used as a biodegradable polymer to replace plastics in packaging materials.

Monosodium Glutamate:

The starch is a common source for non – glutamate in Asia, it is used to enhance flavour in food e.g Ajinomoto.

Confectionery modified cassava starch are often donates starch derivatives and are also used for confectionery for different purposes. Such as thinking and glancing cassava starches are used such as glues and gums.

1.3 Statement Of Problem

For the past decades, increasing population, urbanization and changing food habits has led to an increased demand for wheat-based convenient foods in many developing countries. However, as wheat is not grown in countries with tropical climate, they have to rely on expensive wheat imports paid with foreign exchange. With rising wheat prices on the global market, there is an interest to promote utilization of local sources of flour for partial substitution of wheat flour in food products in order to lower the dependency to wheat imports and also to increase livelihoods of local farmers. Cassava is a root crop rich in starch and is widely grown and consumed as a staple food in tropical countries. It requires low inputs of water, fertilizers and labour. In Ghana, cassava is one of the most important crops in terms of production, energy intake, and contribution to Growth Domestic Product. Cassava flour has been examined as a local alternative to wheat flour. The possibility of using starchy tubers instead of wheat flour in foods depends on their chemical and physical properties. Amylose/amylopectin ratio for example influences the flour’s behavior in food systems such as viscosity, gelatinization and setback which affect texture of the end product. To be widely accepted by the food industry, cassava flour needs to meet the high quality requirements in terms of physico-chemical characteristics, microbial safety and presence of toxic cyanogenic glucosides. In bakery products, the absence of gluten and the acceptability of the end products among consumers in terms of sensory attributes are important issues to be considered.

The aim of this study was to characterize physico-chemical and organoleptic properties of cassava flour that are important for its functional behaviour in food systems and to analyze relevant quality indicators required by the food industry. The goal was also to determine a maximum inclusion level of cassava flour in composite products such as fufu without any significant changes in capacity and sensory attributes. Flour from three different varieties were analyzed in terms of physico-chemical properties and baking capacity in order to evaluate how the cassava variety used affected the quality of end products.

1.4 Aims And Objectives

The aim of this research work is to produce fufu flour for fufu productions by four different varieties of cassava in order to know the variety that is good for fufu production.

  1. To determine the chemical composition of the varieties of cassava
  2. The physic–chemical and organoleptic properties is determine in order to get the quality and nutritional composition it contains.
  3. To know the variety considered best for flour and fufu production

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion

The study has shown that significant genotypic variations existed in the physicochemical, organoleptic and pasting properties of native starches from different CMD varieties. Further research is needed to determine interactive effect of variety and environment on the qualities of the starches. Characterization of the starches for different end use is also required. The wide variations in the properties of the starches from the different CMD resistant varieties imply that the starches have potentials for a wide range of products.

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