Production And Assessment Of Acceptability Of Cake From A Blend Of Carrot And Wheat Flour Original

Project and Seminar Material for Food Science and Technology (FST)

Production And Assessment Of Acceptability Of Cake From A Blend Of Carrot And Wheat Flour Original


Abstract


This study reports on processing of cakes by incorporating different levels of carrot flour with standard wheat flour on flour weight basis and analyzed for their various physical and chemical properties. Cakes were prepared from 100.0% wheat flour and composite flour cakes were processed incorporating 5, 15 and 25% potato flour and 25, 15 and 5% carrot flour in the formulations and evaluated for various quality parameters. It was observed that cakes from composite flour secured higher amount of moisture, protein, fat, ash, crude fiber and carbohydrate than that of control cake prepared from only wheat flour (i.e. control). The moisture content and weight of composite flour cake samples were found in the range of 28.40-36.85% (db), 7.93-7.97%, 31.68-33.64%, 1.54-2.76%, 1.09-3.16%, and 55.66-58.79%, respectively. The texture and overall acceptability of cake samples with composite flour were found to be most acceptable among the cakes with composite and control samples. The storage stability of composite cake was observed by storing it in room temperature (300C) and refrigeration temperature (50C) packaging with single layer polythene. The stability of cake was 3 or 4 days for room temperature storage and 6 to 7 days for refrigeration temperature storage.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Humans have consumed bakery products for hundreds of years. Among the different bakery products is the cake. Cakeis a form of sweet dessert that is typically baked. In its oldest forms, cakes were modifications of breads but now cover a wide range of preparations that can be simple or elaborate and share features with other desserts such as pastries, meringues, custards andpies. Typical cake ingredients are flour, sugar, eggs, butter or oil, a liquid, and leavening agents, such as baking soda and/or baking powder. Common additional ingredients and flavourings includedried, candied or fresh fruit, carrot, nuts, cocoa, and extracts such as vanilla, with numerous substitutions for the primary ingredients. Cakes can also be filled with fruit preserves or dessert sauces (like pastry cream), iced with buttercream or other icings, and decorated with marzipan, piped borders, or candied fruit (Modestus, 2011 and Akubor, 2011).

Cakes are an important baked product in human diet and are usually eaten with soft drinks, juice or tea and are also used as weaning food for infants. Carrot on the other hand is grown on a large scale in Northern Nigeria (Asagbara and Oyewole, 2010). However, it is widely consumed in all parts of Nigeria. Indeed, the consumption of carrot in Nigeria has increased tremendously in recent years because of the increased awareness of its benefits. Among vegetables, carrot is the best source of carotene which is the precursor of vitamin A, an essential nutrient for maintaining health (Heiman, 2010).

Carrot also contains oxycarotenoids such as leutin, which has been shown to be protective against colon cancer in man and woman (Jonas, 2011). Appreciable amounts of other vitamins, minerals and anthocyanins are also found in carrot. Though, in Nigeria, local utilization of carrots is mostly limited to direct unprocessed eating. Carrot can be dehydrated, Therefore, dehydrated carrot could be processed into flour for foods to increase vitamin A and mineral contents. Since carrot is a valuable micronutrients source, drying techniques to be employed for this purpose should ensure maximum nutrient retention. With these considerations in mind it means that the production of cake with the blend of carrot and wheat flour will make a rich nutrients food. Therefore, this study will present the production and assessment of acceptability of cake from a blend of carrot and wheat flour.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The preparation of carrot flour Fresh and well graded carrot fruits, wheat flour and other ingredients for the production of carrot cake is a necessity. Hence, the study intends to solve the problems of achieving an enrich tasty carrot cake. Hence, it seeks to solve the problems of;

  1. Lack of knowledge for carrot cake production
  2. The acceptability of carrot cake
  3. Inadequate ingredients for carrot cake production
  4. To provide a simple an efficient recipe for carrot cake production

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The aim of this project is to present a study on the production and assessment of acceptability of cake from a blend of carrot and wheat flour.

Therefore, the specific objectives are as follows;

  1. To produce carrot cake
  2. To examine the extent of acceptability of carrot cake
  3. To state the ingredients used for carrot cake production
  4. To provide a simple and efficient recipe for carrot cake production

1.4 Research Questions

  1. How can carrot cake be produced?
  2. To what extent is the acceptability of carrot cake?
  3. What are the ingredients used for carrot cake production?
  4. Is a simple and efficient recipe for carrot cake production provided?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The significance of the study cannot be overemphasized. This is because cake making need to consider the benefits of nutrients that would be contained in the product. Hence, the blend of carrot and wheat flour will help increase nutrients value.

Also, the recipe that will be provided in this study will aid anyone who intend to carryout cake production as business, since it will help the person to have knowledge of carrot cake production.

Also, with this study one could start his/her own cake making business and this will in turn benefits the masses for employment and the government in terms of revenue.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This project would cover or limited to production and assessment of acceptability of cake from a blend of carrot and wheat flour original.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

The limitations involved in this research work include:

  1. Hostility and non cooperation on the part of the respondents.
  2. The levels of ignorance on ratios and illiteracy were very high e.g some business officials refused to answer questions as they felt they would be indicated.
  3. Also financial implications were soaring high and this imposed certain restrictions -Finally, the constraint of time was a limiting factor as all the areas of interest were not covered by the researcher.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Cake:

An item of soft sweet food made from a mixture of flour, fat, eggs, sugar, and other ingredients, baked and sometimes iced or decorated.

Carrot:

A long pointed orange root eaten as a vegetable.

Wheat Flour:

Is a powder made from the grinding of wheat used for human consumption.

Production:

The action of making or manufacturing from components or raw materials, or the process of being so manufactured.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

This study reports on processing of cakes by incorporating different levels of carrot flour with standard wheat flour on flour weight basis and analyzed for their various physical and chemical properties. Raw potato and carrot were dried and milled to produce flour. Ready-made wheat flour from near market was also used. The cakes were prepared by standard formulation. Wheat, potato and carrot flour used in the cakes preparation were analyzed for proximate composition. Wheat flour contained moisture 14.46% (wb), protein 13.01% (wb), fat 0.95% (wb), ash 0.77% (wb), crude fiber 0.45% (wb) and total carbohydrate 85.26% (wb); The potato flour contained moisture 17.13%(wb), protein 6.62% (wb), fat 1.12% (wb), ash 3.1% (wb), crude fiber 5.09% (wb) and total carbohydrate 89.16% (wb); Carrot flour contained moisture 5.67% (wb), protein 7.28% (wb), fat 1.18% (wb), ash 5.63% (wb), crude fiber 2.36% (wb) and total carbohydrate 85.91% (wb). Control cake was prepared from 100.0% wheat flour and composite flour cakes were processed containing 5, 15 and 25% potato flour and 25, 15 and 5% carrot flour in the formulations and evaluated for various quality parameters.

The volume and specific volume of composite cake samples incorporated with wheat, potato and carrot flour gave higher results than that of control cake prepared from only wheat flour. The volume and specific volume were found of control sample S1 (with only wheat flour) 215cc and 1.30 cc/g, sample S2 (70% wheat flour, 5% potato flour and 25% carrot flour) 263 cc and 1.51 cc/g, , sample S3 (70% wheat flour, 15% potato flour and 15% carrot flour) 250 cc and 1.39 cc/g, sample S4 (70% wheat flour, 25% potato flour and 5% carrot flour) 245 cc and 1.33 cc/g respectively. Volume and specific volume decreased with the increasing level of potato flour and decreasing level of carrot flour among the composite cake samples.

The cake sample S4 gained better appearance compared to other composite flour cakes in terms of bloom, crust color and texture. Crumb color of all composite cake samples became reddish yellow. But there were visible difference among its color brightness. Sample S2 containing 5% potato flour and 25% carrot flour, sample S3 containing 15% potato flour and 15% carrot flour and sample S4 containing 25% potato and 5% carrot flour gained 50%, 25% and 10% darker respectively. In respect of color brightness sample S4 was most preferable.

Sensible difference of crumb flavor was observed between cake sample S4 containing 25% potato and 5% carrot flour and other types of cake samples. Control sample (without composite flour), sample S2 and sample S3 were equally acceptable. Sample S4 was most acceptable in respect to flavor.

In case of crumb texture control sample and sample S2 were equally acceptable. Sample S4 was most acceptable.
The cakes (both control and composite flour cakes) were analyzed for their composition. It was observed that cakes from composite flour secured higher amount of moisture, fat, ash, and crude fiber than cake from only wheat flour (i.e. control). A sharp increase in moisture and crude fiber content were observed with increase of potato-carrot flour mixing ratio in cake formulation. On the other hand, a sharp decrease in protein, fat and ash content were observed with increase of potato-carrot flour mixing ratio in cake formulation. The moisture, protein, fat, ash, crude fiber and carbohydrate contents in the composite flour cakes samples were found in the range of 28.40-36.85% (db), 7.93-7.97% (db), 31.68-33.64% (db), 1.54-2.76% (db), 1.09-3.16% (db), and 55.66-58.79% (db) respectively.

A statistical analysis on the response of taste panel on the sensory properties of cakes supplemented with composite flour revealed that the color, flavor, texture and overall acceptability of different cakes were significantly (P<0.05) different. The color and flavor of the cake sample S4 was better than those of the cake samples S1, S2 and S3. The flavor acceptability of control cake, sample S2 and S3 were equally acceptable. The texture preference of sample S4 was better than the other composite flour cake samples. The overall acceptability of control cake and the cake sample S2 were equally acceptable. As evident, the color, flavor, texture and overall acceptability of the cake sample S4 was found to be most acceptable among the cake samples with composite flour and control sample.

Moisture contents and weights of composite flour cakes were higher than that of control cake. The moisture content and weight of composite flour cakes increased gradually with increasing levels of potato-carrot ratio in composite flour formulations. The variations in moisture content and weight of the cakes might result from the increased water absorption by the composite flour.


5.2 Conclusion

This study has demonstrated that incorporation of different levels of potato and carrot flour (vegetable flour) to the cake formulation has improved the cake quality attribute especially color, texture, flavor, volume, weight, fat, minerals, crude fiber than that of ordinary cake, thus development of new wheat-potato-carrot product variety. On the basis of composition and organoleptic evaluation of the processed cakes, it may be concluded that good quality composite flour cake sample S4 may be processed incorporating 70% wheat flour, 25% potato flour and 5% carrot flour for improved nutritional value and sensory properties. This cake formulation may be preferred for vegetable complement in our body. The current study aimed at producing and evaluating the quality properties of cake made the composite of wheat, potato and carrot flours as a strategy to improve potato and carrot utilization and improvement of smallholder income and livelihood.

The storage stability of composite cake sample was observed by storing it in room temperature (300C) and refrigeration temperature (50C) packaging with single layer polythene. The observation showed that the stability of composite cake was 3 or 4 days for room temperature storage and 6 to 7 days for refrigeration temperature storage. The refrigeration storage provided better storage stability than that of room temperature.


5.3 Recommendation

The refrigeration storage recommends the slow rate of approaching equilibrium with relative humidity of storage condition and inactivation or slow of microbial growth. Hence refrigeration storage is more preferable.


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