Nutrient And Anti Nutrient Content Of Raw, Fermented And Germinated Millet Flour
The nutrient and anti-nutrient content of raw millet, fermented and germinated millet flour were followed during a germination of 48h and a fermentation of 72hrs. There was a significant decrease in the anti-nutritional factors with tannins from 0.357%, to 0.157%, phytates 0.144% to 0.074% and an increase in the cyanide 8.50ppm to 600ppm, oxalate 0.352% to 0.572%. Also, significant difference occurred in the nutritional levels, with an increase in carbohydrate from 45.61% to 67.81%, fat from 6.01% to 6.50%, protein 10.12% to 18.52 and crude fiber 0.95 to 1.50%. the difference in the nutrition value is an a loss dry matter levels during fermentation and germination which decreased the carbohydrate content in the fermented and germinated samples and increase the fat, fiber and protein content though by a slight and significance difference. It was concluded that is not necessary to prolong fermentation and germination and fermentation times would only result to loss of dry matter through respiration without corresponding significant overall nutritional benefits.
Table of Contents
- Title Page
- Table Of Contents
- 1.1 Background of Study
- 1.2 Problem Statement
- 1.3 Aim and Objectives
- 1.4 Scope of Study
- 1.5 Justification
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 History and Cultivation Of Millet (Eleusine Corcana)
- 2.2 Selection and Storage
- 2.3 Traditional Processing Methods of Millets
- 2.3.1 Processing Untreated Grains
- 2.3.2 Processing Malted Millet
- 2.3.3 Industrial Processing
- 2.3.3a Abrasive Decortications
- 2.3.3b Rubbing Techniques
- 2.3.4 Millet in Probiotic and Prebiotic Foods
- 2.4 Method of Preparation
- 2.5 Production of Millet
- 2.5.1 Millet in the Industry
- 2.5.2 Millet in the Production of Alcoholic Beverages
- 2.5.3 Millet as a Food Source
- 2.6 Nutritional Chemical Compositions of Millet Grains
- 2.7 Health Benefits of Millet
- 2.7.1 Heart Protective Properties
- 2.7.2 Development and Repair of Body Tissue
- 2.7.3 Prevention of Gallstones
- 2.8 Microbiological Changes and Micro-Organisms Involved During Millet Fermentation
3.0 Material and Methods
- 3.1 Sources of Raw Material
- 3.2 Preparation of Samples Millet Flour
- 3.2.1 Process Flow Chart for Raw Millet Flour, Fermented Millet Flour and Germinated Millet Flour
- 3.3.1 Equipment and Material Used
- 3.3.2 Chemical/ Reagents and Diluents Used
- 3.4 Determination of Proximate Composition
- 3.4.1 Moisture Content Determination
- 3.4.2 Determination of Protein Content
- 3.4.3 Determination of Ash Content
- 3.4.4 Determination of Fat Content
- 3.4.5 Determination of Crude Fiber
- 3.4.6 Determination of Carbohydrate Content
- 3.5 Determination of Anti-Nutrient Contents
- 3.5.1 Determination of Oxalates
- 3.5.2 Determination of Tannin
- 3.5.3 Determination of Phytates
- 3.5.4 Determination of Cyanide
4.0 Result and Discussion
- 4.1 Result
- 4.2 Discussion
- 5.1 Recommendations
1.1 Background of Study
The term millet (Eleusine coracana) is used for any of several small seeded annual grasses that are opt important mainly in Asia, African and in semi—arid region. Millets are one of the cereals aside the major wheat, rice and maize. Millets are major foods sources for millions of people Especially those who line in hot, dry areas of the world. They are grown mostly in marginal areas under agricultural conditions in which major cereals fail to give substantial yields. (Adekwile 2012).
Five types of millets that are common, Setaria Italica, Pennisetum Typhodeum or Pennisteum Glausim (Pearl Millets), Eleusine Coracana (Finger Millet), Echinocloa Frumentecea and Pannicum Miliaccum (proso millet). Millet is processed in so many ways for preparation of various food products some of the primary process involved are dehulling and milling in order to produce flours, grits and dehulled whole grains. These intermediate products are used to prepare staple foods like cooked whole grains, thin and thick porridges, steam cooked products like Cousous and Zaki preparation of Tuwo and Fura. (Nkama et al, 1997).
Due to enzymatic breakdown of starch to sugars during germination, the viscosity and the bulk density of porridge made from sprouted grains are significantly lower. The terms sprouting, germination, malting and fermentation are used interchangeably to refer to the soaking of grains in water until saturated and then germinating them under controlled conditions like barley millets are malted (soaked) and germinated) for brewing purposes, however, fermentation and germination of millet seeds has been reported to improve the nutritional quality by increasing the contents and availability of essential nutrients, and this is not so in raw millet flour. (Obilana et al, 2002).
More so, long germination period result in significant losses in dry matter through respiration, which is undesirable. Millet fermented for 10hrs and germinated for 72 hrs last up to 9.5% dry matter. This loss of essential nutrient during germination needs to be minimized since very little research has been done on nutrient and anti-nutrient interaction during germinating of cereals (millets) especially finger millet (Eleusine corcana), this research focuses on nutritionally beneficial changes such as the lowering of anti-nutrients and increase in protein digestibi9lity compared with the loss of matter (AOAC 1995).
1.2 Problem Statement
This work will have basically financial problem in the procurement of the raw materials, also in the running of the approximation analysis and ant-nutritional composition of the raw, fermented and germinated millet flour.
To know effect of fermentation and germination on the nutrient and anti-nutrient of millet which will help educate industries who use millet for production on which best method to work with.
1.3 Aim and Objectives
The purpose of this work is to determine the nutrient and anti-nutrient composition of millet flour produced by three different methods.
1.4 Scope of Study
The research work will cover several areas such as:
- Procurement of the raw material,
- Soaking and fermentation of the raw material for some days at room temperature,
- Determination of the proximate composition of the raw, fermented and germinated millet,
- Comparing the results of the nutrients of raw, fermented and germinated millet,
- Determination of raw, fermented and germinated millet,
- Determination of the anti-nutrients o the three samples.
This work is of very importance because in carrying the necessary analysis on the raw, fermented and germinated millet flour to help check the best method of reducing the anti-nutrient and increasing the nutrient content.
At the end of this research work in determination of the nutrient and anti-nutrient content of raw millet flour, fermented millet flour and germinated millet flour, from the result, it is clear that fermentation and germination of millet flour increases some nutrient factors like protein, fat and crude fiber, reduces some anti-nutrient assay namely tannin and phytate but increase oxalate and cyanide content of the fermented and germinated millet flour.
From the result of this research work nutrient and anti-nutrient content of raw, fermented and germinated millet flour, in which there was a slight increase in some nutritional factors, decrease in tannin and phytate content, increase in oxalate and cyanide content it is advised that millet should not be germinated up to 48hrs before usage hence it increases the cyanide content at a high extent which is harmful to health, especially in the production of weaning foods since most children are vulnerable to cyanide.
Fermentation time should also be done at time interval less than 72hrs.
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