Effect Of Chilling Temperature On The Digestibility Of Cassava Starch

Project and Seminar Material for Biochemistry

Effect Of Chilling Temperature On The Digestibility Of Cassava Starch


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz), also called, manioc, tapioca or yucca, is one of the most important food crops in the humid tropics, being particularly suited to conditions of low nutrient availability and able to survive drought. it is a dicotyledonous plant, belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae (Alves, 2002). It is a perennial shrub, 2 to 4 min height and is mainly propagated from stem cuttings.It is a widely grown crop in most countries in the tropical regions of Africa, Latin America and Asia; and ranks as one of the main crops in the tropical countries.

Cassava is grown over a range of climates and altitudes and on a wide variety of soils. Cassava is tolerant to drought and is productive in poor soil where other staple crops cannot grow (Bradbury and Holloway, 1988).

Among the starchy staples, cassava gives a carbohydrate production which is about 40% higher than rice and 25% more than maize, with the result that cassava is the cheapestsource of calories for both human nutrition and animal feeding. More thantwo-third of the total production of cassava is used as food for humans, with lesser amounts being used for animal feed and industrial purposes. Nigeria alone currently produces over 14 million tons annually, representing about 25% of sub-Saharan Africa’s output.

Although cassava is the third most important food source in the tropical world after rice and maize, and provides calories for over 160 million people of Africa, its food value is greatly compromised by the endogenous presence of cyanogenicglucosides.

The ability of the crop to survive during drought makes it one of the easiest crops that can be cultivated even when rainfall is not regular. It is reported that over 500million people around the world derive their daily carbohydrate intake from cassava (Udofia et al.,2010). There are two major issues in the utilization of cassava; first, cassava root is highly perishable and cannot be stored in fresh form for more than 3 days after harvesting. Physiological deterioration of the root occurs in 2 -3 days after harvesting follow by microbial deterioration in 3 –5 days (Akingbala et al.,2005).

However, the study tends to examine the effect of chilling temperature on the digestibility of cassava starch.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Cassava starch has many food and industrial uses, which are linked to its functional properties. Although the basic properties of this starch are known, much research is required to complete our knowledge, especially as regards varietal differences in composition and functional properties. Cassava starch granules are round with a truncated end and a well-defined hilum. The granule size is between 5 and 35 μm. The starch has an A-type X-ray diffraction pattern, usually characteristic of cereals, and not the B type found in other root and tuber starches. The C-type spectrum, intermediate between A and B types, has also been reported. The nonglucosidic fraction of cassava starch is very low: the protein and lipid content is below 0.2%. There is thus no formation of an amylose complex with lipids in native starch. Amylose contents of 8–28% have been reported, but most values lie within the range of 16–18%. (SeeSTARCH | Structure, Properties, and Determination.). Hence, this study was conducted to investigate nurses’ knowledge and attitudes on benefits as well as barriers of the quality of patient record-keeping in two selected public health hospitals in Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of chilling temperature on the digestibility of cassava starch.

Specific objectives include;

  1. To determining the effect different temperature treatments have on digestibility of cassava tuber that is if there be any resistant sugar due to any particular temperature treatment and again how different temperature treatments affects the amount of glucose liberated.
  2. To examine some foods containing resistant starch, which is digested and absorbed slowly, may be useful in the control of diabetes and obesity, by reducing the increase in blood glucose levels after a meal.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the effect different temperature treatments have on digestibility of cassava tuber that is if there be any resistant sugar due to any particular temperature treatment and again how different temperature treatments affects the amount of glucose liberated?
  2. What are the usefulness of some foods containing resistant starch, which is digested and absorbed slowly, may be useful in the control of diabetes and obesity, by reducing the increase in blood glucose levels after a meal?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Hypothesis I
  • H0: There is no significant effect different temperature treatments have on digestibility of cassava tuber that is if there be any resistant sugar due to any particular temperature treatment and again how different temperature treatments affects the amount of glucose liberated
  • H1: There is a significant effect different temperature treatments have on digestibility of cassava tuber that is if there be any resistant sugar due to any particular temperature treatment and again how different temperature treatments affects the amount of glucose liberated
Hypothesis II
  • H0: There is no significant usefulness of some foods containing resistant starch, which is digested and absorbed slowly, may be useful in the control of diabetes and obesity, by reducing the increase in blood glucose levels after a meal
  • H1: There is a significant usefulness of some foods containing resistant starch, which is digested and absorbed slowly, may be useful in the control of diabetes and obesity, by reducing the increase in blood glucose levels after a meal

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work.

This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is on the effect of chilling temperature on the digestibility of cassava starch


1.8 Limitations of the Study

The demanding schedule of respondents at work made it very difficult getting the respondents to participate in the survey. As a result, retrieving copies of questionnaire in timely fashion is very challenging. Also, the researcher is a student and therefore has limited time as well as resources in covering extensive literature available in conducting this research. Information provided by the researcher may not hold true for all institutions but is restricted to the selected organization used as a study in this research especially in the locality where this study is being conducted.

Financial constraint:

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint:

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

Finally, the researcher is restricted only to the evidence provided by the participants in the research and therefore cannot determine the reliability and accuracy of the information provided.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Chilling Temperature:

A standard definition of chilling requirement (or chilling hours) is the number of hours that the temperature is within the range less than or equal to 45 degrees F and greater than or equal to 32 degrees F. Other definitions simply consider the number of hours less than or equal to 45 F.

Digestibility:

Digestibility refers to the amount of nutrient absorbed by the individual and is generally calculated as the amount of nutrient consumed minus the amount of nutrient retained in the feces.

Cassava Starch:

Cassava is a starch-tuber that can be eaten as a whole root or root chips, or grated to make flour for things like bread and crackers. It is also used for puddings or drinks made with tapioca pearls. Cassava is popular in many parts of Africa, Asia, and South American


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary of Findings

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of chilling temperature on the digestibility of cassava starch.
Hypotheses were formulated (generated) to guide the researcher.

Hypothesis I
  • H0: There is no significant effect different temperature treatments have on digestibility of cassava tuber that is if there be any resistant sugar due to any particular temperature treatment and again how different temperature treatments affects the amount of glucose liberated
  • H1: There is a significant effect different temperature treatments have on digestibility of cassava tuber that is if there be any resistant sugar due to any particular temperature treatment and again how different temperature treatments affects the amount of glucose liberated
Hypothesis II
  • H0: There is no significant usefulness of some foods containing resistant starch, which is digested and absorbed slowly, may be useful in the control of diabetes and obesity, by reducing the increase in blood glucose levels after a meal
  • H1: There is a significant usefulness of some foods containing resistant starch, which is digested and absorbed slowly, may be useful in the control of diabetes and obesity, by reducing the increase in blood glucose levels after a meal

The objectives of the study were to;

  1. To determining the effect different temperature treatments have on digestibility of cassava tuber that is if there be any resistant sugar due to any particular temperature treatment and again how different temperature treatments affects the amount of glucose liberated.
  2. To examine some foods containing resistant starch, which is digested and absorbed slowly, may be useful in the control of diabetes and obesity, by reducing the increase in blood glucose levels after a meal.

5.2 Conclusion

Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz), also called, manioc, tapioca or yucca, is one of the most important food crops in the humid tropics, being particularly suited to conditions of low nutrient availability and able to survive drought. it is a dicotyledonous plant, belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae (Alves, 2002). It is a perennial shrub, 2 to 4 min height and is mainly propagated from stem cuttings. It is a widely grown crop in most countries in the tropical regions of Africa, Latin America and Asia; and ranks as one of the main crops in the tropical countries.

Cassava is grown over a range of climates and altitudes and on a wide variety of soils. Cassava is tolerant to drought and is productive in poor soil where other staple crops cannot grow (Bradbury and Holloway, 1988).

Among the starchy staples, cassava gives a carbohydrate production which is about 40% higher than rice and 25% more than maize, with the result that cassava is the cheapest source of calories for both human nutrition and animal feeding. More thantwo-third of the total production of cassava is used as food for humans, with lesser amounts being used for animal feed and industrial purposes. Nigeria alone currently produces over 14 million tons annually, representing about 25% of sub-Saharan Africa’s output.

Although cassava is the third most important food source in the tropical world after rice and maize, and provides calories for over 160 million people of Africa, its food value is greatly compromised by the endogenous presence of cyanogenic glucosides..


5.3 Recommendations

Though there is a wide range of starch available with different properties, the demand for tailor-made starches for specific applications is always rising. In spite of the fact that chemical methods are available for the modification of starches, these are facing opposition from the health-conscious consumer in view of the hazards of using chemicals especially in food uses. So attempts are being made to modify starch at molecular level by using modern biotechnological tools. In addition to conventional methods by hybridisation of varieties, use of modern biotechnological tools can bring about starch modifications. Production of high amylose or high amylopectin starch by gene modification has been achieved in many crops but very little progress has been made in the case of tropical tuber crops. Though commercial production of high-amylose or high amylopectin cassava varieties has not started, scientists at the Wageningen University, The Netherlands and CIAT, Colombia have made considerable progress in achieving high amylose and amylose free cassava varieties.108,109 They modified the starch properties in cassava by modifying the branching enzyme (BE) and granule bound starch synthase I (GBSS I) and were able to achieve both high amylose and amylose free starches. More recently, Noda et al.110 have developed transgenic amylose-free sweet potato by the introduction of GBSSI cDNA into sweet potato and obtaining amylose-free sweet potato starch. It is expected that this will become commercially feasible soon and it is hoped that this will be extended to other crops that will soon be available for exploitation.

It is also feasible to bring about other types of modification such as high phytoglycogen starches, changing the granule sizes, altering chain lengths and branching patterns and introduction of -linkages in starch.111 These modifications are possible with the emerging new knowledge on the genes responsible for deciding these factors and new techniques available for gene modification. By applying these techniques it may be possible to produce starch with all desirable characteristics in the near future.


Get Complete Project Material

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Effect Of Chilling Temperature On The Digestibility Of Cassava Starch

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.