Production And Evaluation Of Finger Millet-Soybean-Egg Yolk Flour; A Complementary Food
Complementary foods were prepared from millet, soybeans and egg yolk and evaluated for organoleptic properties and proximate composition. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), egg yolk and soybean (Glycine max), were purchased in Ekeonunwa Market, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. Millet grain was cleaned, washed, steeped (at room temperature for 24 hours), washed, wet milled, sieved (muslin cloth), sedimented, decanted, pressed, drained, pounded and seived to produce millet flour.
Eggs (whole) were carefully washed, cooked, carefully broken, spray dried (Nitro atomizer spray dryer at drying/temperature of 150oc), pounded, seived to produce yolk power. Soybeans were sorted, cleansed, washed, drained, roasted, dry half milled, Dehulled, dry milled fully, sieved to produce soybeans flour.
The preliminary investigation showed the ratio 60:30:10 ratio of the soybean, millet and egg yolk to be the best using sensory evaluation and was therefore used as the base formulation. It was evaluated for organoleptic and proximate composition. Nutrend, a commercial complementary food was used as control.
The result of the sensory evaluation showed no significant difference in the appearance of the porridge and that of the blend except in colour. The composition flours contained higher ash, moisture, protein and carbohydrate than the control. The study showed that porridges prepared from the blends of millet, soybeans and egg yolk are nutritionally adequate to support child growth and well being.
Table Of Content
- Title page
- Table of content
- 1.1 Scope of the study
- 1.2 Significance of the study
- 1.2.1 Objective of the study
- 1.2.2 Specific objectives
- 1.2.3 Hypothesis
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Nigerian experience
- 2.1.2 Finger millet (Eleusine Coracana)
- 2.1.3 Soybeans (Glycine max)
- 2.1.4 Dried egg Yolk 9 CHAPTER THREE
- 3.0 Methodology and material
- 3.1 Sample collection
- 3.2 Sample preparation into flour
- 3.2.0 For the production of finger millet (eleusine coracana) flour
- 3.2.1 For the production of soybeans (glycine max)
- 3.2.2 For the production of powdered egg yolk
- 3.2.3 Preliminary investigation
- 3.2.4 Preliminary observation
- 3.2.5 Methods
- 3.2.6 Proximate analysis
4.0 Result and Discussion
- 4.1 Result
- 4.3 Discussion
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendation
List Of Figures
- Figure 1: Diagram of finger-millet (Eleusine coracana)
- Figure 2: Diagram of Soybeans (Glycine max)
- Figure 3: Diagram of Egg yolk 14 Figure 4: Flow chart for the production of the Complementary food 15 LIST OF
- Table 1: Composition of the complementary food
- Table 2: Sensory evaluation of the complementary food
- Table 3: Nutritional composition of the pre-cooked baby flour in comparison with the commercially sold Baby food
- Appendix I: Control Logo (Nutrend)
- Appendix II: Produced Complementary Logo (Milsek Baby Food)
Adequate infant nutrition is important during infancy and the world health organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding till 6 months of age. Childhood nutrition remains a public health challenge as the underlying cause of mortality and morbidity.
In Nigeria, the food consumption and nutrition survey conducted in 2004 under Nigeria health and demographic survey revealed that four out of every ten children are stunted as a result of poor diet. In Nigeria, the first complementary food is usually a then cereal porridge made from fermented maize, millet, sorghum, etc. This porridge provides 20-26kcal/kg body weight /day, leading to a Nigerian infant having an average density of 0.26klal/g of complementary food (Adepoju & Etukumoh, 2014).
The period during which other foods or liquids are given to a young child is considered the period of complementary feeding and any Nutrient containing foods or liquid other than breast milk provided to the child during this period are defined as complementary food (W. H.O 1998) cited in Opara, Uchechukwu, Omodamiro & Paul, 2012. Several types of commercial complementary food marketed in many countries including Nigeria are Nutritious but expensive for most Nigerian families, hence mothers in both Rural and Urban depend on readily available, low cost food mixtures to feed their infants.
Several strategies may be used to improve the nutritive value of complementary foods and this can be achieved by combining locally available foods that complement each other in such a way that the new pattern created by this combination is similar to that recommended for infants.
Soybean is a rich source of protein. The finger millet a rich source of energy and the dried egg yolk which represents an untapped protein source, vitamins and minerals.
A lot of emphasis has been laid on developing cereal-Legume baby food to address mainly protein malnutrition. This study was designed to formulate a baby food using finger millet, soybean and dried egg yolk to meet the nutritional requirements of babies over six months.
1.1 Scope Of Study
The aim is to provide a complementary food for babies at risk of malnutrition. The use of locally available low cost food ingredients to formulate a complementary food for babies can help solve the double burden of malnutrition.
1.2 Significance Of Study
Protein/energy malnutrition is mainly due to the unavailability of low cost, high quality food for the low income family. However local indigenous cereals (millet), legumes (soybeans) and dairy food (dried egg yolk) are good sources of cheap high quality nutrients, macronutrients and micronutrients.
The project will develop a complementary food using locally produced raw materials that are normally seasonal and pose a problem of storage when in surplus. Micronutrient deficiencies such as vitamin A is a major concern in the world today and it is present in abundance in egg yolks.
There is the need to increase the use of locally available raw materials as this further improves economic values of the crops to the producers. Commercial energy and nutrient rich ready to eat complementary foods may be available but are unaffordable for routine use in poor countries.
To improve the nutrient content of the local millet based complementary food by adding locally available materials.
1.2.2 Specific Objectives
- To formulate a nutritional blend of finger millet soybeans and dried egg yolk.
- To determine the proximate composition of the flour.
- To carry out sensory evaluation of the flour.
- To determine the shelf life stability of the flour.
- Ho: it is not possible to produce a pre-cooked complementary baby food from the blend.
- H1: it is possible to produce a pre-cooked complementary baby food from the blend.
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
Through the use of local traditional mostly plant based food ingredients, it has been demonstrated that the nutritive values of industrial components of the diet can be effectively combined to nutritional quality. We then reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternate which states “it is possible to produce a pre-cooked complementary baby food from the blend”. The use of composite flour for complementary food would help to improve the nutritional value at presumably cheaper cost since all the raw materials are locally available and does not require special skill for the preparation.
The micro nutrients should be determined so as to ascertain the total contribution of the product nutrition wise.
A mechanised process should be employed such as extrusion methods, oven drying so as to enhance a longer shelf life.
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